Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-cvxtj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-13T01:27:11.124Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Section 3 - Pulmonary Conditions Not Specific to Pregnancy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 April 2020

Stephen E. Lapinsky
Affiliation:
Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
Lauren A. Plante
Affiliation:
Drexel University Hospital, Philadelphia
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Macfarlane, J, Holmes, W, Gard, P, et al. Prospective study of the incidence, aetiology and outcome of adult lower respiratory tract illness in the community. Thorax. 2001 56(2):109–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collier, SA, Rasmussen, SA, Feldkamp, ML, et al. Prevalence of self-reported infection during pregnancy among control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009 85(3):193201.Google Scholar
Lain, SJ, Roberts, CL, Warning, J, et al. A survey of acute self-reported infections in pregnancy. BMJ Open. 2011 1(1):e000083.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schappert, SM, Rechtsteiner, EA. Ambulatory medical care utilization estimates for 2007. Vital Health Stat 13. 2011 (169):138.Google Scholar
Dedrick, DL. Respiratory Infections. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. 2001.Google Scholar
Dzieciolowska-Baran, E, Teul-Swiniarska, I, Gawlikowska-Sroka, A, et al. Rhinitis as a cause of respiratory disorders during pregnancy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013 755:213–20.Google Scholar
Caparroz, FA, Gregorio, LL, Bongiovanni, G, et al. Rhinitis and pregnancy: literature review. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 82(1):105–11.Google Scholar
Fokkens, WJ, Lund, VJ, Mullol, J, et al. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2012;50(1):112.Google Scholar
Chow, AW, Benninger, MS, Brook, I, et al. IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 54(8):e72112.Google Scholar
Fokkens, W, Lund, V, Mullol, J. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. Rhinol Suppl. 2007(20):1136.Google Scholar
Meltzer, EO, Hamilos, DL. Rhinosinusitis diagnosis and management for the clinician: a synopsis of recent consensus guidelines. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 86(5):427–43.Google Scholar
Metlay, JP, Kapoor, WN, Fine, MJ. Does this patient have community-acquired pneumonia? Diagnosing pneumonia by history and physical examination. J Am Med Assoc. 1997 278(17):1440–5.Google Scholar
Wenzel, RP, Fowler, AA III. Clinical practice: acute bronchitis. N Eng J Med. 2006 355(20):2125–30.Google Scholar
Smith, SM, Schroeder, K, Fahey, T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(11):CD001831.Google Scholar
Becker, LA, Hom, J, Villasis-Keever, M, et al. Beta2-agonists for acute cough or a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 (9):CD001726.Google Scholar
Smith, SM, Fahey, T, Smucny, J, et al. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 6:CD000245.Google Scholar
Paules, C, Subbarao, K. Influenza. Lancet. 2017;390(10095):697708.Google Scholar
Caini, S, Andrade, W, Badur, S, et al. Temporal patterns of influenza A and B in tropical and temperate countries: what are the lessons for influenza vaccination? PLoS ONE. 2016 11(3):e0152310.Google Scholar
Sokolow, LZ, Naleway, AL, Li, D-K, et al. Severity of influenza and noninfluenza acute respiratory illness among pregnant women, 2010–2012. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 212(2):202.e111.Google Scholar
Katz, MA, Gessner, BD, Johnson, J, et al. Incidence of influenza virus infection among pregnant women: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 17(1):155.Google Scholar
Metersky, ML, Masterton, RG, Lode, H, et al. Epidemiology, microbiology, and treatment considerations for bacterial pneumonia complicating influenza. Int J Infect Dis. 2012 16(5):e321-31.Google Scholar
Siston, AM, Rasmussen, SA, Honein, MA, et al. Pandemic 2009 influenza a(h1n1) virus illness among pregnant women in the united states. J Am Med Assoc. 2010 303(15):1517–25.Google Scholar
Mertz, D, Geraci, J, Winkup, J, et al. Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe outcomes from influenza virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Vaccine. 2017 35(4):521–8.Google Scholar
Graner, S, Svensson, T, Beau, A-B, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations: population based European register study. Br Med J. 2017 :356.Google ScholarPubMed
Jefferson, T, Jones, MA, Doshi, P, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 (4):CD008965.Google Scholar
Hurt, AC, Kelly, H. Debate regarding oseltamivir use for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 22(6):949–55.Google Scholar
Public Health England. PHE guidance on use of antiviral agents for the treatment and prophylaxis of seasonal influenza. 2019. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/833572/PHE_guidance_antivirals_influenza_201920.pdf (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for obstetric health care providers related to use of antiviral medications in the treatment and prevention of influenza, 2016–2017. www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/avrec_ob.htm (accessed November 2019.)Google Scholar
World Health Organisation. Vaccines against influenza: WHO position paper. 2012. www.who.int/immunization/position_papers/PP_influenza_november2012_summary.pdf (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Fell, DB, Azziz-Baumgartner, E, Baker, MG, et al. Influenza epidemiology and immunization during pregnancy: final report of a World Health Organization working group. Vaccine. 2017 35(43):5738–50.Google Scholar
Zerbo, O, Modaressi, S, Chan, B, et al. No association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Vaccine. 2017 35(24):3186–90.Google Scholar
Ding, H, Black, CL, Ball, S, et al. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women – United States, 2016–17 Influenza Season. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 66(38):1016–22.Google Scholar
Jin, Y, Carriere, KC, Marrie, TJ, et al. The effects of community-acquired pneumonia during pregnancy ending with a live birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 188(3):800–6.Google Scholar
Berkowitz, K, LaSala, A. Risk factors associated with the increasing prevalence of pneumonia during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 163(3):981–5.Google Scholar
Chen, Y-H, Keller, J, Wang, IT, et al. Pneumonia and pregnancy outcomes: a nationwide population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 207(4):288.e17.Google Scholar
Gazmararian, JA, Petersen, R, Jamieson, DJ, et al. Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 100(1):94100.Google Scholar
Acosta, CD, Harrison, DA, Rowan, K, et al. Maternal morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis: a national cohort study. BMJ Open. 2016 6(8):e012323.Google Scholar
Jenkins, TM, Troiano, NH, Graves, CR, Baird, SM, Boehm, FH. Mechanical ventilation in an obstetric population: characteristics and delivery rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 188(2):549–52.Google Scholar
Munn, MB, Groome, LJ, Atterbury, JL, et al. Pneumonia as a complication of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Med. 1999 8(4):151–4.Google Scholar
Metlay, JP, Fine, MJ. Testing strategies in the initial management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Int Med. 2003 138(2):109–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ewig, S, Schlochtermeier, M, Goïke, N, et al. Applying sputum as a diagnostic tool in pneumonia: limited yield, minimal impact on treatment decisions. Chest. 2002 121(5):1486–92.Google Scholar
Johansson, N, Kalin, M, Tiveljung-Lindell, A, Giske, CG, Hedlund, J. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: increased microbiological yield with new diagnostic methods. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 50(2):202–9.Google Scholar
Lim, W, Macfarlane, J, Colthorpe, C. Pneumonia and pregnancy. Thorax. 2001 56(5):398405.Google Scholar
Zhang, HJ, Patenaude, V, Abenhaim, HA. Maternal outcomes in pregnancies affected by varicella zoster virus infections: population-based study on 7.7 million pregnancy admissions. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015 41(1):62–8.Google Scholar
Fine, MJ, Auble, TE, Yealy, DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 336(4):243–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lim, WS, van der Eerden, MM, Laing, R, et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax. 2003 58(5):377–82.Google Scholar
Bar-Oz, B, Moretti, ME, Boskovic, R, et al. The safety of quinolones – a meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 143(2):75–8.Google Scholar
Sugarman, J, Colvin, C, Moran, AC, et al. Tuberculosis in pregnancy: an estimate of the global burden of disease. Lancet Glob Health 2014 2(12):e710-16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adhikari, M. Tuberculosis and tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in pregnancy. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 14(4):234–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jana, N, Vasishta, K, Jindal, SK, et al. Perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1994 44(2):119–24.Google Scholar
Nahid, P, Dorman, SE, Alipanah, N, et al. Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 63(7):853–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Silverberg, JI, Durkin, HG, Joks, R. Association between birthplace, prevalence, and age of asthma onset in adults: a United States population-based study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 113:410–7.e1.Google Scholar
Turkeltaub, PC, Cheon, J, Friedmann, E, Lockey, RF. The influence of asthma and/or hay fever on pregnancy: data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 5(6):1679-90.Google Scholar
Kwon, HL, Triche, EW, Belanger, K, Bracken, MB. The epidemiology of asthma during pregnancy: prevalence, diagnosis, and symptoms. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2006 26:2962.Google Scholar
Clifton, VL, Engel, P, Smith, R, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by asthma in an Australian population. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 49:619–26.Google Scholar
Rejnö, G, Lundholm, C, Gong, T, et al. Asthma during pregnancy in a population-based study – pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. PLoS One. 2014 9:e104755.Google Scholar
Bidad, K, Heidarnazhad, H, Pourpak, Z, et al. Frequency of asthma as the cause of dyspnea in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010 111:140–3.Google Scholar
Schatz, M, Harden, K, Forsythe, A, et al. The course of asthma during pregnancy, post partum, and with successive pregnancies: a prospective analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988 81:509–17.Google Scholar
Kircher, S, Schatz, M, Long, L. Variables affecting asthma course during pregnancy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 89:463–6.Google Scholar
National Heart Ln, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Asthma and Pregnancy Working Group. NAEPP expert panel report. Managing asthma during pregnancy: recommendations for pharmacologic treatment – 2004 update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 115:3446.Google Scholar
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma-aummary report 2007. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 120(5 Suppl):S94-138.Google Scholar
Murphy, VE, Namazy, JA, Powell, H, et al. A meta-analysis of adverse perinatal outcomes in women with asthma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 118:1314–23.Google Scholar
Murphy, VE, Wang, G, Namazy, JA, et al. The risk of congenital malformations, perinatal mortality and neonatal hospitalisation among pregnant women with asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013 120:812–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blais, L, Kettani, FZ, Forget, A. Relationship between maternal asthma, its severity and control and abortion. Hum Reprod. 2013 28:908–15.Google Scholar
Schatz, M, Dombrowski, MP, Wise, R, et al. Asthma morbidity during pregnancy can be predicted by severity classification. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 112:283–8.Google Scholar
Kim, S, Kim, J, Park, SY, et al. Effect of pregnancy in asthma on health care use and perinatal outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 136:1215–23.e1-6.Google Scholar
Grzeskowiak, LE, Smith, B, Roy, A, Dekker, GA, Clifton, VL. Patterns, predictors and outcomes of asthma control and exacerbations during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. ERJ Open Res. 2016 2(1):pii:00054-2015.Google Scholar
Murphy, VE, Gibson, P, Talbot, PI, Clifton, VL. Severe asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 106:1046–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, VE, Clifton, VL, Gibson, PG. Asthma exacerbations during pregnancy: incidence and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thorax. 2006 61:169–76.Google Scholar
Bateman, ED, Hurd, SS, Barnes, PJ, et al. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary. Eur Respir J. 2008 31:143–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinker, SC, Broussard, CS, Frey, MT, Gilboa, SM. Prevalence of prescription medication use among non-pregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the United States: NHANES, 1999–2006. Matern Child Health J. 2015 19:1097–106.Google Scholar
Cydulka, RK, Emerman, CL, Schreiber, D, et al. Acute asthma among pregnant women presenting to the emergency department. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 160:887–92.Google Scholar
McCallister, JW, Benninger, CG, Frey, HA, Phillips, GS, Mastronarde, JG. Pregnancy related treatment disparities of acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department. Respir Med. 2011 105:1434–40.Google Scholar
Norjavaara, E, de Verdier, MG. Normal pregnancy outcomes in a population-based study including 2,968 pregnant women exposed to budesonide. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 111:736–42.Google Scholar
Bakhireva, LN, Jones, KL, Schatz, M, et al. Asthma medication use in pregnancy and fetal growth. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 116:503–9.Google Scholar
Namazy, JA, Chambers, C, Schatz, M. Safety of therapeutic options for treating asthma in pregnancy. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014 13:1613–21.Google Scholar
Breton, MC, Beauchesne, MF, Lemière, C, et al. Risk of perinatal mortality associated with inhaled corticosteroid use for the treatment of asthma during pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 126:772–7.e2.Google Scholar
Blais, L, Beauchesne, MF, Lemière, C, Elftouh, N. High doses of inhaled corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy and congenital malformations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 124:1229–34.e4.Google Scholar
Eltonsy, S, Forget, A, Beauchesne, MF, Blais, L. Risk of congenital malformations for asthmatic pregnant women using a long-acting β₂-agonist and inhaled corticosteroid combination versus higher-dose inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 135:123–30.Google Scholar
Eltonsy, S, Kettani, FZ, Blais, L. Beta2-agonists use during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review. Respir Med. 2014 108:933.Google Scholar
Bakhireva, LN, Jones, KL, Schatz, M, et al. Safety of leukotriene receptor antagonists in pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 119:618–25.Google Scholar
Sarkar, M, Koren, G, Kalra, S, et al. Montelukast use during pregnancy: a multicentre, prospective, comparative study of infant outcomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 65:1259–64.Google Scholar
Nelsen, LM, Shields, KE, Cunningham, ML, et al. Congenital malformations among infants born to women receiving montelukast, inhaled corticosteroids, and other asthma medications. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 129:251–4.e1-6.Google Scholar
Namazy, J, Cabana, MD, Scheuerle, AE, et al. The Xolair Pregnancy Registry (EXPECT): the safety of omalizumab use during pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 135:407–12.Google Scholar
Park-Wyllie, L, Mazzotta, P, Pastuszak, A, et al. Birth defects after maternal exposure to corticosteroids: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Teratology. 2000 62:385–92.Google Scholar
Carmichael, SL, Shaw, GM. Maternal corticosteroid use and risk of selected congenital anomalies. Am J Med Genet. 1999 86:242–4.Google Scholar
Carmichael, SL, Shaw, GM, Ma, C, et al. Maternal corticosteroid use and orofacial clefts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 197:585.e1-7;discussion 683–4, e1-7.Google Scholar
Skuladottir, H, Wilcox, AJ, Ma, C, et al. Corticosteroid use and risk of orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014 100:499506.Google Scholar
Bay Bjorn, AM, Ehrenstein, V, Hundborg, HH, et al. Use of corticosteroids in early pregnancy is not associated with risk of oral clefts and other congenital malformations in offspring. Am J Ther. 2014 21:7380.Google Scholar
Namazy, JA, Murphy, VE, Powell, H, et al. Effects of asthma severity, exacerbations and oral corticosteroids on perinatal outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2013 41:1082–90.Google Scholar
Costantine, MM. Physiologic and pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy. Front Pharmacol. 2014 5:65.Google Scholar
Malfertheiner, SF, Malfertheiner, MV, Kropf, S, Costa, SD, Malfertheiner, P. A prospective longitudinal cohort study: evolution of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012 12:131.Google Scholar
Pratter, MR. Chronic upper airway cough syndrome secondary to rhinosinus diseases (previously referred to as postnasal drip syndrome): ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2006 129:63S-71S.Google Scholar
Powell, H, Murphy, VE, Hensley, MJ, et al. Rhinitis in pregnant women with asthma is associated with poorer asthma control and quality of life. J Asthma. 2015 52:1023–30.Google Scholar
Ellegård, E, Hellgren, M, Torén, K, Karlsson, G. The incidence of pregnancy rhinitis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000 49:98101.Google Scholar
Forno, E, Celedon, JC. Health disparities in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 185:1033–5.Google Scholar
Carroll, KN, Griffin, MR, Gebretsadik, T, et al. Racial differences in asthma morbidity during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 106:6672.Google Scholar
Jaffee, K, Bartholomew, J, Lane, S. Asthma during pregnancy: racial disparities in birth outcome. Presentation at Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 16–18, 2009.Google Scholar
Flores, KF, Robledo, CA, Hwang, BS, et al. Does maternal asthma contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in obstetrical and neonatal complications? Ann Epidemiol. 2015 25:392–7 e1.Google Scholar
MacMullen, NJ, Tymkow, C, Shen, JJ. Adverse maternal outcomes in women with asthma: differences by race. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2006 31:263–8.Google Scholar
Bryant, AS, Worjoloh, A, Caughey, AB, Washington, AE. Racial/ethnic disparities in obstetric outcomes and care: prevalence and determinants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 202:335–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shieh, C, McDaniel, A, Ke, I. Information-seeking and its predictors in low-income pregnant women. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2009 54:364–72.Google Scholar

