Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-lmg95 Total loading time: 0.303 Render date: 2021-10-22T01:52:39.354Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

7 - An Advanced Industrial Society, 1970–2011

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

Herbert S. Klein
Stanford University, California
Get access


There is little question that the changes in the American demographic structure that occurred in the 1960s would set the stage for a new era in the demographic history of the United States after 1970. In fact, these changes in so many different areas could be said to mark a revolutionary transformation in the demographic history of the nation. The impact of the contraceptive pill and progressively changing norms about women's role in society were two of the factors driving this change. These changing attitudes were reflected in the steady rise of female labor participation rates, of female tertiary education rates, of the median age of first marriage, and of the age when women were having their first children. In turn, these later marriages and pregnancies led to a dramatic decline in fer tility among the white native population, which, for the first time in the history of the country, fell below replacement level. Once the majority established these low fertility norms, they were slowly adopted by almost all the other racial and ethnic minorities and by most immigrants. These low rates have been in place for the past 40 years and show little sign of reversing, especially as they parallel what has been occurring in all advanced industrial societies since the decade of the 1960s.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Current Population ReportsProfile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2001 23Google Scholar
Logan, John R.How Race Counts for Hispanic AmericansAlbany, NYSUNY Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research 2003Google Scholar
Benson, Janel E.Exploring the Racial Identities of Black Immigrants in the United StatesSociological Forum 2006 219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iceland, JohnNelson, Kyle AnneHispanic Segregation in Metropolitan America: Exploring the Multiple Forms of Spatial AssimilationAmerican Sociological Review 2008 741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humes, Karen R.Jones, Nicholas A.Ramirez, Roberto R.Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2011Google Scholar
Johnson, Tallese D.Ríos, MerarysDrewery, Malcolm P.Ennis, Sharon R.Kim, Myoung OukPeople Who Spoke a Language Other Than English at Home by Hispanic Origin and Race: 2009Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2010 2Google Scholar
Kramarow, Ellen A.The Elderly Who Live Alone in the United States: Historical Perspectives on Household ChangeDemography 1995 335CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gratton, BrianGutmann, Myron P.Emptying the Nest: Older Men in the United States, 1880–2000Population and Development Review 2010 331CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruggles, StevenThe Decline of Intergenerational Coresidence in the United States, 1850 to 2000American Sociological Review 2007 964CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruggles, StevenThe Transformation of American Family StructureAmerican Historical Review 1994 107Google Scholar
Ruggles, StevenMultigenerational Families in Nineteenth-Century AmericaContinuity and Change 2003 139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldscheider, Frances K.Bures, Regina M.The Racial Crossover in Family Complexity in the United StatesDemography 2003 569CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, Brady E.Martin, Joyce A.Ventura, Stephanie J.Births: Preliminary Data for 2009National Vital Statistics Reports 2010Google ScholarPubMed
Martin, Joyce A.Hamilton, Brady E.Sutton, Paul D.Ventura, Stephanie J.Mathews, T. JOsterman, Michelle J. K.Births: Final Data for 2008National Vital Statistics Report 2010 25Google ScholarPubMed
Bachu, AmaraO’Connell, Martin 2000 Current Population ReportsWashington, DCU.S. Census Bureau3Google Scholar
Bergad, LairdKlein, Herbert S.Hispanics in the United States, 1980–2005CambridgeCambridge University Press 2010Google Scholar
Hamilton, Brady E.Martin, Joyce A.Ventura, Stephanie J.Births: Preliminary Data for 2009National Vital Statistics Reports 2010Google ScholarPubMed
Abma, J.Chandra, A.Mosher, W.Peterson, L.Piccinino, L.Fertility, Family Planning, and Women's Health: New Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Vital Health StatisticsWashington, DCNCHS 1997 5Google Scholar
