Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-qc52z Total loading time: 0.925 Render date: 2023-02-06T10:45:28.063Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

15 - Economic aspects of primate tourism associated with primate conservation

from Part V - Broader issues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2014

Glen T. Hvenegaard
Affiliation:
University of Alberta
Anne E. Russon
Affiliation:
Glendon College, York University
Janette Wallis
Affiliation:
University of Oklahoma
Get access

Summary

Introduction

This chapter considers primate tourism as a form of wildlife tourism, that is tourism based on encounters with non-domesticated animal species (Higginbottom, 2004), stressing encounters in their natural environment and intended to be non-consumptive. The rapid growth of wildlife tourism around the world is influenced by many different groups, including tourists, tour operators, local communities, conservation organizations, and governments. These groups are involved for a variety of motives, including recreational enjoyment, business development, community development, protection of wildlife and their habitats, and tax revenues.

All these motivations have economic aspects (Lindberg, 2001). Consider a few examples. Recreation enjoyment is substantial and can be valued monetarily; such benefits can rival or exceed those of other types of land uses. Tourist expenditures can stimulate local development, such as transportation or communications infrastructure, that can benefit local residents and tourists. Tourism revenues can raise funds for wildlife conservation projects, provide local residents with alternatives to less sustainable resource uses, and support governmental and non-governmental educational goals. Tourism-related businesses can support various levels of government by generating tax revenues, and businesses that receive tourist expenditures will, in turn, re-spend some of that money in the local region. Other economic benefits from wildlife tourism include local employment, industry stimulation, economic diversification, and infrastructure improvements (McNeely et al., 1991). On the other hand, economic costs result from wildlife tourism, notably in establishing and controlling tourist facilities and services. They may grow if, for example, tourist expenditures increase inflation or tourist activities harm the wildlife, natural habitats, or regions visited.