References

Elborn, JS. Cystic fibrosis. Lancet. 2016 388(10059):2519–31.Google Scholar
The Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry 2014 Annual Report. Toronto, Canada: Cystic Fibrosis Canada. 2016.Google Scholar
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Patient Registry 2015 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, maryland: © 2016 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. 2016. www.cff.org/our-research/cf-patient-registry/2015-patient-registry-annual-data-report.pdf (accessed November 2019.)Google Scholar
Kaplan, E, Shwachman, H, Perlmutter, AD, et al. Reproductive failure in males with cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 1968 279(2):65–9.Google Scholar
Edenborough, FP. Women with cystic fibrosis and their potential for reproduction. Thorax. 2001 56(8):649–55.Google Scholar
Siegel, B, Siegel, S. Pregnancy and delivery in a patient with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Obstet Gynecol. 1960 16:438–40.Google Scholar
Goss, CH, Rubenfeld, GD, Otto, K, Aitken, ML. The effect of pregnancy on survival in women with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2003 124(4):1460–8.Google Scholar
Edenborough, FP, Borgo, G, Knoop, C, et al. Guidelines for the management of pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2008 7(Suppl 1):S2-32.Google Scholar
Tizzano, EF, Silver, MM, Chitayat, D, Benichou, JC, Buchwald, M. Differential cellular expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in human reproductive tissues: clues for the infertility in patients with cystic fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 1994 144(5):906–14.Google Scholar
Kopito, LE, Kosasky, HJ, Shwachman, H. Water and electrolytes in cervical mucus from patients with cystic fibrosis. Fertil Steril. 1973 24(7):512–16.Google Scholar
Wang, XF, Zhou, CX, Shi, QX, et al. Involvement of CFTR in uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm. Nat Cell Biol. 2003 5(10):902–6.Google Scholar
Schram, CA, Stephenson, AL, Hannam, TG, Tullis, E. Cystic fibrosis (cf) and ovarian reserve: a cross-sectional study examining serum anti-mullerian hormone (amh) in young women. J Cyst Fibros. 2015 14(3):398402.Google Scholar
Johannesson, M, Landgren, BM, Csemiczky, G, Hjelte, L, Gottlieb, C. Female patients with cystic fibrosis suffer from reproductive endocrinological disorders despite good clinical status. Hum Reprod. 1998 13(8):2092–7.Google Scholar
Stallings, VA, Tomezsko, JL, Schall, JI, et al. Adolescent development and energy expenditure in females with cystic fibrosis. Clin Nutr. 2005 24(5):737–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hubert, D, Patrat, C, Guibert, J, et al. Results of assisted reproductive technique in men with cystic fibrosis. Hum Reprod. 2006 21(5):1232–6.Google Scholar
McCallum, TJ, Milunsky, JM, Cunningham, DL, et al. Fertility in men with cystic fibrosis: an update on current surgical practices and outcomes. Chest. 2000 118(4):1059–62.Google Scholar
Ahmad, A, Ahmed, A, Patrizio, P. Cystic fibrosis and fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2013 25(3):167–72.Google Scholar
Geake, J, Tay, G, Callaway, L, Bell, SC. Pregnancy and cystic fibrosis: approach to contemporary management. Obstet Med. 2014 7(4):147–55.Google Scholar
Committee on Genetics. Committee Opinion No. 691: carrier screening for genetic conditions. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 129(3):e41-55.Google Scholar
US CF Foundation, John Hopkins University, The Hospital for Sick Children. The Clinical and Functional Translation of CFTR (CFTR2). Available from: http://cftr2.org/ (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Ratjen, F, Bell, SC, Rowe, SM, et al. Cystic fibrosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 1:15010.Google Scholar
Watson, MS, Cutting, GR, Desnick, RJ, et al. Cystic fibrosis population carrier screening: 2004 revision of American College of Medical Genetics mutation panel. Genet Med. 2004 6(5):387–91.Google Scholar
Rohlfs, EM, Zhou, Z, Heim, RA, et al. Cystic fibrosis carrier testing in an ethnically diverse US population. Clin Chem. 2011 57(6):841–8.Google Scholar
Harper, JC. Preimplantation genetic screening. J Med Screen. 2018 25(1):15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilljam, M, Antoniou, M, Shin, J, et al. Pregnancy in cystic fibrosis: fetal and maternal outcome. Chest. 2000 118(1):8591.Google Scholar
Lau, EM, Barnes, DJ, Moriarty, C, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in the current era of cystic fibrosis care: a 15-year experience. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 51(3):220–4.Google Scholar
Jones, AM, Dodd, ME, Govan, JR, et al. Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans: influence on survival in cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 2004 59(11):948–51.Google Scholar
Cheng, EY, Goss, CH, McKone, EF, et al. Aggressive prenatal care results in successful fetal outcomes in CF women. J Cyst Fibros. 2006 5(2):8591.Google Scholar
Edenborough, FP, Stableforth, DE, Webb, AK, Mackenzie, WE, Smith, DL. Outcome of pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 1995 50(2):170–4.Google Scholar
Thorpe-Beeston, JG, Madge, S, Gyi, K, Hodson, M, Bilton, D. The outcome of pregnancies in women with cystic fibrosis – single centre experience 1998–2011. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013 120(3):354–61.Google Scholar
Stephenson, AL, Stanojevic, S, Sykes, J, Burgel, PR. The changing epidemiology and demography of cystic fibrosis. Presse Med. 2017 46(6 Pt 2):e87-95.Google Scholar
Stallings, VA, Stark, LJ, Robinson, KA, et al. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 108(5):832–9.Google Scholar
Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry 2013 Annual Report. Toronto, Canada: Cystic Fibrosis Canada. 2014.Google Scholar
Wilson, RD, Genetics, C, Wilson, RD, et al. Pre-conception folic acid and multivitamin supplementation for the primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects and other folic acid-sensitive congenital anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 37(6):534–52.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, KM, Yaktine, AL, eds. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. In: The National Academies Collection: Reports Funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. 2009.Google Scholar
Moran, A, Dunitz, J, Nathan, B, et al. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: current trends in prevalence, incidence, and mortality. Diabetes Care. 2009 32(9):1626–31.Google Scholar
McMullen, AH, Pasta, DJ, Frederick, PD, et al. Impact of pregnancy on women with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2006 129(3):706–11.Google Scholar
Giacobbe, LE, Nguyen, RH, Aguilera, MN, et al. Effect of maternal cystic fibrosis genotype on diabetes in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 120(6):1394–9.Google Scholar
Miller, RJ, Tildesley, HD, Wilcox, PG, Zhang, H, Kreisman, SH. Sex disparities in effects of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes on clinical outcomes: a matched study. Can Respir J. 2008 15(6):291–4.Google Scholar
Moran, A, Brunzell, C, Cohen, RC, et al. Clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a clinical practice guideline of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, endorsed by the Pediatric Endocrine Society. Diabetes Care. 2010 33(12):2697–708.Google Scholar
Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee, Thompson, D, Berger, H, et al. Diabetes and pregnancy. Can J Diabetes. 2013 37 (Suppl 1):S168-83.Google Scholar
Konstan, MW, Flume, PA, Kappler, M, et al. Safety, efficacy and convenience of tobramycin inhalation powder in cystic fibrosis patients: The EAGER trial. J Cyst Fibros. 2011 10(1):5461.Google Scholar
Padberg, S, Wacker, E, Meister, R, et al. Observational cohort study of pregnancy outcome after first-trimester exposure to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 58(8):4392–8.Google Scholar
Schaefer, C, Amoura-Elefant, E, Vial, T, et al. Pregnancy outcome after prenatal quinolone exposure: evaluation of a case registry of the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996 69(2):83–9.Google Scholar
Bourget, P, Fernandez, H, Delouis, C, Taburet, AM. Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in pregnant women: safety and efficacy of a once-daily dose regimen. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1991 16(3):167–76.Google Scholar
Hernandez-Diaz, S, Werler, MM, Walker, AM, Mitchell, AA. Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2000 343(22): 1608–14.Google Scholar
Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee Opinion No. 717: sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, and risk of birth defects. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 130(3):e150-2.Google Scholar
Kline, AH, Blattner, RJ, Lunin, M. Transplacental effect of tetracyclines on teeth. J Am Med Assoc. 1964 188:178–80.Google Scholar
Kaminski, R, Nazareth, D. A successful uncomplicated CF pregnancy while remaining on ivacaftor. J Cyst Fibros. 2016 15(1):133–4.Google Scholar
Ladores, S, Kazmerski, TM, Rowe, SM. A case report of pregnancy during use of targeted therapeutics for cystic fibrosis. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2017 46(1):72–7.Google Scholar
Muammar, M, Marshall, P, Wyatt, H, Skelton, V. Caesarean section in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2005 14(1):70–3.Google Scholar
Butler, JA, Restrick, LJ, Esmond, GM, Mickelsons, C, Empey, DW. Pregnancy assisted by nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in a patient with cystic fibrosis. J R Soc Med. 1997 90(4):222–3.Google Scholar
Patel, EM, Swamy, GK, Heine, RP, et al. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women with cystic fibrosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 212(1):98.e1-9.Google Scholar
Deighan, M, Ash, S, McMorrow, R. Anaesthesia for parturients with severe cystic fibrosis: a case series. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2014 23(1):75–9.Google Scholar
Della Rocca, G. Anaesthesia in patients with cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2002 15:95101.Google Scholar
Schechter, MS, Quittner, AL, Konstan, MW, et al. Long-term effects of pregnancy and motherhood on disease outcomes of women with cystic fibrosis. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 10(3):213–19.Google Scholar
Stephenson, AL, Sykes, J, Berthiaume, Y, et al. Clinical and demographic factors associated with post-lung transplantation survival in individuals with cystic fibrosis. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015 34(9):1139–45.Google Scholar
Moritz, MJ, Constantinescu, S, Coscia, LA, et al. National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry: 2015 Annual Report. Philadelphia PA: Gift of Life Institute. 2016.Google Scholar
Gyi, KM, Hodson, ME, Yacoub, MY. Pregnancy in cystic fibrosis lung transplant recipients: case series and review. J Cyst Fibros. 2006 5(3):171–5.Google Scholar
Shaner, J, Coscia, LA, Constantinescu, S, et al. Pregnancy after lung transplant. Prog Transplant. 2012 22(2):134–40.Google Scholar
Vos, R, Ruttens, D, Verleden, SE, et al. Pregnancy after heart and lung transplantation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 28(8):1146–62.Google Scholar
McKay, DB, Josephson, MA, Armenti, VT, et al. Reproduction and transplantation: report on the AST Consensus Conference on Reproductive Issues and Transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2005 5(7):1592–9.Google Scholar
American College of Medical Genetics. Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories: Technical Standards and Guidelines for CFTR Mutation Testing. Bethesda, MD: American College of Medical Genetics. 2011.Google Scholar
International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel, Metzger, BE. International Association Of Diabetes And Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010 33(3):676–82.Google Scholar

