Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x5gtn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-29T18:26:40.440Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 5 - A cognitive approach to improving immersion students' oral language abilities: The Awareness-Practice-Feedback sequence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 January 2010

Robert DeKeyser
Affiliation:
University of Maryland, College Park
Leila Ranta
Affiliation:
University of Alberta, Canada
Roy Lyster
Affiliation:
McGill University, Canada
Get access

Summary

Consider the experiences of a grade-12 student who has studied French for a total of 13 years in Alberta, the first few years of which were in a total immersion program where all instruction was in French. She travels to Montreal for the first time. To her great shock, she finds that she is unable to use her French very much because the bilingual speakers she comes into contact with switch to English the minute they hear her speak. She comments, “I quickly realized … that my French is not the same as Quebecois French” (Haynes, 2001). This experience of communicative failure in the second language (L2) puts a human face on the research findings that characterize the oral production of French immersion students as being “non-nativelike.” Immersion researchers have studied the effectiveness of different types of pedagogical interventions designed to overcome the limitations of immersion instruction. These interventions have included enriching the input learners are exposed to (Harley, 1989b), drawing learners' attention to non-salient features of the L2 (Lyster, 1994), increasing the amount of student output (Kowal & Swain, 1997), and providing unambiguous feedback on learners' non-targetlike utterances (Lyster, 2004). This chapter examines the issue of the non-nativelike quality of immersion students' L2 production from the perspective of the language practice that occurs in early immersion classrooms. In this discussion, we highlight the value of using cognitive skill-learning theory (Anderson, 1983) as a framework for sequencing instructional activities aimed at improving the formal accuracy of the otherwise fluent speech of immersion students.

Type
Chapter
Information
Practice in a Second Language
Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology
, pp. 141 - 160
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, P., Swain, M., Harley, B., & Cummins, J. (1990). Aspects of classroom treatment: Toward a more comprehensive view of second language education. In Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.), The development of second language proficiency (pp. 57–81). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1993). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K., & Pelletier, R. (1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 4, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Annett, J. (1991). Skill acquisition. In Morrison, J. (Ed.), Training for performance (pp. 13–51). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.Google Scholar
Chaudron, C. (1986). Teachers' priorities in correcting learners' errors in French immersion classes. In Day, R. (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversations in second language acquisition (pp. 64–84). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Cook, G. (1989). Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Day, E., & Shapson, S. (1991). Integrating formal and functional approaches to language teaching in French immersion: An experimental study. Language Learning, 41, 25–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bot, K. (2000). Psycholinguistics in applied linguistics: Trends and perspectives. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20, 224–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R. (1997). Beyond explicit rule learning: Automatizing second language morphosyntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 195–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R. (1998). Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 42–63). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
DeKeyser, R. (2001). Automaticity and automatization. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 125–51). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dicks, J. (1992). Analytic and experiential features of three French immersion programs: Early, middle and late. Canadian Modern Language Review, 49, 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206–57). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doughty, C., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114–38). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fazio, L., & Lyster, R. (1998). Immersion and submersion classrooms: A comparison of instructional practices in language arts. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19, 303–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitts, P. M. (1964). Perceptual-motor skill learning. In Melton, A. W. (Ed.), Categories of human learning. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Fotos, S. (1994). Integrating grammar instruction and communicative language use through grammar consciousness-raising tasks. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 323–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S., & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (1988). Creative automatization: Principles for promoting fluency within a communicative framework. TESOL Quarterly, 22, 473–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (2005). Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61, 325–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Genesee, F. (1978). A longitudinal evaluation of an early immersion school program. Canadian Journal of Education, 3, 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual children. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Harley, B. (1979). French gender “rules” in the speech of English-dominant, French-dominant, and monolingual French-speaking children. Working Papers in Bilingualism, 19, 129–56.Google Scholar
Harley, B. (1980). Interlanguage units and their relations. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 5, 3–30.Google Scholar
Harley, B. (1989a). Transfer in the written compositions of French immersion students. In Dechert, H. W. & Raupach, M. (Eds.), Transfer in language production (pp. 3–19). New York: Ablex.Google Scholar
Harley, B. (1989b). Functional grammar in French immersion: A classroom experiment. Applied Linguistics, 10, 331–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harley, B. (1992). Patterns of second language development in French immersion. Journal of French Language Studies, 2, 159–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harley, B. (1994). Appealing to consciousness in the L2 classroom. AILA Review, 11, 57–68.Google Scholar
Harley, B. (1998). The role of form-focused tasks in promoting child L2 acquisition. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (p. 156–74). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.). (1990). The development of second language proficiency. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harley, B., Cummins, J., Swain, M., & Allen, p. (1990). The nature of language proficiency. In Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.), The development of second language proficiency (pp. 7–25). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harley, B., & Swain, M. (1984). The interlanguage of immersion students and its implications for second language teaching. In Davies, A., Criper, C. & Howatt, A. (Eds.), Interlanguage (pp. 291–311). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Haynes, K. (2001, Feb. 28). Francophone for a week in Montreal. Edmonton Journal, p. F3.Google Scholar
Hulstijn, J. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 258–86). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kowal, M., & Swain, M. (1994). Using collaborative language production tasks to promote students' language awareness. Language Awareness, 3, 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kowal, M., & Swain, M. (1997). From semantic to syntactic processing: How can we promote metalinguistic awareness in the French immersion classroom? In Johnson, R. K. & Swain, M. (Eds.), Immersion education: International perspectives (pp. 284–309). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S. (1984). Immersion: Why it works and what it has taught us. Language and Society, 12 (Winter), 61–64.Google Scholar
Krashen, S. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In Ellis, N. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 45–77). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W. C. & Bhatia, T. K. (Eds.), Handbook of language acquisition. Vol. 2: Second language acquisition (pp. 413–68). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Lyster, R., (1987). Speaking immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 43, 701–17.Google Scholar
Lyster, R. (1994). The effect of functional-analytic teaching on aspects of French immersion students' sociolinguistic competence. Applied Linguistics, 15, 263–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R. (1998a). Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 55–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R. (1998b). Immersion pedagogy and implications for language teaching. In Cenoz, J. & Genesee, F. (Eds.), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education (pp. 64–95). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Lyster, R. (2002). Negotiation in immersion teacher-student interaction. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 237–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R. (2004a). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399–432.Google Scholar
Lyster, R. (2004b). Research on form-focused instruction in immersion classrooms: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of French Language Studies, 14, 321–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R., & Rebuffot, J. (2002). Acquisition des pronoms d'allocution en classe de français immersif. Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère, 17, 51–71.Google Scholar
MacFarlane, A. (2001). Are brief contact experiences and classroom language learning complementary? Canadian Modern Language Review, 58, 64–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, B. (1987). Theories of second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
McLaughlin, B., & Heredia, R. (1996). Information-processing approaches to research on second language acquisition and use. In Ritchie, W. C. & Bhatia, T. K. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 213–28). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Met, M. (1994). Teaching content through a second language. In Genesee, F. (Ed.), Educating second language children (pp. 159–82). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mougeon, R., & Rehner, K. (2001). Acquisition of sociolinguistic variants by French immersion students: The case of restrictive expressions, and more. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 398–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nation, P. (1989). Improving speaking fluency. System, 17, 377–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pawley, C. (1985). How bilingual are French immersion students? Canadian Modern Language Review, 41, 865–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pica, T. (1994). Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, 44, 493–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pica, T. (2002). Subject-matter content: How does it assist the interactional and linguistic needs of classroom language learners? Modern Language Journal, 86, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rebuffot, J. (1993). Le point sur l'immersion au Canada. Montreal: Éditions CEC.Google Scholar
Rehner, K. (2002). The development of aspects of linguistic and discourse competence by advanced second language learners of French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
Rehner, K., & Mougeon, R. (1999). Variation in the spoken French of immersion students: To “ne” or not to “ne,” that is the sociolinguistic question. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 56, 124–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (Ed.). (2001). Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, R., & Frota, S. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In Day, R. (Ed.), Talking to learn (pp. 237–326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Segalowitz, N. (1997). Individual differences in second language acquisition. In Groot, A. & Kroll, J. (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives (pp. 85–112). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Segalowitz, N. (2000). Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance. In Riggenbach, H. (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp. 200–19). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N. (2003). Automaticity and second language learning. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 382–408). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N., & Gatbonton, E. (1995). Automaticity and lexical skills in second language fluency: Implications for computer assisted language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8, 129–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N., & Lightbown, P. M. (1999). Psycholinguistic approaches to SLA. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N., & Segalowitz, S. J. (1993). Skilled performance, practice, and the differentiation of speed-up from automatization effects: Evidence from second language word recognition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 369–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selinker, L., Swain, M., & Dumas, G. (1975). The interlanguage hypothesis extended to children. Language Learning, 25, 139–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Snow, M. (1987). Immersion teacher handbook. Los Angeles: UCLA.Google Scholar
Spada, N. (1997). Form-focussed instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 29, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development In Gass, S. & Madden, C. (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235–53). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Swain, M. (1988). Manipulating and complementing content teaching to maximize second language learning. TESL Canada Journal, 6, 68–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In Cook, G. & Seidlhfer, B. (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125–44). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Swain, M. (1996). Integrating language and content in immersion classrooms: research perspectives. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 52, 529–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M. (2000). French immersion research in Canada: Recent contributions to SLA and Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20, 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1982). Evaluating bilingual education: A Canadian case study. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1990). Aspects of the sociolinguistic performance of early and late French immersion students. In Scarcella, R., Anderson, E., & Krashen, S. (Eds.), Developing communicative competence in a second language (pp. 41–54). New York: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. Modern Language Journal, 82, 320–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2001). Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. In Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks (pp. 99–118). Harlow, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
Tarone, E., & Swain, M. (1995). A sociolinguistic perspective on second language use in immersion classrooms. Modern Language Journal, 79, 166–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vigil, L., & Oller, J. (1976). Rule fossilization: A tentative model. Language Learning, 26, 281–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warden, M., Hart, D., Lapkin, S., & Swain, M. (1995). Adolescent language learners on a three-month exchange: Insights from their diaries. Foreign Language Annals, 28, 537–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Harlow, UK: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
Wong Fillmore, L. (1992). Learning a language from learners. In Kramsch, C. & McConnell-Ginet, S. (Eds.), Text and context: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on language study (pp. 46–66). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
Wray, A. (1999). Formulaic language in learners and native speakers. Language Teaching, 32, 213–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×