Type
Chapter
Information
Primate Tourism
A Tool for Conservation?
, pp. 259 - 277
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, W. M. and Infield, M. (1998). Community conservation at Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda. Working Paper, No. 10. Manchester, UK: Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
Adams, W. M. and Infield, M. (2003). Who is on the gorilla’s payroll? Claims on tourist revenue from a Ugandan National Park. World Development, 31: 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahebwa, W. M., van der Duim, R., and Sandbrook, C. (2012). Tourism revenue sharing policy at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: A policy arrangements approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20: 377–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, S. E. (1999). The role of Belize residents in the struggle to define ecotourism opportunities in monkey sanctuaries. Cultural Survival Quarterly, (summer): 21–23.Google Scholar
Alexander, S. E. (2000). Resident attitudes towards conservation and black howler monkeys in Belize: The Community Baboon Sanctuary. Environmental Conservation, 27: 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersson, P., Croné, S., Stage, J., and Stage, J. (2005). Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 21 (1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archabald, K. and Naughton-Treves, L. (2001). Tourism revenue-sharing around national parks in Western Uganda: Early efforts to identify and reward local communities. Environmental Conservation, 28: 135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aylward, B., Allen, K., Echeverria, J., and Tosi, J. (1996). Sustainable ecotourism in Costa Rica: The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5: 315–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergstrom, J. C., Stoll, J. R., Titre, J. P., and Wright, V. L. (1990). Economic value of wetlands-based recreation. Ecological Economics, 2: 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, C. M., Li, J. H., Ogawa, H., Ionica, C., and Yin, H. (2007). Primate tourism, range restriction, and infant risk among Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China. International Journal of Primatology, 28: 1123–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Block, B. (2009). Recession may hinder sustainable tourism. Worldwatch Institute Eye on Earth article. (accessed Mar. 18, 2009).Google Scholar
Blom, A. (2000). The monetary impact of tourism on protected area management and the local economy in Dzanga-Sangha (Central African Republic). Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8: 175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blom, A. (2001a). Potentials and pitfalls of tourism in Dzanga-Sangha. Gorilla Journal, 22: 40–41.Google Scholar
Blom, A. (2001b). Ecological and Economic Impacts of Gorilla-based Tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University.Google Scholar
Brown, M., Bonis-Charancle, J. M., Mogba, Z., Sundararajan, R., and Warne, R. (2008). Linking the Community Options Analysis and Investment Toolkit (COAIT), Consensys® and Payment for Environmental Services (PES): A model to promote sustainability in African gorilla conservation. In: Stoinski, T. S., Steklis, H.D., and Mehlman, P. T. (eds.) Conservation in the 21st Century. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 205–227.Google Scholar
Butynski, T. M. (1998). Is gorilla tourism sustainable?Gorilla Journal, 16: 15–19.Google Scholar
Butynski, T. M. and Kalina, J. (1998). Gorilla tourism: A critical look. In: Milner-Gullard, E. J and Mace, R. (eds.), Conservation of Biological Resources. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, pp. 294–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dabrowski, P. (1994). Tourism for conservation, conservation for tourism. Unasylva, 45: 42–44.Google Scholar
Dellatore, D. F. (2007). Behavioural Health of Reintroduced Orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Bukit Lawang, Sumatra Indonesia. UK: MSc thesis, Oxford Brookes.Google Scholar
Dixon, J. A. and Sherman, P. B. (1990). Economics of Protected Areas: A New Look at Benefits and Costs. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
Djoh, E. and van derWal, M. (2001). Gorilla-based tourism: A realistic source of community income in Cameroon? Case study of the villages of Koungoulou and Karagoua. Rural Development Forestry Network Paper, 25e (III): 31–37.Google Scholar
Edwards, S. F. (1991). The demand for Galapagos vacations: Estimation and application to wilderness preservation. Coastal Management, 19: 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feistner, A. T., Razafiarimalala, A., and Wright, P. C. (2006). Primate research and ecotourism: Conflict or collaboration?International Journal of Primatology, 27 (Supplement 1): 222–223.Google Scholar
Fiallo, E. A. and Jacobson, S. K. (1995). Local communities and protected areas: Attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation, 22: 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forsyth, P., Dwyer, L., and Clarke, H. (1995). Problems in use of economic instruments to reduce adverse environmental impacts of tourism. Tourism Economics, 1: 265–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuentes, A., Shaw, E., and Cortes, J. (2007). Qualitative assessment of Macaque tourist sites in Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia, and the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. International Journal of Primatology, 28: 1143–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, K. A. (1999). Tactical tourism: A comparative analysis of rainforest development in Ecuador and Belize. Organization & Environment, 12: 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, D. and Cipolletta, C. (2006). Western gorilla tourism: Lessons learned from Dzanga-Sangha. Gorilla Journal, 33: 16–19.Google Scholar
Groom, M. J., Podolsky, R. D., and Munn, C. A. (1991). Tourism as a sustained use of wildlife: A case study of Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru. In: Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H. (eds.), Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, pp. 393–412.Google Scholar
Grossberg, R., Treves, A., and Naughton-Treves, L. (2003). The incidental ecotourist: Measuring visitor impacts on endangered howler monkeys at a Belizean archaeological site. Environmental Conservation, 30: 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harcourt, A. H. (1986). Gorilla conservation: Anatomy of a campaign. In: Benirschke, K. (ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-sustaining Populations. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, pp. 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harcourt, A. (2001). The benefits of mountain gorilla tourism. Gorilla Journal, 22: 36–37.Google Scholar
Hartup, B. K. (1994). Community conservation in Belize: Demography, resource uses, and attitudes of participating landowners. Biological Conservation, 69: 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatfield, R. (2005). The Economic Value of the Bwindi and Virunga Gorilla Mountain Forests. Washington, DC: African Wildlife Foundation.Google Scholar
Healy, R. G. (1988). Economic Considerations in Nature-oriented Tourism: The Case of Tropical Forest Tourism. FPEI Working Paper No. 39. Research Triangle Park, NC: Southeastern Center for Forest Economics Research.Google Scholar
Higginbottom, K. (2004). Wildlife tourism: An introduction. In: Higginbottom, K. (ed.) Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning. Altona, Australia: Common Ground Publishing, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
Hill, C. M. (2002). Primate conservation and local communities – Ethical issues and debates. American Anthropologist, 104: 1184–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hvenegaard, G. T., Butler, J. R., and Krystofiak, D. K. (1989). The economic values of bird watching at Point Pelee National Park, Canada. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 17: 526–531.Google Scholar
Hvenegaard, G. T. and Dearden, P. (1998). Linking ecotourism and biodiversity conservation: A case study of Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 19: 193–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hvenegaard, G. T. and Manaloor, V. (2001). Snow Goose Festival generates economic benefits for Tofield, Alberta. Edmonton Naturalist, 29 (2): 28–31.Google Scholar
Hvenegaard, G. T. and Manaloor, V. (2007). A comparative approach to analyzing local expenditures and visitor profiles of two wildlife festivals. Event Management, 10: 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isaacs, J. C. (2000). The limited potential of ecotourism to contribute to wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28: 61–69.Google Scholar
Kaiser, F. G., Wölfing, S., and Fuhrer, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kangas, P., Shave, M., and Shave, P. (1995). Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize. Environmental Management, 19: 669–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinnaird, M. F. and O’Brien, T. G. (1996). Ecotourism in the Tangkoko Dua Saudara Nature Reserve: Opening Pandora’s Box?Oryx, 30: 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19: 232–237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lepp, A. (2002). Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park: Meeting the challenges of conservation and community development through sustainable tourism. In: Harris, R., Griffin, T., and Williams, P. (eds.), Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindberg, K. (1998). Economic aspects of ecotourism. In: Lindberg, K. and Wood, M. E. (eds.), Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers, vol. 2. North Bennington, VT: The Ecotourism Society, pp. 87–117.Google Scholar
Lindberg, K. (2001). Economic impacts. In: Weaver, D. B. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. Oxon, UK: CABI, pp. 363–377.Google Scholar
Macfie, E. J. and Williamson, E. A. (2010). Best Practice Guidelines for Great Ape Tourism. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.Google Scholar
Matheson, M. D., Sheeran, L. K., Li, J. H., and Wagner, R. S. (2006). Tourism impact on Tibetan macaques. Anthrozoös, 19: 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNeely, J. A., Thorsell, J. W., and Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1991). Guidelines for Development of Terrestrial and Marine National Parks and Protected Areas for Tourism. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
McNeilage, A. (1996). Ecotourism and mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes. In: Taylor, V. J. and Dunstone, N. (eds.), The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, pp. 334–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moyini, Y. and Uwimbabazi, B. (2000). Analysis of the Economic Significance of Gorilla Tourism in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda: Environmental Monitoring Associates, Ltd.Google Scholar
Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A., Chapman, C., and Wrangham, R. (1998). Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: Linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35: 596–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newsome, D., Dowling, R., and Moore, S. (2005). Wildlife Tourism. Aspects of Tourism 24, Clevedon, UK: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
Nunes, P. A. L. D. and van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. (2001). Economic valuation of biodiversity: Sense or nonsense?Ecological Economics, 39: 203–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russon, A. E. and Russell, C. L. (2005). Orangutan tourism. In: Caldecott, J. and Miles, L. (eds.), World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 264–265.Google Scholar
Salopek, P. F. (1995). Gorillas and humans: An uneasy truce. National Geographic, 188 (4): 72–83.Google Scholar
Sandbrook, C. and Semple, S. (2006). The rules and the reality of mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei tracking: How close do tourists get?Oryx, 49: 428–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serio-Silva, J. C. (2006). Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): The economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. American Journal of Primatology, 68: 499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackley, M. (1995). The future of gorilla tourism in Rwanda. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3 (2): 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tisdell, C. (1995). Investment in ecotourism: Assessing its economics. Tourism Economics, 1: 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tisdell, C. and Wilson, C. (2004). Economics of wildlife tourism. In: Higginbottom, K. (ed.), Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning. Altona, Australia: Common Ground Publishing, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
Treves, A. and Brandon, K. (2005). Tourist impacts on the behaviour of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Lamanai, Belize. In: Paterson, J. D. and Wallis, J. (eds.), Commensalism and Conflict: The Human-primate Interface. Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists, pp. 146–167.Google Scholar
Tumusiime, D. M. and Svarstad, H. (2011). A local counter-narrative on the conservation of Mountain Gorillas. Forum for Development Studies, 38: 239–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tumusiime, D. M. and Vedeld, P. (2012). False promise or false premise? Using tourism revenue sharing to promote conservation and poverty reduction in Uganda. Conservation and Society, 10: 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uddhammar, E. (2006). Development, conservation and tourism: Conflict or symbiosis?Review of International Political Economy, 13: 656–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Leeuwen, E. S., Nijkamp, P., and Rietveld, P. (2011). A meta-analytic comparison of regional output multipliers at different spatial levels: Economic impacts of tourism. In: Matias, A., Nijkamp, P., and Sarmento, M. (eds.), Advances in Tourism Economics: New Developments. New York: Physica-Verlag/Springer, pp. 13–33.Google Scholar
Varty, N., Ferriss, S., Carroll, B., and Caldecott, J. (2005). Conservation measures in play. In: Caldecott, J. and Miles, L. (eds.), World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 242–275.Google Scholar
Victurine, R. (2000). Building tourism excellence at the community level: Capacity building for community-based entrepreneurs in Uganda. Journal of Travel Research, 38: 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallis, J. and Lee, D. R. (1999). Primate conservation: The prevention of disease transmission. International Journal of Primatology, 20: 803–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, F. A. and Beal, D. (2000). Valuing Nature with Travel Cost Models: A Manual. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, A. W. (1987). Ruhengeri and its Resources: An Environmental Profile of the Ruhengeri Prefecture, Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda: Ruhengeri Resource Analysis and Management Project.Google Scholar
Weber, A. W. (1993). Primate conservation and ecotourism in Africa. In: Potter, C. S., Cohen, J. I., and Janczewski, D. (eds.), Perspectives on Biodiversity: Case Studies of Genetic Resource Conservation and Development. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 129–150.Google Scholar
Wells, M. P. (1997). Economic Perspectives on Nature Tourism, Conservation and Development. Environment Department Paper. No. 55. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Wilkie, D. S. and Carpenter, J. F. (1999). Can nature tourism help finance protected areas in the Congo Basin?Oryx, 33: 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodford, M. H., Butynski, T. M., and Karesh, W. B. (2002). Habituating the great apes: The disease risks. Oryx, 36: 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Tourism Organization. (2009). International tourism challenged by deteriorating global economy. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, 7 (1): 1, 5–8.Google Scholar
Wunder, S. (2000). Ecotourism and economic incentives – An empirical approach. Ecological Economics, 32: 465–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×