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Chapter 18 - Imprinting

from Section 6: - Genetics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 July 2010

Robert Pijnenborg
Affiliation:
University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven
Ivo Brosens
Affiliation:
Leuven Institute for Fertility and Embryology
Roberto Romero
Affiliation:
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Detroit
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Summary

This chapter discusses specific imprinted genes or imprinted regions known to be imprinted in the human placenta with an effect on fetal growth and development. IGFII is a growth-promoting protein active during gestation and was the first imprinted gene to be described which is common to mouse and man. H19 contains a germline DMR which acts as an ICR regulating its expression as well as imprinted genes in the cluster. Plekstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2) is most highly expressed in the trophoblast of placenta and additionally in bronchial epithelium cells, liver, and prostate. Mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) localizes to human chromosome 7q32 and was the first imprinted gene identified on chromosome 7, and is expressed in all major fetal tissues including placental trophoblast and endothelium. Imprinted genes are most highly expressed during fetal development and growth with some involved in early postnatal growth.
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Chapter
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Placental Bed Disorders
Basic Science and its Translation to Obstetrics
, pp. 183 - 194
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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