Chandra, AnjaniMosher, William D.Copen, CaseySexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Identity in the United States: Data from the 2006–2008 National Survey of Family GrowthNational Health Statistics Reports 2011 21Google ScholarPubMed
Mathews, T. J.Hamilton, Brady E.Mean Age of Mother, 1970–2000National Vital Statistics Reports 2002 6Google ScholarPubMed
Glick, Paul C.Parke, RobertNew Approaches in Studying the Life Cycle of the FamilyDemography 1965 191Google Scholar
Ventura, Stephanie J.Abma, Joyce C.Mosher, William D.Henshaw, Stanley K.Estimated Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1990–2005: An UpdateNational Vital Statistics Reports 2009Google ScholarPubMed
NCHSHealth, United States, 2002Washington, DCNCHS100
PEW Hispanic CenterThe Mexican-American Boom: Births Overtake ImmigrationWashington, DCPEW Hispanic Center 2011 2Google Scholar
National Diabetes Surveillance SystemLong-Term Trends in DiabetesAtlanta, GACDC 2010Google Scholar
Xu, JiaquanKochanek, Kenneth D.Murphy, Sherry L.Tejada-Vera, BetzaidaDeaths: Final Data for 2007National Vital Statistics Report 2010 33Google ScholarPubMed
Kochanek, Kenneth D.Xu, JiaquanMurphy, Sherry L.Miniño, Arialdi M.Hsiang-Ching, KungDeaths: Preliminary Data for 2009National Vital Statistics Reports 2011 33Google ScholarPubMed
Haines, Michael R.The Use of Model Life Tables to Estimate Mortality for the United States in the Late Nineteenth CenturyDemography 1979 307Google ScholarPubMed
Vallin, JacquesMeslé, FranceValkonen, TapaniTrends in Mortality and Differential MortalityStrasbourgCouncil of Europe 2001 61Google Scholar
World Health OrganizationTrends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2008GenevaWHO Press 2010 28Google Scholar
Hoyert, D. L.Maternal Mortality and Related ConceptsVital Health Statistics 2007 1Google ScholarPubMed
Costa, Dora L.Changing Chronic Disease Rates and Long Term Decline in Functional Limitation among Elderly MenDemography 2002 125Google Scholar
Lichtenberg, Frank R.The Effects of Medicare on Health Care Utilization and OutcomesForum for Health Economics and Policy 2002 24Google Scholar
Manton, Kenneth G.Vaupel, James W.Survival after the Age of 80 in the United States, Sweden, France, England, and JapanNew England Journal of Medicine 1995 1232CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geronimus, Arline T.Bound, JohnWaidmann, Timothy AColen, Cynthia G.Steffick, DianneInequality in Life Expectancy, Functional Status, and Active Life Expectancy across Selected Black and White Populations in the United StatesDemography 2001 243Google ScholarPubMed
U.S. Bureau of the CensusStatistical Abstract of the United States, 2011Washington, DCGovernment Printing Office 2012 845Google Scholar
Mathews, T. J.MacDorman, Marian F.Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2007 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set,NVSS Statistical Reports
Arias, E.United States Life Tables by Hispanic OriginVital Health Statistics 2010 10Google ScholarPubMed
Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.Dohrenwend, Bruce P.Ng-Mak, Daisy S.Turner, J. BlakeThe Latino Mortality Paradox: A Test of the ‘Salmon Bias’ and Healthy Migrant HypothesesAmerican Journal of Public Health 1999 1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunt, Kelly J.Resendez, Roy G.Williams, KenHaffner, Steve M.Stern, Michael P.Hazuda, Helen P.All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White Older Participants in the San Antonio Heart Study – Evidence against the ‘Hispanic ParadoxAmerican Journal of Epidemiology 2003 1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patel, Kushang V.Eschbach, KarlRay, Laura A.Markides, Kyriakos SEvaluation of Mortality Data for Older Mexican Americans: Implications for the Hispanic ParadoxAmerican Journal of Epidemiology 2004 707CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palloni, AlbertoArias, ElizabethParadox Lost: Explaining the Hispanic Adult Mortality AdvantageDemography 2004 385CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arias, ElizabethEschbach, KarlSchauman, William S.Backlund, Eric L.Sorlie, Paul D.The Hispanic Mortality Advantage and Ethnic Misclassification on US Death CertificatesAmerican Journal of Public Health 2010 S171CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hummer, Robert A.Powers, Daniel A.Pullum, Starling G.Frisbie, W. ParkerParadox Found (Again): Infant Mortality among the Mexican-Origin Population in the United StatesDemography 2007 441CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Angel, Ronald J.Angel, Jacqueline LHill, Terrence D.Subjective Control and Health among Mexican-Origin Elders in Mexico and the United States: Structural Considerations in Comparative ResearchJournal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 2009 390CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization ServiceStatistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2000Washington, DCGovernment Printing Office 2002 18Google Scholar
