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Problems and conjectures

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 October 2010

Steve Linton
University of St Andrews, Scotland
Nik Ruškuc
University of St Andrews, Scotland
Vincent Vatter
Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
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A very brief introduction to permutation patterns

We say a permutation π contains or involves the permutation σ if deleting some of the entries of π gives a permutation that is order isomorphic to σ, and we write σ ≤ π. For example, 534162 contains 321 (delete the values 4, 6, and 2). A permutation avoids a permutation if it does not contain it.

This notion of containment defines a partial order on the set of all finite permutations, and the downsets of this order are called permutation classes. For a set of permutations B define Av(B) to be the set of permutations that avoid all of the permutations in B. Clearly Av(B) is a permutation class for every set B, and conversely, every permutation class can be expressed in the form Av(B).

For the problems we need one more bit of notation. Given permutations π and σ of lengths m and n, respectively, their direct sum, π ⊕ σ, is the permutation of length m + n in which the first m entries are equal to π and the last n entries are order isomorphic to σ while their skew sum, π ⊖ σ, is the permutation of length m + n in which the first m entries are order isomorphic to π while the last n entries are equal to π.

Permutation Patterns , pp. 339 - 345
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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