References

Elkus, R, Popovich, J. Respiratory physiology in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 1992 13:555–65.Google Scholar
Contreras, G, Gutiérrez, M, Beroíza, T, et al. Ventilatory drive and respiratory muscle function in pregnancy. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 144(4):837–41.Google Scholar
Leoutic, EA. Respiratory disease in pregnancy. Med Clin North Am. 1977 61:111.Google Scholar
Gilroy, RJ, Mangura, BT, Lavietes, MH. Rib cage and abdominal volume displacements during breathing in pregnancy. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988 137:668–72.Google Scholar
Emerson, K Jr, Saxena, BN, Poindexter, EL. Caloric cost of normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1972 40(6):786–94.Google Scholar
Pernoll, ML, Metcalfe, J, Schlenker, TL, Welch, JE, Matsumoto, JA. Oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise in pregnancy. Respir Physiol. 1975 25(3):285–93.Google Scholar
Petersson, J, Glenny, RW. Gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung. Eur Respir J. 2014 44:1023-41.Google Scholar
Archer, GW, Marx, GF. Arterial oxygen tension during apnoea in parturient women. Br J Anaesth. 1974 46:358–60.Google Scholar
Pehrsson, K, Bake, B, Larsson, S, Nachemson, A. Lung function in adult idiopathic scoliosis: a 20 year follow up. Thorax. 1991 46(7):474-8.Google Scholar
Donath, J, Miller, A. Restrictive chest wall disorders. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 30:275–92.Google Scholar
Lapinsky, SE, Tram, C, Mehta, S, Maxwell, CV. Restrictive lung disease in pregnancy. Chest. 2014 145:394–8.Google Scholar
Sawicka, EH, Branthwaite, MA: Respiration during sleep in kyphoscoliosis. Thorax. 1987 42:801–8Google Scholar
Boggess, KA, Easterling, TR, Raghu, G. Management and outcome of pregnant women with interstitial and restrictive lung disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 173:1007–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costello, JF, Balki, M. Cesarean delivery under ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia [corrected] in a parturient with poliomyelitis and Harrington instrumentation. Can J Anaesth. 2008 55:606–11.Google Scholar
Guidon, AC, Massey, EW. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy. Neurol Clin. 2012 30:889911.Google Scholar
Ciafaloni, E, Massey, J. Myasthenia gravis and pregnancy. Neurol Clin. 2004 22:771.Google Scholar
Bashuk, RG, Krendel, DA. Myasthenia gravis presenting as weakness after magnesium administration. Muscle Nerve. 1990 13:708-12.Google Scholar
Ruiz-Irastorza, G, Lima, F, Alves, J, et al. Increased rate of lupus flare during pregnancy and the puerperium: a prospective study of 78 pregnancies. Br J Rheumatol. 1996 35:133–8.Google Scholar
Murin, S, Wiedemann, HP, Matthay, RA. Pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Chest Med. 1998 19:641–65.Google Scholar
Knight, CL, Nelson-Piercy, C. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions. Open Access Rheumatol. 2017 9:3753.Google Scholar
Ishii, N, Ono, H, Kawaguchi, T, et al. Dermatomyositis and pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Dermatologica. 1991 183:146–9.Google Scholar
Freymond, N, Cottin, V, Cordier, JF. Infiltrative lung diseases in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 2011 32:133–46.Google Scholar
Cipriani, A, Casara, D, Di, VG, et al. Sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Sarcoidosis. 1991 8:183–5.Google Scholar
Corrin, B, Liebow, AA, Friedman, PJ. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Am J Pathol. 1975 79:348–82.Google Scholar
Carsillo, T, Astrinidis, A, Henske, EP. Mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene TSC2 are a cause of sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 97:6085–90.Google Scholar
Ryu, JH, Moss, J, Beck, GJ, et al. The NHLBI lymphangioleiomyomatosis registry: characteristics of 230 patients at enrollment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 173:105–11.Google Scholar
Johnson, SR, Taveira-DaSilva, AM, Moss, J. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Clin Chest Med. 2016 37:389403.Google Scholar
Taveira-DaSilva, AM, Steagall, WK, Rabel, A, et al. Reversible airflow obstruction in lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Chest. 2009 136:1596–603.Google Scholar
Faehling, M, Wienhausen-Wilke, V, Fallscheer, S, et al. Long-term stable lung function and second uncomplicated pregnancy on sirolimus in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2015 32:259-64.Google Scholar
Phy, JL, Weiss, WT, Weiler, CR, Damario, MA. Hypersensitivity to progesterone-in-oil after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 2003 80:1272–5.Google Scholar
Veysman, B, Vlahos, I, Oshva, L. Pneumonitis and eosinophilia after in vitro fertilization treatment. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 47:472-5.Google Scholar
Bouckaert, Y, Robert, F, Englert, Y, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with intramuscular administration of progesterone as luteal phase support after IVF: case report. Hum Reprod. 2004 19:1806–10.Google Scholar
Bradley, B, Branley, HM, Egan, JJ, et al. Interstitial lung disease guideline: the British Thoracic Society in collaboration with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Irish Thoracic Society. Thorax. 2008 63 (Suppl 5):v1-v58.Google Scholar
Jensen, D, Webb, KA, Davies, GA, O’Donnell, DE. Mechanisms of activity-related breathlessness in healthy human pregnancy.Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 106:253–65.Google Scholar
Aoyama, K, Seaward, PG, Lapinsky, SE. Fetal outcome in the critically ill pregnant woman. Crit Care. 2014 18:307.Google Scholar
Ward, S, Chatwin, M, Heather, S, Simonds, AK. Randomised controlled trial of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for nocturnal hypoventilation in neuromuscular and chest wall disease patients with daytime normocapnia. Thorax. 2005 60:1019–24.Google Scholar

References

Cantwell, R, Clutton-Brock, T, Cooper, G, et al. Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006–2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Br J Obstet Ggynaecol. 2011 118(Suppl 1):1203.Google ScholarPubMed
Heit, JA, Kobbervig, CE, James, AH, et al. Trends in the incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum: a 30-year population-based study. Ann Intern Med. 2005 143:697706.Google Scholar
Liu, S, Rouleau, J, Joseph, KS, et al. Epidemiology of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism: a population-based study in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009 31:611–20.Google Scholar
Sultan, AA, West, J, Tata, LJ, et al. Risk of first venous thromboembolism in and around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study. Br J Haematol. 2011 156:366–73.Google Scholar
Virkus, RA, Lokkegaard, ECL, Bergholt, T, et al. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant and puerperal women in Denmark 1995–2005. Thromb Haemost. 2011 106:304–9.Google Scholar
Galambosi, PJ, Gissler, M, Kaaja, RJ, Ulander, VM. Incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolism during postpartum period: a population-based cohort-study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 96(7):852–61.Google Scholar
Sennström, M, Rova, K, Hellgren, M, et al. Thromboembolism and in vitro fertilization – a systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 96(9):1045–52.Google Scholar
Bates, SM, Greer, IA, Middeldorp, S, et al. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 141(2 Suppl):e691S736S.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Rey, E, Kent, NE. VTE in Pregnancy Guideline Working Group; Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. Venous thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 36(6):527–53.Google Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2015. Green-top Guideline No. 37b. Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium: acute management. www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg37b/ (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Lee, A, Spencer, FA, et al. Predicting deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy: out in ‘LEFt’ field? Ann Intern Med 2009 151(2):8592. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2009 151(7):516.Google Scholar
Wells, PS, Anderson, DR, Rodger, M, et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients probability of pulmonary embolism: increasing the models utility with the SimpliRED D-dimer. Thromb Haemost. 2000 83:416–20.Google Scholar
O’Connor, C, Moriarty, J, Walsh, J, et al. The application of a clinical risk stratification score may reduce unnecessary investigations for pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 24(12):1461–4.Google Scholar
Cutts, BA, Tran, HA, Merriman, E, et al. The utility of the Wells clinical prediction model and ventilation-perfusion scanning for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in pregnancy. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2014 25(4):375–8.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Lee, A, Spencer, FA, et al. D-dimer testing in pregnant patients: towards determining the next ‘level’ in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 8(5):1004–11.Google Scholar
Hunt, BJ, Parmar, K, Horspool, K, et al. The DiPEP (Diagnosis of PE in Pregnancy) biomarker study: an observational cohort study augmented with additional cases to determine the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for suspected venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium. Br J Haematol 2018 180:694704.Google Scholar
Van der Pol, LM, Tromeur, C, Bistervels, IM, et al. Pregnancy-adapted YEARS algorithm for diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2019 380:1139–49.Google Scholar
Righini, M, Robert-Ebadi, H, Elias, A, et al. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: a multicenter prospective management outcome study. Ann Intern Med 2018 169:766–73.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Spencer, FA, Ginsberg, JS. Anatomic distribution of deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 182(7):657–60.Google Scholar
Cogo, A, Lensing, AWA, Pradoni, P, et al. Distribution of thrombosis in patients with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med. 1993 153:2777–80.Google Scholar
Le Gal, G, Kercret, G, Ben Yahmed, K, et al. Diagnostic value of single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women with suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study. Br Med J. 2012 344 :e2635.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Spencer, FA, Lee, AY, et al. Safety of withholding anticoagulation in pregnant women with suspected deep vein thrombosis following negative serial compression ultrasound and iliac vein imaging. Can Med Assoc J. 2013 185(4):E194-200.Google Scholar
van Mens, TE, Scheres, LJ, de Jong, PG, et al. Imaging for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 1:CD011053.Google Scholar
Perisinakis, K, Seimenis, I, Tzedakis, A, Damilakis, J. Perfusion scintigraphy versus 256-slice CT angiography in pregnant patients suspected of pulmonary embolism: comparison of radiation risks. J Nucl Med. 2014 55(8):1273–80.Google Scholar
Parker, MS, Hui, FK, Camacho, MA, et al. Female breast radiation exposure during CT pulmonary angiography. Am J Roentgenol. 2005 185:1228–33.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Chalhoub, M, Phornphutkul, C, et al. Neonatal thyroid function: effect of a single exposure to iodinated contrast medium in utero. Radiology. 2010 256:744–50.Google Scholar
U-King-Im, JM, Freeman, SJ, Boylan, T, Cheow, HK. Quality of CT pulmonary angiography for suspected pulmonary embolus in pregnancy. Eur Radiol. 2008 18:2709–15.Google Scholar
Ridge, CA, McDermott, S, Freyne, BJ, et al. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy. Am J Roentgenol. 2009 193:1223–7.Google Scholar
Bajc, M, Olsson, B, Gottsäter, A, Hindorf, C, Jögi, J. V/P SPECT as a diagnostic tool for pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015 42(8):1325–30.Google Scholar
Herédia, V, Altun, E, Ramalho, M, et al. MRI of pregnant patients for suspected pulmonary embolism: steady-state free precession vs postgadolinium 3D-GRE. Acta Med Port. 2012 25(6):359–67.Google Scholar
Ray, JG, Vermeulen, MJ, Bharatha, A, Montanera, WJ, Park, AL. Association between MRI exposure during pregnancy and fetal and childhood outcomes. J Am Med Assoc. 2016 316(9):952–61.Google Scholar
Greer, IA, Nelson-Piercy, C. Low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood. 2005 106(2):401–7.Google Scholar
Leonhardt, G, Gaul, C, Nietsch, HH, Buerke, M, Schleussner, E.Thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006 21:271–6.Google Scholar
Akazawa, M, Nishida, M. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 96(5):529–35.Google Scholar
Decousus, H, Leizorovicz, A, Parent, F, et al. A clinical trial of vena caval filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis:. Prévention du Risque d’Embolie Pulmonaire par Interruption Cave Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 338:409–15.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Anand, S, Ginsberg, JS. Anticoagulation of pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 2000 160(2):191–6.Google Scholar
Beyer-Westendorf, J, Michalski, F, Tittl, L, et al. Pregnancy outcome in patients exposed to direct oral anticoagulants – and the challenge of event reporting. Thromb Haemost. 2016 116(4):651–8.Google Scholar
Sultan, AA, Tata, LJ, West, J, et al. Risk factors for first venous thromboembolism around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study from the United Kingdom. Blood. 2013 121(19):3953–61.Google Scholar
Virkus, RA, Løkkegaard, E, Lidegaard, Ø, et al. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in 1.3 million pregnancies: a nationwide prospective cohort. PLoS One. 2014 9(5):e96495.Google Scholar
Brill-Edwards, P, Ginsberg, JS, Gent, M, et al. Safety of withholding heparin in pregnant women with a history of venous thromboembolism. N Eng J Med. 2000 343:1439–44.Google Scholar
Pabinger, I, Grafenhofer, H, Kaider, A, et al. Risk of pregnancy-associated recurrent venous thromboembolism in women with a history of venous thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 3:94954.Google Scholar
These 2010 guidelines were supplanted by 2018 guidelines (4th edition). Horlocker, TT, Vanderneiulen, E, Kopp, SL, Gogarten, W, et al. Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2018; 43: 263309.Google Scholar
Chan, WS. The ‘ART’ of thrombosis: a review of arterial and venous thrombosis in assisted reproductive technology. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2009 21(3):207–18.Google Scholar
Bauersachs, RM, Manolopoulos, K, Hoppe, I, Arin, MJ, Schleushsner, E. More on: the ‘ART’ behind the clot. Solving the mystery. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 5:438–9.Google Scholar
Bates, SM, Middeldorp, S, Rodger, M, James, AH, Greer, I. Guidance for the treatment and prevention of obstetric-associated venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016 41(1):92128.Google Scholar

References

Galie, N, Humber, M, Vachiery, JL et al. ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Resp J. 2015 46:903–75.Google Scholar
Simonneau, G, Montani, D, Celermajer, DS et al. Haemodynamic definitions and updated classification of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Resp J. 2019 53:1801913.Google Scholar
Kiely, DG, Elliot, CA, Sabroe, I, Condliffe, R. Pulmonary hypertension: diagnosis and management. Br Med J. 2013 346:f2028.Google Scholar
Hurdman, J, Condliffe, R, Elliot, CA, et al. ASPIRE registry: Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a REferral centre. Eur Respir J. 2012 39:945–55.Google Scholar
Peacock, AJ, Murphy, NF, McMurray, JJ, et al. An epidemiological study of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2007 30:104–9.Google Scholar
Condliffe, R, Kiely, DG, Gibbs, JS, et al. Improved outcomes in medically and surgically treated chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 177:1122–7.Google Scholar
Humbert, M, Sitbon, O, Chaouat, A, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in France: results from a national registry. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 173:1023–30.Google Scholar
Ling, Y, Johnson, MK, Kiely, DG, et al. Changing demographics, epidemiology, and survival of incident pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the pulmonary hypertension registry of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 186:790–6.Google Scholar
Regitz-Zagrosek, V, Roos-Hesselink, JW, Bauersachs, J, et al. 2018 ESC Guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease during pregnancy. Eur Heart J. 2018 39(34):3165–241.Google Scholar
Pengo, V, Lensing, AW, Prins, MH, et al. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2004 350:2257–64.Google Scholar
Kiely, DG, Condliffe, R, Webster, V, et al. Improved survival in pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension using a multiprofessional approach. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 117:565–74.Google Scholar
Kiely, DG, Levin, DL, Hassoun, PM, et al. Statement on imaging and pulmonary hypertension from the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI). Pulm Circ. 2019 9(3):2045894019841990.Google Scholar
Hemnes, AR, Kiely, DG, Cockrill, BA et al. Statement on pregnancy in pulmonary hypertension from the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute. Pulm Circ. 2015 5(3):435-65.Google Scholar
Gleicher, N, Midwall, J, Hochberger, D, Jaffin, H. Eisenmenger’s syndrome and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1979 34(10):721–41.Google Scholar
Weiss, BM, Zemp, L, Seifert, B, Hess, OM. Outcome of pulmonary vascular disease in pregnancy: a systematic overview from 1978 through 1996. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 31(7):1650–7.Google Scholar
Bedard, E, Dimopoulos, K, Gatzoulis, M. Has there been any progress made on pregnancy outcomes among women with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2009 30(3):256–65.Google Scholar
Presbitero, P, Somerville, J, Stone, S, et al. Pregnancy in cyanotic congenital heart disease: outcome of mother and fetus. Circulation. 1994 89(6):2673–6.Google Scholar
Presbitero, P, Rabajoli, F, Somerville, J. Pregnancy in patients with congenital heart disease. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1995 125(7):311–15.Google Scholar
Curry, RA, Fletcher, C, Gelson, E, et al. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy – a review of 12 pregnancies in nine women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012 119(6):752–61.Google Scholar
Meng, ML, Landau, R, Viktorsdottir, O, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy: a report of 49 cases at four tertiary north American sites. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 129:511–20.Google Scholar
Jaïs, X, Olsson, KM, Barbera, JA, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension in the modern management era. Eur Respir J. 2012 40(4):881–5.Google Scholar
Kiely, DG, Elliot, CA, Webster, VJ, Stewart, P. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension: new approaches to the management of a life threatening condition. In: Steer, PJ, Gatzoulis, MA, Baker, P, eds. Heart Disease and Pregnancy. London: RCOG Press. 2006:211–29.Google Scholar
Weiss, BM, Hess, OM. Pulmonary vascular disease and pregnancy: current controversies, management strategies, and perspectives. Eur Heart J. 2000 21(2):104–15.Google Scholar
Bonica, JJ. Maternal anatomic and physiologic alterations during pregnancy and parturition. In: Bonica, JJ, ed. Practice of Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 1995. 4582.Google Scholar
Poppas, A, Shroff, SG, Korcarz, CE, et al. Serial assessment of the cardiovascular system in normal pregnancy: role of arterial compliance and pulsatile arterial load. Circulation. 1997 95(10):2407–15.Google Scholar
van Oppen, AC, Stigter, RH, Bruinse, HW. Cardiac output in normal pregnancy: a critical review. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 87(2):310–18.Google Scholar
Bonnin, M, Mercier, FJ, Sitbon, O, et al. Severe pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy: mode of delivery and anesthetic management of 15 consecutive cases. Anesthesiology. 2005 102(6):1133–7.Google Scholar
Hunter, S, Robson, SC. Adaptation of the maternal heart in pregnancy. Br Heart J. 1992 68(6):540–3.Google Scholar
Easterling, TR, Ralph, DD, Schmucker, BC. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy: treatment with pulmonary vasodilators. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 93(4):494–8.Google Scholar
Kiely, DG, Condliffe, R, Wilson, VJ, et al. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension: a practical approach to management. Obstet Med. 2013 6(4):144–54.Google Scholar
Thorne, S, Nelson-Piercy, C, MacGregor, A, et al. Pregnancy and contraception in heart disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006 32:7581.Google Scholar
Trussell, J. Contraceptive efficacy. In: Hatcher, R, Trussell, J, Stewart, F, et al eds. Contraception Technology. 18th ed New York: Ardent Media. 2004.Google Scholar
Patheon, Inc. Product information, Tracleer. www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2003/21290se8-001_tracleer_lbl.pdf (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Elliot, CA, Stewart, P, Webster, VJ, et al. The use of iloprost in early pregnancy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2005 26(1):168–73.Google Scholar
Weiss, BM, Maggiorini, M, Jenni, R, et al. Pregnant patient with primary pulmonary hypertension: inhaled pulmonary vasodilators and epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 2000 92(4):1191–4.Google Scholar
Bendayan, D, Hod, M, Oron, G, et al. Pregnancy outcome in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving prostacyclin therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 106:1206–10.Google Scholar
Ray, JG, Vermeuten, MJ, Bharatha, A, et al. Association between MRI exposure during pregnancy and fetal and childhood outcomes. J Am Med Assoc. 2016 316(9):952–61.Google Scholar
Kramer, MS, Demissie, K, Yang, H, et al. The contribution of mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. J Am Med Assoc. 2000 284:843–9.Google Scholar
Huddy, CL, Johnson, A, Hope, PL. Educational and behavioural problems in babies of 32–35 weeks gestation. Arch Dis Child. 2001 85:23–8.Google Scholar
Smedstad, KG, Cramb, R, Morison, DH. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy: a series of eight cases. Can J Anaesth. 1994 41(6):502–12.Google Scholar
O’Hare, R, McLoughlin, C, Milligan, K, McNamee, D, Sidhu, H. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in the presence of severe primary pulmonary hypertension. Br J Anaesth. 1998 81(5):790–2.Google Scholar
Jonas, MM, Tanser, SJ. Lithium dilution measurement of cardiac output and arterial pulse waveform analysis: an indicator dilution calibrated beat-by-beat system for continuous estimation of cardiac output. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002 8(3):257–61.Google Scholar
Blaise, G, Langleben, D, Hubert, B. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: pathophysiology and anesthetic approach. Anesthesiology. 2003 99(6):1415–32.Google Scholar
Weeks, SK, Smith, JB. Obstetric anaesthesia in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Can J Anaesth. 1991 38(7):814–16.Google Scholar

References

Williams, TN, Weatherall, DJ. World distribution, population genetics, and health burden of the hemoglobinopathies. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 2:a011692.Google Scholar
Oteng-Ntim, E, Chase, AR, Howard, J, Khazaezadeh, N, Anionwu, EN. Sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Obstet, Gynaecol Reproduct Med. 2008 18(10):272–8.Google Scholar
Ballas, SK, Lieff, S, Benjamin, LJ, et al. Definitions of the phenotypic manifestations of sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2010 85:613.Google Scholar
Platt, OS, Brambilla, DJ, Rosse, WF, et al. Mortality in sickle cell disease: life expectancy and risk factors for early death. N Engl J Med. 1994 330:1639–44.Google Scholar
Vichinsky, EP, Neumayr, LD, Earles, AN, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: National Acute Chest Syndrome Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 342:1855–65.Google Scholar
Gladwin, MT, Sachdev, V, Jison, ML, et al. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 350:886–95.Google Scholar
Perronne, V, Roberts-Harewood, M, Bachir, D, et al. Patterns of mortality in sickle cell disease in adults in France and England. Hematol J. 2002 3:5660.Google Scholar
Gladwin, MT, Vichinsky, E. Pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2008 359:2254–65.Google Scholar
LoMauro, A, Aliverti, A. Respiratory physiology of pregnancy: physiology masterclass. Breathe (Sheff). 2015 11:297301.Google Scholar
Hegewald, MJ, Crapo, RO. Respiratory physiology in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 2011 32(1):113.Google Scholar
Koumbourlis, AC. Lung function in sickle cell disease. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014 15:33–7.Google Scholar
Klings, ES, Wyszynski, DF, Nolan, VG, Steinberg, MH. Abnormal pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell anemia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 173:1264–9.Google Scholar
Field, JJ, Glassberg, J, Gilmore, A, et al. Longitudinal analysis of pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2008 83:574–6.Google Scholar
Santoli, F, Zerah, F, Vasile, N, et al. Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome. European Respiratory Journal. 1998 12:1124–9.Google Scholar
Santoli, F, Zerah, F, Vasile, N, et al. Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome. Eur Respir J. 1998 12:1124–9.Google Scholar
Oteng-Ntim, E, Howard, J. Green-top Guideline No. 61: Management of sickle cell disease in pregnancy. 2011. Available at: www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_61.pdf (Accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Paul, RN, Castro, OL, Aggarwal, A, Oneal, PA. Acute chest syndrome: sickle cell disease. Eur J Haematol. 2011 87:191207.Google Scholar
Morris, C, Vichinsky, E, Styles, L. Clinician assessment for acute chest syndrome in febrile patients with sickle cell disease: is it accurate enough? Ann Emerg Med. 1999 34:64–9.Google Scholar
Castro, O, Brambilla, DJ, Thorington, B, et al. The acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: incidence and risk factors. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. Blood. 1994 84:643–9.Google Scholar
Alabdulaali, MK. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes. Ann Thorac Med. 2007 2:158–62.Google Scholar
Resende Cardoso, PS, Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, RA, Viana, MB. Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2014 36:256–63.Google Scholar
Oteng-Ntim, E, Ayensah, B, Knight, M, Howard, J. Pregnancy outcome in patients with sickle cell disease in the UK – a national cohort study comparing sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) with HbSC disease. Br J Haematol. 2015 169:129–37.Google Scholar
Okusanya, BO, Oladapo, OT. Prophylactic versus selective blood transfusion for sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 (12):CD010378.Google Scholar
Asnani, MR, McCaw-Binns, AM, Reid, ME. Excess risk of maternal death from sickle cell disease in Jamaica: 1998–2007. PLoS One. 2011 6:e26281.Google Scholar
Cecchini, J, Fartoukh, M. Sickle cell disease in the ICU. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2015 21:569–75.Google Scholar
Nomura, RM, Igai, AM, Tosta, K, et al. Acute chest syndrome in pregnant women with hemoglobin SC disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009 64:927–8.Google Scholar
Ballas, SK, Gupta, K, Adams-Graves, P. Sickle cell pain: a critical reappraisal. Blood. 2012 120:3647–56.Google Scholar
Howard, J, Hart, N, Roberts-Harewood, M, et al. Guideline on the management of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2015 169:492505.Google Scholar
Caboot, JB, Jawad, AF, McDonough, JM, et al. Non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012 47:808–15.Google Scholar
Cook, JV, Kyriou, J. Radiation from CT and perfusion scanning in pregnancy. Br Med J. 2005 331:350.Google Scholar
Wan, T, Skeith, L, Karovitch, A, Rodger, M, Le Gal, G. Guidance for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: consensus and controversies. Thromb Res. 2017 157:23–8.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Paidas, M, Khalil, H, Rosene-Montella, K, Rodger, M. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Lancet. 2010 375:500–12.Google Scholar
Dang, NC, Johnson, C, Eslami-Farsani, M, Haywood, LJ. Bone marrow embolism in sickle cell disease: a review. Am J Hematol. 2005 79:61–7.Google Scholar
Mekontso Dessap, A, Deux, JF, Habibi, A, et al. Lung imaging during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: computed tomography patterns and diagnostic accuracy of bedside chest radiograph. Thorax. 2014 69:144–51.Google Scholar
Lisbona, R, Derbekyan, V, Novales-Diaz, JA. Scintigraphic evidence of pulmonary vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease. J Nucl Med. 1997 38:1151–3.Google Scholar
Bhalla, M, Abboud, MR, McLoud, TC, et al. Acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: CT evidence of microvascular occlusion. Radiology. 1993 187:45–9.Google Scholar
Marti-Carvajal, AJ, Conterno, LO, Knight-Madden, JM. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 (3):CD006110.Google Scholar
Gelfand, MJ, Daya, SA, Rucknagel, DL, Kalinyak, KA, Paltiel, HJ. Simultaneous occurrence of rib infarction and pulmonary infiltrates in sickle cell disease patients with acute chest syndrome. J Nucl Med. 1993 34:614–18.Google Scholar
Davis, BA, Allard, S, Qureshi, A, et al. Guidelines on red cell transfusion in sickle cell disease Part II: indications for transfusion. Br J Haematol. 2017 176:192209.Google Scholar
Bellet, PS, Kalinyak, KA, Shukla, R, Gelfand, MJ, Rucknagel, DL. Incentive spirometry to prevent acute pulmonary complications in sickle cell diseases. N Engl J Med. 1995 333:699703.Google Scholar
Canadian Haemoglobinopathy Association. Consensus statement on the care of patients with sickle cell disease in Canada. Version 2.0. https://sicklecellanemia.ca/pdf_2016/CANHAEM.pdf (Accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Yawn, BP, Buchanan, GR, Afenyi-Annan, AN, et al. Management of sickle cell disease: summary of the 2014 evidence-based report by expert panel members. J Am Med Assoc. 2014 312:1033–48.Google Scholar
Mehta, N, Chen, K, Hardy, E, Powrie, R. Respiratory disease in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015 29:598611.Google Scholar
Dastgiri, S, Dolatkhah, R. Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 (8):CD007843.Google Scholar
Malinowski, AK, Shehata, N, D’Souza, R, et al. Prophylactic transfusion for pregnant women with sickle cell disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2015 126:2424–35.Google Scholar
Gladwin, MT, Kato, GJ. Cardiopulmonary complications of sickle cell disease: role of nitric oxide and hemolytic anemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2005 :51–7.Google Scholar
Maitre, B, Djibre, M, Katsahian, S, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute chest syndrome in adult sickle cell patients: a randomized controlled study. Intensive Care Med. 2015 41:2121–9.Google Scholar
Oppert, M, Jorres, A, Barckow, D, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for ARDS due to sickle cell disease. Swiss Med Wkly. 2004 134:165–7.Google Scholar
Atz, AM, Wessel, DL. Inhaled nitric oxide in sickle cell disease with acute chest syndrome. Anesthesiology. 1997 87:988–90.Google Scholar
Mehari, A, Klings, ES. Chronic pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease. Chest. 2016 149:1313–24.Google Scholar
Klings, ES, Machado, RF, Barst, RJ, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline: diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of pulmonary hypertension of sickle cell disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 189:727–40.Google Scholar
Mehari, A, Alam, S, Tian, X, et al. Hemodynamic predictors of mortality in adults with sickle cell disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 187:840–7.Google Scholar
Forfia, PR, Vachiery, JL. Echocardiography in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2012 110:16S-24S.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, M, Fagan, K, Herbert, DE, et al. Misclassification of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle hemoglobinopathies using Doppler echocardiography. South Med J. 2012 105:300–5.Google Scholar
Parent, F, Bachir, D, Inamo, J, et al. A hemodynamic study of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2011 365:4453.Google Scholar
Burlingame, JM, Yamasato, K, Ahn, HJ, Seto, T, Tang, WHW. B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiography reflect volume changes during pregnancy. J Perinat Med. 2017 45:577–83.Google Scholar
Ker, JA, Soma-Pillay, P. NT-proBNP: When is it useful in obstetric medicine? Obstet Med. 2017 11(1):3-5.Google Scholar
Sahni, S, Palkar, AV, Rochelson, BL, Kepa, W, Talwar, A. Pregnancy and pulmonary arterial hypertension: a clinical conundrum. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2015 5:157–64.Google Scholar
Gei, A, Montufar-Rueda, C. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy: an overview. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2014 57:806–26.Google Scholar
Monagle, J, Manikappa, S, Ingram, B, Malkoutzis, V. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy: the experience of a tertiary institution over 15 years. Ann Card Anaesth. 2015 18:153–60.Google Scholar
Al-Balas, M, Bozzo, P, Einarson, A. Use of diuretics during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician. 2009 55:44–5.Google Scholar
Venkata, C, Venkateshiah, SB. Sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 22:158–68.Google Scholar
Bates, SM, Middeldorp, S, Rodger, M, James, AH, Greer, I. Guidance for the treatment and prevention of obstetric-associated venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016 41:92128.Google Scholar
Bates, SM, Greer, IA, Middeldorp, S, et al. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012 141(2 Suppl):e691S-736S.Google Scholar
Canadian Haemoglobinopathy Association. Contraception, Pre-Conception Couseling, and Pregnancy. In: Consensus Statement on the Care of Patients with sickle cell disease in Canada. Version 2.0. 2015:8891. http://sicklecellanemia.ca/pdf_2016/CANHAEM.pdf. (Accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute – Division of Blood Diseases and Resources. The management of sickle cell disease (4th edn). www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/sc_mngt.pdf. (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Naik, RP, Streiff, MB, Haywood, C Jr, Nelson, JA, Lanzkron, S. Venous thromboembolism in adults with sickle cell disease: a serious and under-recognized complication. Am J Med. 2013 126:443–9.Google Scholar
Novelli, EM, Huynh, C, Gladwin, MT, Moore, CG, Ragni, MV. Pulmonary embolism in sickle cell disease: a case-control study. J Thromb Haemost. 2012 10:760–6.Google Scholar
Mekontso Dessap, A, Deux, JF, Abidi, N, et al. Pulmonary artery thrombosis during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 184:1022–9.Google Scholar
Seaman, CD, Yabes, J, Li, J, Moore, CG, Ragni, MV. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: a retrospective database analysis. Thromb Res. 2014 134:1249–52.Google Scholar
Sparkenbaugh, E, Pawlinski, R. Prothrombotic aspects of sickle cell disease. J Thromb Haemost. 2017 15:1307–16.Google Scholar
Nelson-Piercy, C, MacCallum, P, Mackillop, L, Radcliffe, J. Green-top Guideline No. 37a: Reducing the Risk of Thrombosis and Embolism During Pregnancy and the Puerperium. 2015. www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg-37a.pdf (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Paidas, M, Khalil, H, Rosene-Montella, K, Rodger, M. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Lancet. 2010 375:500–12.Google Scholar
Chan, WS, Rey, E, Kent, NE, et al. Venous thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 36:527–53.Google Scholar
James, A, Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice bulletin no. 123: thromboembolism in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 118(3):718–29.Google Scholar
Horlocker, TT, Vandermeuelen, E, Kopp, SL, Gogarten, W, Leffert, LR, Benzon, HT. Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy: American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Fourth Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018 43:263309.Google Scholar
Malinowski, AK, Bomba-Opon, D, Parrish, J, Sarzynska, U, Farine, D. Venous thromboembolism in obese pregnant women: approach to diagnosis and management. Ginekol Pol. 2017 88:453–9.Google Scholar
Morris, CR. Asthma management: reinventing the wheel in sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2009 84:234–41.Google Scholar
Knight-Madden, J, Greenough, A. Acute pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014 15:13–16.Google Scholar
Field, JJ, DeBaun, MR. Asthma and sickle cell disease: two distinct diseases or part of the same process? Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2009:4553.Google Scholar
Cohen, RT, Madadi, A, Blinder, MA, et al. Recurrent, severe wheezing is associated with morbidity and mortality in adults with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2011 86:756–61.Google Scholar
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. 2007. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/asthsumm.pdf (accessed November 2019).Google Scholar
Akinsheye, I, Alsultan, A, Solovieff, N, et al. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia. Blood. 2011 118:1927.Google Scholar
[No authors listed]. Practice bulletin no. 145: antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 124:182–92.Google Scholar
Alfirevic, Z, Stampalija, T, Dowswell, T. Fetal and umbilical Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 6:CD007529.Google Scholar
Mari, G, Hanif, F, Kruger, M, et al. Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity: a new Doppler parameter in the assessment of growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 29:310–16.Google Scholar
National Toxicology Program (NTP), Center for Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Hydroxyurea. NIH Publication No. 08 – 5993. 2008. ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/hydroxyurea/humonograph20090401.pdf (accessed December 2019).Google Scholar

References

GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators, Forouzanfar, MH, Alexander, L, et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015 386(10010):2287–323.Google Scholar
Louis, J, Auckley, D, Miladinovic, B, et al. Perinatal outcomes associated with obstructive sleep apnea in obese pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 120:1085–92.Google Scholar
Louis, JM, Mogos, MF, Salemi, JL, Redline, S, Salihu, HM. Obstructive sleep apnea and severe maternal-infant morbidity/mortality in the United States, 1998–2009. Sleep. 2014 37:843–9.Google Scholar
Pien, GW, Pack, AI, Jackson, N, et al. Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in pregnancy. Thorax. 2014 69:371–7.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Parker, CB, Reddy, UM, et al. Association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 129:3141.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Raker, CA, Chalhoub, M, Miller, MA. Pregnancy and fetal outcomes of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing. Eur Respir J. 2010 36:849–55.Google Scholar
O’Brien, LM, Bullough, AS, Owusu, JT, et al. Pregnancy-onset habitual snoring, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia: prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 207(6):487.e19.Google Scholar
Tantrakul, V, Sirijanchune, P, Panburana, P, et al. Screening of obstructive sleep apnea during pregnancy: differences in predictive values of questionnaires across trimesters. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 11:157–63.Google Scholar
Kapsimalis, F, Kryger, MH. Gender and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, part 1: clinical features. Sleep. 2002 25:412–19.Google Scholar
Pien, GW, Fife, D, Pack, AI, Nkwuo, JE, Schwab, RJ. Changes in symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. Sleep. 2005 28:1299–305.Google Scholar
Bin, YS, Cistulli, PA, Ford, JB. Population-based study of sleep apnea in pregnancy and maternal and infant outcomes. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 12:871–7.Google Scholar
Chen, YH, Kang, JH, Lin, CC, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 206(2)136.e15.Google Scholar
Pamidi, S, Pinto, LM, Marc, I, et al. Maternal sleep-disordered breathing and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 210(1):52e1-e14.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Danilack, VA, Bublitz, MH, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal outcomes: a national cohort. Sleep Med. 2017 38:50–7.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G. Sleep disorders in pregnancy. Obstet Med. 2009 2:100–6.Google Scholar
Izci, B, Vennelle, M, Liston, WA, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and upper airway size in pregnancy and post-partum. Eur Respir J. 2006 27:321–7.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Ankner, G, Mohsenin, V. Sleep-disordered breathing in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 2011 32(1):175–89.Google Scholar
Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy. Washington, DC. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2013.Google Scholar
Reid, J, Glew, RA, Skomro, R, et al. Sleep disordered breathing and gestational hypertension: postpartum follow-up study. Sleep. 2013 36(5):717-21B.Google Scholar
O’Brien, LM, Bullough, AS, Owusu, JT, et al. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. Sleep. 2013 36:1625–32.Google Scholar
Zaremba, S, Mueller, N, Heisig, AM, et al. Elevated upper body position improves pregnancy-related OSA without impairing sleep quality or sleep architecture early after delivery. Chest. 2015 148:936–44.Google Scholar
Champagne, K, Schwartzman, K, Opatrny, L, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea and its association with gestational hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2009 33:559–65.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Liu, CS, Cabello, AA, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing: a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes? Am J Perinatol. 2012 29:277–82.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Ouyang, DW, Zee, PC, Grobman, WA. Sleep disordered breathing in a high-risk cohort prevalence and severity across pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 2014 31:899904.Google Scholar
Louis, JM, Auckley, D, Sokol, RJ, Mercer, BM. Maternal and neonatal morbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 202(3):261.e15.Google Scholar
O’Brien, LM, Bullough, AS, Chames, MC, et al. Hypertension, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnoea during pregnancy: a cohort study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 121:1685–93.Google Scholar
Reid, J, Skomro, R, Cotton, D, et al. Pregnant women with gestational hypertension may have a high frequency of sleep disordered breathing. Sleep. 2011 34:1033–8.Google Scholar
Xu, T, Feng, Y, Peng, H, Guo, D, Li, T. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Sci Rep. 2014 4:6982.Google Scholar
Nieto, FJ, Young, TB, Lind, BK, et al. Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study: Sleep Heart Health Study. J Am Med Assoc. 2000 283:1829–36.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Ouyang, DW, Zee, PC, et al. Implications of sleep-disordered breathing in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 210(6):559.e16.Google Scholar
Lockhart, EM, Ben Abdallah, A, Tuuli, MG, Leighton, BL. Obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy: assessment of current screening tools. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 126:93102.Google Scholar
Milne, F, Redman, C, Walker, J, et al. The pre-eclampsia community guideline (PRECOG): how to screen for and detect onset of pre-eclampsia in the community. Br Med J. 2005 330:576–80.Google Scholar
Lisonkova, S, Joseph, KS. Incidence of preeclampsia: risk factors and outcomes associated with early- versus late-onset disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 209(6):544.e1e12.Google Scholar
Roberts, CL, Ford, JB, Algert, CS, et al. Population-based trends in pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia: an international comparative study. BMJ Open. 2011 1(1):e000101.Google Scholar
Say, L, Chou, D, Gemmill, A, et al. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 2:e323-33.Google Scholar
Smith, GN, Pudwell, J, Walker, M, Wen, SW. Ten-year, thirty-year, and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk estimates following a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 34:830–5.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Mazer, J, Paglia, MJ. Outcomes of sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy. Open Sleep J. 2013 6:2836.Google Scholar
Khan, N, Lambert-Messerlian, G, Monteiro, JF, et al. Oxidative and carbonyl stress in pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2017 22(1):233-40.Google Scholar
Ravishankar, S, Bourjeily, G, Lambert-Messerlian, G, et al. Evidence of placental hypoxia in maternal sleep disordered breathing. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2015 18:380–6.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Butterfield, K, Curran, P, Lambert-Messerlian, G. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with alterations in markers of fetoplacental wellbeing. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015 28:262–6.Google Scholar
Blyton, DM, Skilton, MR, Edwards, N, et al. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. Sleep. 2013 36:1521.Google Scholar
O’Brien, LM. Positive airway pressure as a therapy for preeclampsia? Sleep. 2013 36:56.Google Scholar
Dunietz, GL, Chervin, RD, O’Brien, LM. Sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy: future implications for cardiovascular health. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2014 69:164–76.Google Scholar
Marin, JM, Carrizo, SJ, Vicente, E, Agusti, AG. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. Lancet. 2005 365:1046–53.Google Scholar
Haas, DM, Ehrenthal, DB, Koch, MA, et al. Pregnancy as a window to future cardiovascular health: design and implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 183:519–30.Google Scholar
Zollner, J, Curry, R, Johnson, M. The contribution of heart disease to maternal mortality. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2013 25:91–7.Google Scholar
Bisson, M, Series, F, Giguere, Y, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus and sleep-disordered breathing. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 123:634–41.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Grobman, WA, Reid, KJ, et al. Objectively measured short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint in pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 217(4):447.e113.Google Scholar
Reutrakul, S, Zaidi, N, Wroblewski, K, et al. Interactions between pregnancy, obstructive sleep apnea, and gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 98:4195–202.Google Scholar
Bublitz, MH, Monteiro, JF, Caraganis, A, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in gestational diabetes: a pilot study of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 14(1):87-93.Google Scholar
Izci-Balserak, B, Pien, GW. The relationship and potential mechanistic pathways between sleep disturbances and maternal hyperglycemia. Curr Diab Rep. 2014 14:459.Google Scholar
Martinez-Ceron, E, Fernandez-Navarro, I, Garcia-Rio, F. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glucose metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med Rev. 2016 25:121–30.Google Scholar
Palmer, SK, Moore, LG, Young, D, et al. Altered blood pressure course during normal pregnancy and increased preeclampsia at high altitude (3100 meters) in Colorado. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 180:1161–8.Google Scholar
Keyes, LE, Armaza, JF, Niermeyer, S, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and intrauterine mortality at high altitude in Bolivia. Pediatr Res. 2003 54:20–5.Google Scholar
Genbacev, O, Joslin, R, Damsky, CH, Polliotti, BM, Fisher, SJ. Hypoxia alters early gestation human cytotrophoblast differentiation/invasion in vitro and models the placental defects that occur in preeclampsia. J Clin Invest. 1996 97:540–50.Google Scholar
Adelman, DM, Gertsenstein, M, Nagy, A, Simon, MC, Maltepe, E. Placental cell fates are regulated in vivo by HIF-mediated hypoxia responses. Genes Dev. 2000 14:3191–203.Google Scholar
Ding, XX, Wu, YL, Xu, SJ, et al. A systematic review and quantitative assessment of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Sleep Breath. 2014 18:703–13.Google Scholar
Felder, JN, Baer, RJ, Rand, L, Jelliffe-Pawlowski, LL, Prather, AA. Sleep disorder diagnosis during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 130:573–81.Google Scholar
Facco, FL, Ouyang, DW, Zee, PC, Grobman, WA. Development of a pregnancy-specific screening tool for sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012 8:389–94.Google Scholar
Olivarez, SA, Maheshwari, B, McCarthy, M, et al. Prospective trial on obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy and fetal heart rate monitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 202(6):552.e17.Google Scholar
Antony, KM, Agrawal, A, Arndt, ME, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy: reliability of prevalence and prediction estimates. J Perinatol. 2014 34:587–93.Google Scholar
Tantrakul, V, Numthavaj, P, Guilleminault, C, et al. Performance of screening questionnaires for obstructive sleep apnea during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2017 36:96106.Google Scholar
Cooksey, JA, Balachandran, JS. Portable monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA. Chest. 2016 149:1074–81.Google Scholar
O’Brien, LM, Bullough, AS, Shelgikar, AV, et al. Validation of Watch-PAT-200 against polysomnography during pregnancy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012 8:287–94.Google Scholar
Sharkey, KM, Waters, K, Millman, RP, et al. Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) device against laboratory polysomnography in pregnant women at risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 10:497502.Google Scholar
Ghegan, MD, Angelos, PC, Stonebraker, AC, Gillespie, MB. Laboratory versus portable sleep studies: a meta-analysis. Laryngoscope. 2006 116:859–64.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Fung, JY, Sharkey, KM, et al. Airflow limitations in pregnant women suspected of sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2014 15:550–5.Google Scholar
Bourjeily, G, Raker, C, Chalhoub, M, Miller, M. Excessive daytime sleepiness in late pregnancy may not always be normal: results from a cross-sectional study. Sleep Breath. 2013 17:735–40.Google Scholar
Ip, MS, Tse, HF, Lam, B, Tsang, KW, Lam, WK. Endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnea and response to treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 169:348–53.Google Scholar
Ciccone, MM, Favale, S, Scicchitano, P, et al. Reversibility of the endothelial dysfunction after CPAP therapy in OSAS patients. Int J Cardiol. 2012 158:383–6.Google Scholar
Montesi, SB, Edwards, BA, Malhotra, A, Bakker, JP. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012 8:587–96.Google Scholar
McEvoy, RD, Antic, NA, Heeley, E, et al. CPAP for prevention of cardiovascular events in obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2016 375:919–31.Google Scholar
Abuzaid, AS, Al Ashry, HS, Elbadawi, A, et al. Meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcomes with continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Cardiol. 2017 120:693–9.Google Scholar
Blyton, DM, Sullivan, CE, Edwards, N. Reduced nocturnal cardiac output associated with preeclampsia is minimized with the use of nocturnal nasal CPAP. Sleep. 2004 27:7984.Google Scholar
Mhyre, JM, Riesner, MN, Polley, LS, Naughton, NN. A series of anesthesia-related maternal deaths in Michigan, 1985–2003. Anesthesiology. 2007 106:1096–104.Google Scholar
American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Practice guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on perioperative management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology. 2014 120(2):268–86.Google Scholar
[No authors listed] Practice guidelines for the prevention, detection, and management of respiratory depression associated with neuraxial opioid administration: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on neuraxial opioids and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Anesthesiology. 2016 124(3)535–52.Google Scholar
Fernandez-Bustamante, A, Bartels, K, Clavijo, C, et al. Preoperatively screened obstructive sleep apnea is associated with worse postoperative outcomes than previously diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea. Anesth Analg. 2017 125:593602.Google Scholar

References

Lapinsky, SE. Management of acute respiratory failure in pregnancy. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 38:201–7.Google Scholar
Pollock, W, Rose, L, Dennis, C-L. Pregnant and postpartum admissions to the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med. 2010 36:1465–74.Google Scholar
Ashbaugh, DG, Bigelow, DB, Petty, TL, Levine, BE. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet. 1967 2:319–23.Google Scholar
Levine, BE. Fifty years of research in ARDS. ARDS: How it all began. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 196:1247–8.Google Scholar
Bernard, GR, Artigas, A, Brigham, KL, et al. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994 149:818–24.Google Scholar
Ware, LB, Matthay, MA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. New Engl J Med. 2000 342:1334–49.Google Scholar
Rubenfeld, GD, Caldwell, E, Granton, JT, et al. Interobserver variability in applying a radiographic definition for ARDS. Chest. 1999 116:1347–53.Google Scholar
Meade, MO, Cook, RJ, Guyatt, GH, et al. Interobserver variation in interpreting chest radiographs for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 161:8590.Google Scholar
Schwarz, MI, Albert, RK. ‘Imitators of the ARDS’ Implications for diagnosis and treatment. Chest. 2004 125:1530–5.Google Scholar
Ranieri, VM, Rubenfeld, GD, Thompson, BT, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. J Am Med Assoc. 2012 307:2526–33.Google Scholar
Luhr, OR, Antonsen, K, Karlsson, M, et al. Incidence and mortality after acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland. The ARF Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 159:1849–61.Google Scholar
Hudson, LD, Milberg, JA, Anardi, D. Clinical risks for development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1995 151:293.Google Scholar
Esteban, A, Anzueto, A, Frutos, F, et al. Characteristics and outcomes in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a 28-day international study. J Am Med Assoc. 2002 287:345–55.Google Scholar
Parhar, K, Zjadewicz, K, Soo, A, et al. Epidemiology, mechanical power, and 3-year outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients using standardized screening: an observational cohort study. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019 16(10):1263–72.Google Scholar
Catanzarite, V, Willms, D, Wong, D, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy and the puerperium: causes, courses, and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 97:760–4.Google Scholar
Perry, KG, Martin, RW, Blake, PG, et al. Maternal mortality associated with adult respiratory distress syndrome. South Med J. 1998 91:441–4.Google Scholar
Vasquez, DN, Estenssoro, E, Canales, HS, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of obstetric patients requiring ICU admission. Chest. 2007 131:718–24.Google Scholar
Rush, B, Martinka, P, Kilb, B, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 129:530–5.Google Scholar
Villar, J, Blanco, J, Anon, JM et al. The ALIEN study: incidence and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the era of lung protective ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 2011 37:1932–41.Google Scholar
Bellani, G, Laffey, JG, Phan, T, et al. Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries. J Am Med Assoc. 2016 315:788800.Google Scholar
Mendelson, CL. The aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1946 52:191205.Google Scholar
Cole, DE, Taylor, TL, McCullough, DM, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 33(10 Suppl):S269-78.Google Scholar
Cunningham, FG, Lucas, MJ, Hankins, GD. Pulmonary injury complicating antepartum pyelonephritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987 156:797807.Google Scholar
Hill, JB, Sheffield, JS, McIntire, DD, et al: Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 105:1823.Google Scholar
Wing, DA, Fassett, MJ, Getahun, D. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy: an 18-year retrospective analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 210(3):219.e16.Google Scholar
Siston, AM, Rasmussen, SA, Honein, MA, et al. Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States. J Am Med Assoc. 2010 303:1517–25.Google Scholar
Jamieson, DJ, Honein, MA, Rasmussen, SA, et al. H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during pregnancy in the USA. Lancet. 2009 374:451–8.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, SA, Jamieson, DJ. Influenza and pregnancy in the United States: before, during and after 2009 H1N1. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2012 55:487–97.Google Scholar
Kramer, MS, Roulea, J, Liu, S, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism: incidence, risk factors, and impact on perinatal outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012 119:874–9.Google Scholar
Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine, Pacheco, L. Saade, G, Hankins, G, Clark, SL. Amniotic fluid embolism: diagnosis and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 215(2):B16-24.Google Scholar
Pisani, RJ, Rosenow, EC. Pulmonary edema associated with tocolytic therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1989 110:714–18.Google Scholar
Elicker, BM, Jones, KT, Naeger, DM, Frank, JA. Imaging of acute lung injury. Radiol Clin NA. 2016 54:1119–32.Google Scholar
Pesenti, A, Musch, G, Lichtenstein, D, et al. Imaging in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2016 42:686–98.Google Scholar
Arbelot, C, Ferrari, F, Bouhemad, B, Rouby, JJ. Lung ultrasound in acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008 14:70–4.Google Scholar
Levitt, JE, Vinayak, AG, Gehlbach, BK, et al. Diagnostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in critically ill patients with pulmonary edema: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2008 12(1):R3.Google Scholar
Ker, JA, Soma-Pillay, P. NT-proBNP: when is it useful in obstetric medicine? Obstet Med. 2018 11:35.Google Scholar
Barton, JR, Sibai, BM. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 120:689706.Google Scholar
Plante, LA. Management of sepsis and septic shock for the obstetrician-gynecologist. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2016 659–78.Google Scholar
Longo, D, Stevens, DL, Bryant, AE. Necrotizing soft tissue infections. New Engl J Med. 2017 377:2253–65.Google Scholar
Kumar, A, Roberts, D, Wood, KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 34:1589–96.Google Scholar
Seymour, CW, Gesten, F, Prescott, HC, et al. Time to treatment and mortality during mandated emergency care for sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2017 376:2235–44.Google Scholar
Liu, VX, Fielding-Singh, V, Greene, JD, et al. The timing of early antibiotics and hospital mortality in sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 196:856–63.Google Scholar
Semler, MV, Wheeler, AP, Thompson, BT, et al. Impact of initial central venous pressure on outcomes of conservative versus liberal fluid management in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2016 44:782–9.Google Scholar
Fan, E, Brodie, D, Slutsky, AS. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: advances in diagnosis and treatment. J Am Med Assoc. 2018 319(7):698710.Google Scholar
Spoletini, G, Alotaibi, M, Blasi, F, Hill, NS. Heated humidified high-flow nasal oxygen in adults: mechanisms of action and clinical implications. Chest. 2015 148:253–61.Google Scholar
Rello, J, Pérez, M, Roca, O, et al. High-flow nasal therapy in adults with severe acute respiratory infection: a cohort study in patients with 2009 influenza A/H1N1. J Crit Care. 2012 27:434.Google Scholar
Messika, J, Ben Ahmed, K, Gaudry, S, et al. Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in subjects with ARDS: a 1-year observational study. Respir Care. 2015 60(2):162.Google Scholar
Frat, J-P, Thille, AW, Mercat, A, et al. High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2015 372:2185–96.Google Scholar
Kang, BJ, Koh, Y, Lim, CM, et al. Failure of high-flow nasal cannula therapy may delay intubation and increase mortality. Intensive Care Med. 2015 41(4):623.Google Scholar
Nava, S, Schreiber, A, Domenighetti, G. Noninvasive ventilation for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respir Care. 2011 56:1583–8.Google Scholar
Bellani, G, Laffey, JG, Pham, T, et al. Noninvasive ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: insights from the LUNG SAFE Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 195:6777.Google Scholar
Frassanito, L, Draisci, G, Pinto, R, Maggiore, SM. Successful application of helmet non-invasive ventilation in a parturient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Minerva Anestiol. 2011 77:1121–3.Google Scholar
Djibre, M, Berkane, N, Salengro, A et al. Non-invasive management of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in a pregnant woman. Intensive Care Med. 2010 36:373–4.Google Scholar
Thompson, BT, Chambers, RC, Liu, KD. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. New Engl J Med. 2017 377:562–72.Google Scholar
Gattinoni, L, Pesenti, A. The concept of ‘baby lung’. Intensive Care Med. 2005 31:776–84.Google Scholar
Baillard, C, Fosse, J-P, Sebbane, M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation improves oxygenation before intubation of hypoxic patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 174:171–7.Google Scholar
Simon, M, Wachs, C, Braune, S, et al. High-flow nasal cannula versus bag-valve-mask ventilation for preoxygenation before intubation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Respir Care. 2016 61:1160–7.Google Scholar
Mushambi, MC, Kinsella, SM, Popat, M, et al. Obstetric Anaesthetists’ Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Anaesthesia. 2015 70(11):1286–306.Google Scholar
Pham, T, Brochard, L, Slutsky, AS. Mechanical ventilation: state of the art. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 92:1382–400.Google Scholar
Meduri, GU, Headley, AS, Golden, E, et al. Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc. 1998 2802:159–65.Google Scholar
Steinberg, KP, Hudson, LD, Goodman, RB, et al. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2006 354(16):1671–84.Google Scholar
Tang, BM, Craig, JC, Eslick, GD, et al. Use of corticosteroids in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2009 37(5):1594–603.Google Scholar
Peter, JV, John, P, Graham, PL, Moran, JL, et al. Corticosteroids in the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults: meta-analysis. Br Med J. 2008 336:1006–9.Google Scholar
Brun-Buisson, C, Richard, JC, Mercat, A, et al. Early corticosteroids in severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 183(9):1200–6.Google Scholar
Taylor, RW, Zimmerman, JL, Dellinger, RP, et al. Low-dose inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute lung injury: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2004 291:1603–9.Google Scholar
Afshari, A, Brok, J, Møller, AM, Wetterslev, J. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 (7):CD002787.Google Scholar
Gebistorf, F, Karam, O, Wetterslev, J, Afshari, A. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 (6):CD002787.Google Scholar
ANZIC Influenza Investigators and Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant and postpartum women: population based cohort study. Br Med J. 2010 340:c1279.Google Scholar
Patroniti, N, Zangrillo, A, Pappalardo, F, et al. The Italian ECMO network experience during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic: preparation for severe respiratory emergency outbreaks. Intensive Care Med. 2011 37:1447–57.Google Scholar
Nair, P, Davies, AR, Beca, J, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe ARDS in pregnant and postpartum women during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37(4):648–54.Google Scholar
Pham, T, Combes, A, Roze, H, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pandemic influenza A(H1N1)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome: a cohort study and propensity-matched analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 187(3):276–85.Google Scholar
Saad, AF, Rahman, M, Maybauer, DM, et al. Extracorporeal oxygenation in pregnant and post partum women with H1N1-related acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 127:241–7.Google Scholar
Moore, SA, Dietl, CA, Coleman, DM. Extracorporeal life support during pregnancy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 151:1154–60.Google Scholar
Herridge, MS, Tansey, CM, Matté, A, et al. Functional disability 5 years after acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2011 364:1293–304.Google Scholar
Chiumello, D, Coppola, S, Frojo, S, et al. What’s next after ARDS: long term outcomes. Respir Care. 2016 61:689–99.Google Scholar
Furuta, M, Sandall, J, Bick, D. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012 12:125.Google Scholar

References

Noppen, M, De Waele, M, Li, R, et al. Volume and cellular content of normal pleural fluid in humans examined by pleural lavage. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 162(3 Pt 1):1023–6.Google Scholar
Miserocchi, G. Physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid turnover. Eur Resp J. 1997 10(1):219–25.Google Scholar
Light, RW, Macgreggor, MI, Luchsinger, PC, et al. Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates. Ann Intern Med. 1972 77:508–13.Google Scholar
Hessen, I: Roentgen examination of pleural fluid: a study of the localization of free effusions, the potentialities of diagnosing minimal quantities of fluid and its existence under physiological conditions. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1951 86:1-80.Google Scholar
Hughson, WG, Friedman, PJ, Feigin, DS, et al. Postpartum pleural effusion: a common radiologic finding. Ann Intern Med. 1982 97:856–8.Google Scholar
Wallis, MG, McHugo, JM, Carruthers, DA et al: The prevalence of pleural effusions in pre-eclampsia: an ultrasound study. Br J Med. 1989 96(4):431–3.Google Scholar
Doust, BD, Baum, JK, Maklad, NF, et al: Ultrasonic evaluation of pleural opacities. Radiology. 1975 114:135.Google Scholar
Derrulle, P, Coudoux, E, Ego, A, HoufflinDebarge, V, et al. Risk factors for post-partum complications occurring after preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome: a study in 453 consecutive pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 125:5965.Google Scholar
Munnur, U, Bandi, V, Guntupalli, KK. Management principles of the critically ill obstetric patient. Clin Chest Med. 2011 32:5360.Google Scholar
Gray, G, Nelson-Piercy, C. Thromboembolic disorders in obstetrics. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2012 26:53–6.Google Scholar
Liu, M, Cui, A, Zhai, Z, et al. Incidence of pleural effusion in patients with pulmonary embolism. Clin Med J. 2015 128(8):1032–6.Google Scholar
Porcel, JM, Light, RW. Pleural effusions due to pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2008 14(4):337–42.Google Scholar
Lim, WS, Macfarlane, JT, Colthorpe, CL. Pneumonia and pregnancy. Thorax. 2001 56(5):398405.Google Scholar
Madoff, S, Hopper, DC. Nongenitourinary infections caused by mycoplasma hominus in adults. Rev Infect Dis. 1988 10(3):602-13.Google Scholar
Hughes, E, Hodder, RV. Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis complicating pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1987 32:553.Google Scholar
Tornling, G, Axelsson, G, Peterffy, A: Chylothorax as a complication after delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1987 66:381.Google Scholar
Hamman, L. Spontaneous interstitial mediastinal emphysema of the lungs. Tr Assoc Am Physicians. 1937 52:311–19.Google Scholar
Abdulmalak, C, Cottenet, J, Beltramo, G, et al. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database. Eur Respir J. 2015 46(2):503–11.Google Scholar
Zhang, W, Liu, B, Wu, J. Hemoptysis as primary manifestation in three women with choriocarcinoma with pulmonary metastasis: a case series. J Med Case Rep. 2017 11:110.Google Scholar
Brinton, LA, Bracken, MB, Connelly, RR. Choriocarcinoma incidence in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1986 123(6):1094–100.Google Scholar
Xiang, Y, Song, H. Trophoblastic Neoplasia, 3rd edn. Beijing: Peoples Health Publishing House. 2011:183–7.Google Scholar
Li, J, Yang, J, Liu, P, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of 272 postterm choriocarcinoma patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2016 347:1119.Google Scholar
Lee, TD Fontaine, P, Leeman, L, et al .Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008 77:1709.Google Scholar
Cohoon, KP, Leibson, CL, Ransom, JE, et al. Costs of venous thromboembolism associated with hospitalization for medical illness. Am J Manag Care. 2015 21:255–63.Google Scholar
Cohen, P. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pregnancy: potential adverse events and pregnancy outcomes. Int Womens Health. 2017 9:373–8.Google Scholar
De Gussem, EM, Lausman, AY, Beder, AJ, et al. Outcomes of pregnancy in women with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 123:514–20.Google Scholar
Erez, O. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in pregnancy – clinical phenotypes and diagnostic scores. Thromb Res. 2017 151(Suppl 1):S56-60.Google Scholar
Pieper, PG, Hoendermis, ES. Pregnancy in women with pulmonary hypertension. Neth Heart J. 2011 12: 504–8.Google Scholar
Hemnes, A, Keily, DG, Cockrill, BA, et al. Statement on pregnancy in pulmonary hypertension from the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute. Pulm Circ. 2015 5(3):435–65.Google Scholar
Daliento, L, Somerville, J, Presbitero, P, et al. Eisenmenger syndrome: factors relating to deterioration and death. Eur Heart J. 1998 12:1845–55.Google Scholar
Costa, AS, Noya, R, Calvo, TC, et al. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a case report. Rev Port Pneumol. 2005 11(6):573–86.Google Scholar
Peyrat, E, Chabbert, V, Escamilla, R, Saada, J, Degano, B. Idiopathic hemoptysis in pregnant women: a distinct entity? Respir Med. 2007 101:2221–3.Google Scholar
Larici, AR, Franchi, P, Occhipinti, M, et al. Diagnosis and management of hemoptysis. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2014 20(4):299309.Google Scholar
Muth, CM, Shank, S. Gas embolism. N Engl J Med. 2000 342:(7)476–82.Google Scholar
Hagen, PT, Scholz, DG, Edwards, WD. Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts. Mayo Clin Proc. 1984 59:17.Google Scholar
Mirski, MA, Lele, AV, Fitzsimmons, L, Toung, TJ. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism. Anesthesiology. 2007 106:164–77.Google Scholar
Lew, TW, Tay, DH, Thomas, E. Venous air embolism during cesarean section: more common than previously thought. Anesth Analg. 1993 77; 448–52.Google Scholar
Truhlar, A, Cerny, V, Dostal, P, et al. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from air embolism during sexual intercourse: case report and review of the literature. Resuscitation. 2007 73:475–84.Google Scholar
Hegde, HV, Rao, PR, Torgal, SV. Beware of administration of methylergometrine prior to uterine incision and delivery; venous air embolism during caesarean section. Trends in Anesthesia and Critical Care. 2011 1:111–14.Google Scholar
Chang, S, Liu, J, Kwan, J-Y, Shin, SK, Kim, KJ. Venous air embolism during surgery, especially cesarean delivery. J Korean Med Sci. 2008 23:753–61.Google Scholar