Passel, Jeffrey S.Cohn, D’VeraUnauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010Washington, DCPEW Hispanic Center 2011 1Google Scholar
U.S. Census BureauCensus Brief Coming to America: A Profile of the Nation's Foreign Born 2000Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2000 2Google Scholar
U.S. Census BureauCurrent Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2009Foreign-Born Population by Sex, Age, and World Region of Birth 2009Google Scholar
Gryn, Thomas A.Larsen, Luke J.Nativity Status and Citizenship in the United States: 2009American Community Survey BriefsWashington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2010Google Scholar
Walters, Nathan P.Cortés, Rachel T.Year of Entry of the Foreign-Born Population: 2009,” American Community Survey BriefsWashington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2010 2Google Scholar
Ennis, Sharon RRíos-Vargas, MerarysAlbert, Nora G.The Hispanic Population: 2010Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2010 3Google Scholar
Frey, William H.Immigration, Domestic Migration and Demographic Balkanization in America: New Evidence for the 1990sPopulation and Development Review 1996 741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, John R.The Suburban Advantage: New Census Data Show Unyielding City–Suburb Economic Gap, and Surprising Shifts in Some PlacesAlbany, NYLewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, SUNY Albany 2002Google Scholar
Frey, William H.Melting Pot Cities and Suburbs: Racial and Ethnic Change in Metro America in the 2000sWashington, DCBrookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program 2011Google Scholar
Iceland, JohnWeinberg, Daniel H.Steinmetz, ErikaRacial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980–2000U.S. Census BureauWashington, DC 2002Google Scholar
Logan, John R.Hispanic Populations and Their Residential Patterns in the MetropolisAlbany, NYLewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, SUNY Albany 2002Google Scholar
Logan, John R.Stults, Brian J.Farley, ReynoldsSegregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of ChangeDemography 2004 8Google Scholar
Massey, Douglas S.The New Immigration and Ethnicity in the United StatesPopulation and Development Review 1995 646Google Scholar
Alba, RichardLogan, JohnLutz, AmyStults, BrianOnly English by the Third Generation? Loss and Preservation of the Mother Tongue among the Grandchildren of Contemporary ImmigrantsDemography 2002 467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PEW Hispanic CenterUnauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010Washington, DCPEW Hispanic Center 2011 1Google Scholar
Molloy, RavenSmith, Christopher L.Wozniak, AbigailInternal Migration in the United StatesWashington, DCFederal Reserve Board, Divisions of Research and Statistics and Monetary Affairs 2011 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, William HThe Great American Migration Slowdown: Regional and Metropolitan DimensionsWashington, DCBrookings Institute, Metropolitan Policy Program 2009 16Google Scholar
Mitchener, Kris JamesMcLean, W.U.S. Regional Growth and Convergence, 1880–1980Journal of Economic History 1999 1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howden, Lindsay M.Meyer, Julie A.Age and Sex Composition: 2010Washington, DCU.S. Census Bureau 2011 6Google Scholar
Kinsella, KevinVelkoff, Victoria AAn Aging World: 2001Washington, DCGovernment Printing Office 2001 9Google Scholar
Easterlin, Richard ATwentieth-Century American Population GrowthThe Cambridge Economic History of the United StatesCambridgeCambridge University Press 1996 544Google Scholar
Pinnelli, AntonellaHoffman-Nowotny, Hans JoachimFux, BeatFertility and New Types of Household and Family Formation in EuropeStrasbourgCouncil of Europe 2001Google Scholar
Vallin, JacquesMeslé, FranceValkonen, TapaniTrends in Mortality and Differential MortalityStrasbourgCouncil of Europe 2001Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats