Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-lmg95 Total loading time: 2.568 Render date: 2021-10-17T13:56:29.266Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 18 - Disorders of the Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2017

Robert O. Greer
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Robert E. Marx
Affiliation:
University of Miami
Sherif Said
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Lori D. Prok
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Batsakis, JG, El-Naggar, AK, Luna, MA. Thyroid gland ectopias. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1996; 105:1000.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basaria, S, Westra, WH, Cooper, DS. Ectopic lingual thyroid masquerading as thyroid cancer metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:392395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averno, G, et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphagia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2009; 29:213217.Google ScholarPubMed
Peters, P, Stark, P, Essig, G, et al. Lingual thyroid: an unusual and surgically curable cause of sleep apnea in a male. Sleep and Breathing 2010; 14:377380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neinas, FW, Gorman, CA, Devine, KD, Woolner, LB. Lingual thyroid. Clinical characteristics of 15 cases. Ann Int Med 1973; 79:205210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoen, EJ, Clapp, W, To, T, Fireman, B. The key role of newborn thyroid scintography with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatr 2004; 114:e683e688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baughman, R. Lingual thyroid and lingual thyroglossal tract remnants. An oral clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972; 34:781799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, TS, Cheng, HY. Dual thyroid ectopic with a normally located pretracheal thyroid gland: case report and literature review. Head and Neck 2007, 29:885888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ugar-Cankal, D, Denizci, S, Hocaoglu, T. Prevalence of tongue lesions among Turkish school children. Saudi Med J 2005; 26:19621967.Google Scholar
Prasad, KC, Bhat, V. Surgical management of lingual thyroid: a report of four cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000; 58:223227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eugene, D, Djemli, A, Van Vilet, G. Sexual dimorphism of thyroid function in newborns with congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:26962700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capelli Gandossi, E, Cumetti, D, et al. Ectopic lingual thyroid tissue and acquired hypothyroidism: Case report. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2006; 67:245248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singhal, P, Sharma, KR, Singhal, A. Lingual thyroid in children. J Indian Soc of Pedodo and Preventive Dentistry 2012; 29:270272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, R, Mitchell, ML. Hypothyroidism in infants and children. In: Braverman, LE, Utiger, RO, eds. Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Ed 8. Sidney: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 973982.Google Scholar
Diaz-Arias, AA, Bickel, JT, Loy, TS, et al. Follicular carcinoma with clear cell change arising in lingual thyroid. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74:206211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averono, G., et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphasia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otochinolaryngologia Ital 2009; 29:213217.Google Scholar
Seonane, JM, Cameselle-Teijerio, J, Romero, MA. Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13:353360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaabouni, AM, Intidhar Labidi, S, Kraiem, T., et al. Papillary follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid. Ann Otolaryngol Chircevicofac 2006; 123:199202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massinc, RE, Durning, SJ, Koroscil, TM. Lingual thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid 2001; 11:11911196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allard, LH. The thyroglossal cyst. Head Neck Surg 1982; 5:134146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dedivitis, RA, Camargo, DL, Peisoto, GL, et al. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:274277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mondin, V, Ferlito, A, Muzzi, E, Silver, CE, et al. Thyroglossal duct cyst: personal experience and literature review. Auris Nasus Larynx 2008; 35:1125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz, MC, Stormorken, A, Christopher, NC. Thyroglossal duct causing apnea and cyanosis in a neonate. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005; 21(2): 3537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soloman, JR, Rangercroft, L. Thyroglossal duct lesions in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 1984; 19:555561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peretz, A, Lieberman, E, Kapelushnik, J, Hershkovitz, E. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma in children: case presentation and review of the literature. Thyroid 2004; 14:777785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, NN, Hartley, BE, Howard, DJ. Management of thyroglossal tract disease after failed Sistrunk procedure. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117:710712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noussios, G, Panaglotis, A, Goults, D, et al. Ectopic thyroid tissue: anatomical, clinical, and surgical implication of a rare entity. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 165:375382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LiVolsi, V. Thyroid lesions in unusual locations. In: Bennington, JL, ed. Surgical Pathology of the Thyroid. Major Problems in Pathology. Vol. 22. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990, 351363.Google Scholar
Kumar, R, Khullar, S, Gupta, R, et al. Dual thyroid ectopy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Nucl Med 2000; 25:253254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldfischer, S, Grotsky, HW, Chang, CH, et al. Idiopathic neonatal iron storage involving the liver, pancreas, heart and endocrine and exocrine glands. Hepatology 1981; 1:5864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, CB, Herrera, GA, Jaffe, K, et al. Black thyroid. Clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms. Hum Pathol 1985; 16:7278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, JD, Choi, CH, Oldroyd, N. Calcium oxalate crystals in the thyroid. Their identification, prevalence, origin, and possible significance. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87:443454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lorini, R, Gastaldi, R, Traggiai, C, et al. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2003; 1:205211.Google ScholarPubMed
Tandon, N, Zhang, L, Weetman, AP. HLA associations with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1991; 34:383386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicholson, L, Wong, F, Ewins, D, et al. Susceptibility to autoimmune thyroiditis in Down’s syndrome is associated with the major histocompatibility class II DQA 0301 allele. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1994; 41:381383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goudie, RB, Anderson, JR, Gray, KG, et al. Autoimmune associations of Hashimoto’s disease. Lancet 1965; 17:322323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furszyfer, J, Kurland, LT, McConahey, WM, et al. Graves’ disease in Omsted county, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Mayo Clin Proc 1970; 45:636644.Google Scholar
Erickson, LA, Yousef, OM, Lin, L, et al. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves’s disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathology 2000; 13:10141019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beahrs, OH, McConahey, WM, Woolner, LB. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Reidel’s struma). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975; 17:201220.Google Scholar
Best, TB, Munro, RE, Burwell, S, et al. Reidel’s thyroiditis associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperparathyroidism, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. J Endocrinol Invest 1991; 14:767772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, HS, Hwang, JS. The natural course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in children and adolescents. J Pediat Endocrinol Met 2014; 27:807812.Google ScholarPubMed
Menconi, F, Marcocci, M. Diagnosis and classification of Graves’ disease. Autoimmunity Reviews 2014; 13:398402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brent, GA. Clinical practice: Graves’ disease. New England J of Med 2008; 358:25942605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Genovese, BM, Noureldine, SI, Gleeson, EM, et al. What is the best definitive treatment for Graves’ disease? A systemic review of the existing literature. Annals of Surgical Oncology (review) 2013; 20:660667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soh, SB, Pham, A, O’Hehir, RE, et al. Novel use of rituximab in a case of Riedels thyroiditis refractory to glucocortogoids and taxoxifen. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2013; 98:35433549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fatourechi, MM, Hay, ID, McIver, B. et al. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis. (Riedel thyroiditis) The Mayo Clinic experience, 1976–2008. Thyroid 2011; 21:765772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Divatia, K, Kim, SA, Ro, JY. IgG4 related sclerosing disease, an emerging entity: a review of multi system disease. Yonsei Med J 2012; 53:1534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bahn, RS, Castro, MR. Approach to the patient with nontoxic multinodular goiter. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:12021212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braverman, LE, Utiger, RD, Hermus, AR, Juysmans, AD. Clinical manifestations and treatment of nontoxic diffuse and nodular goiter. In: Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 866871.Google Scholar
Hegedus, L, Gerber, H. Multinodular goiter. In: DeGroot, LJ, Jameson, JL, eds. Endocrinology. Philadelphia, 2001; 2:15171528.Google Scholar
Shah, SS, Baum, SG. Diagnosis and management of infectious thyroiditis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2:147153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paes, JE, Burman, KD, Cohen, J, et al. Acute bacterial suppurative thyroiditis. A clinical review and expert opinion. Thyroid 2010; 20:247255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghaemi, N, Sayedi, J, Bagheri, S. Acute suppurative thyroiditis with thyroid abscess: a case report and review of the literature. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2014; 26:5155.Google ScholarPubMed
Dussault, JH. Anecdotal history of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:43324334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thyroid Association, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, et al. Update of newborn screening and therapy for congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics 2006 Jun; 117:22902303.CrossRefPubMed
Klein, AH, Meltzer, S, Kenny, FM. Improved prognosis in congenital hypothyroidism treated before age three months. J Pediatr 1972; 81:912915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, ML, Hsu, HW, Sahai, I, et al. The increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism; fact or fancy? Clin Endocrinol 2011; 75:806810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delange, F. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism: result and perspectives. Horm Res 1997; 48:5161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonger- Schokking, JJ, deMuink, SM. Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothytidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siebner, R, Merlob, P, Kaiserman, I, Sack, J. Congenital anomalies concomitant persistent primary congenital hypothyroidism. Am J Med Genet 1992; 44:5760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, J, Gordillo, R, Kaskel, FJ, et al. Increased prevalence of renal and urinary tract anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2009; 154:263266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopp, P. Pendred’s syndrome: identification of the genetic defect century after its recognition. Thyroid 1999; 9:6569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bongers-Schokking, J, de Muinck, KS, Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyerdahl, S, Oerbeck, B. Congenital hypothyroidism: a review of current diagnostic and treatment practices in relation to levothyroxine treatment variables. Thyroid 2003; 13:10291038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zakaruija, M, McKenzie, JM. Pregnancy associated changes in the thyroid stimulating antibody of Graves’ disease and the relationship to neonatal hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57:10361040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohn, LD, Suzuki, K, Hoffman, WH, et al. Characterization of monoclonal thyroid stimulating and thyrotropin binding-inhibiting autoantibodies from a Hashimoto’s patient whose children had intrauterine and neonatal thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82:39984009.Google ScholarPubMed
Schwab, KO, Gerlich, M, Broeker, M, et al. Congenital active germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor gene as a cause of congenital hyperthyroidism. J Pediatr 1997; 131:899904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shore, R, Hildreth, N, Dvortsky, P, et al. Benign thyroid adenomas among persons X-irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands. Radiat Res 1993; 134:217223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katoh, R, Harach, HR, Williams, E, et al. Solitary, multiple, and familial oxyphil tumors of the thyroid gland.J Pathol 1998; 186:292299.3.0.CO;2-Y>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mai, KT, Landry, D, Thomas, J, et al. Follicular adenoma with papillary architecture: a lesion mimicking papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histopathology 2001; 39:2532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castro, P, Sansontty, F, Soares, P, et al. Fetal adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas of the thyroid frequently display a triploid or near triploid DNA pattern. Virch Arch 2001; 438:336342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alsop, JE, Yerbury, PJ, O’Donnell, PJ, Heyderman, E. Signet ring microfollicular adenoma arising in a nodular ectopic thyroid. A case report. J Oral Pathol 1986; 15:518519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gherardi, G. Signet ring mucinous thyroid adenoma: a follicle cell tumor with abnormal accumulation of thyroglobulin and a peculiar histochemical profile. Histopathology 1987; 11:317326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demidchik, L, Subhani, Z, Gordon, RE. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case and ultrastructural study. Cancer 1980; 45:25642567.Google Scholar
Schroder, S, Niendorf, A, Achilles, E, et al. Lipid rich cell adenoma of the thyroid gland. Report of a peculiar thyroid tumor. Virch Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1984; 404:105108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Namba, H, Rubin, SA, Fagin, JA. Point mutations of as oncogenes are an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol 1990; 4:14741479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krohn, K, Paschke, R. Clinical review 133: Progress in understanding the etiology of thyroid autonomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:33363345.Google ScholarPubMed
Belge, G, Roque, L, Soares, J, et al. Cytogenic investigation of 340 thyroid hyperplasias and adenomas revealing correlations between cytogenetic findings and history. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1998; 101:4248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, A, Ly, S, Castroneves, LA, et al. A standardized assessment of thyroid nodules in children confirms higher cancer prevalence than in adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013, 98:32383245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, CC, Boerner, SL, Macmillan, CM, et al. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: a variant of papillary carcinoma proved by molecular genetics. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24:16221626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papotti, M, Volante, M, Giuliano, A, et al. RET/PTC activation in hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24:16151621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCluggage, WG, Sloan, JM. Hyalinizing trabecular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Histopathol 1996; 28:357362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chan, JK, Tse, CC, Chiu, HS. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma-like lesion in multinodular goiter. Histopathol 1990; 16:611614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronner, MP, LiVolsi, VA, Jennings, TA. Paragenglioma like adenomas of the thyroid. Surg Pathol 1988; 1:383389.Google Scholar
Nose, V, Volante, M, Papotti, M. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol 2008; 19:18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bettendorf, M. Thyroid disorders in children from birth to adolescence. European J Nuclear Med 2002; 29:54395446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gorla, S, DiBella, C, Leone, B. Cytological and histological findings of thyroid florid papillary hyperplasia. Cytopathology 2012; 23: 417419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niedziela, M. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13:427453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francis, G, Waguespack, SG, Bauer, AJ, et al. Management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The American Thyroid Associaton Guidelines Taskforce on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. {Epub} ahead of print, April 21, 2015.
Dinauer, CA, Breuer, C, Rivkees, SA. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children: diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Oncol 2008; 20:5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirath, P, Volkan-Salanci, B, Gunay, E, et al. Thyroid cancer in pediatric age group: an institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatric Hemato/Oncol 2013; 35:9397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luster, M, Lassmann, M, Freudenberg, LS, Reiners, C. Thyroid cancer in childhood: management strategy, including dosimetry and long term results. Hormones 2007; 6:269278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ries, LAG, Melbert, D, Krapcho, M, et al., ed. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2004. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, 2007.Google Scholar
Baverstock, K, Egloff, B, Pinchera, A, et al. Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 1992; 359:2122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogan, AR, Zhuge, Y, Perez, EA, et al. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma: incidence and outcome in 1753 patients. J Surg Res 2009; 156:167172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, NL, Bhattacharyya, N. Population-based outcomes for pediatric thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope 2005; 115:337340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imai, Y, Yamakawa, M, Matsuda, M, et al. Endogenous sex hormone and estrogen binding activity in thyroid cancer. Histol Histopathol 1989; 4:3942.Google ScholarPubMed
Niedziela, M. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13:427453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boelaert, K, Horacek, J, Holder, RL, et al. Serum thyrotropin concentration as a novel predictor of malignancy in thyroid nodule investigated by fine needle aspiration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:42954301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Disen, D, Skinner, M. Pediatric thyroid cancer. SemPediatrSurg 2012; 21:4450.Google Scholar
Fenton, CL, Lukes, Y, Nicholson, D, et al. The RET/PTC mutations are common in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma of children and young adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:11701175.Google ScholarPubMed
Santoro, M, Thomas, GA, Vecchio, G, et al. Gene rearrangement and Chernobyl related cancers. Br J Cancer 2000; 82:315322.Google Scholar
Henderson, YC, Shellenberger, TD, Williams, MD, et al. High rate of BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:485491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stein, L, Rothschild, J, Luce, J, et al. Copy number and gene expression alterations in radiation induced papillary thyroid carcinoma from Chernobyl pediatric patients. Thyroid 2012; 20:475487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikiforov, YE, Rowland, JM, Bove, KE, et al. Distinct pattern of RET oncogene rearrangements in morphological variants of radiation induced and sporadic thyroid papillary carcinomas in children. Cancer Res 1997; 57:16901694.Google ScholarPubMed
Lupi, C, Giannini, R, Ugolini, C, et al. Association of BRAF V600E mutation with poor clinicopathological outcomes in 500 consecutive cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:40854090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leboeuf, R, Baumgartner, JE, Benezra, M, et al. BRAFV600E mutation is associated with preferential sensitivity to mitogen activated protein kinase inhibition in thyroid cancer cell lines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93:21942201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edge, S, Byrd, DR, Compton, CC, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manuel. Ed 6. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.Google Scholar
Alessandri, AJ, Goddard, KJ, Blair, GK, et al. Age is the major determinant of recurrence in pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 2000; 35:4146.3.0.CO;2-7>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaisman, F, Rossana, C, Vaisman, M. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents – systemic review of the literature. J Thyroid Research 2011; DOI. 10.4061/2011/845362.
Acharya, S, Sarafuglou, M, Gutjahr, P. Thyroid neoplasms after therapeutic radiation for malignancies in childhood and adolescence. Cancer 2003; 97: 10:23972403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimmerman, ID, Hay, I, Gough, R. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adults. Long term follow-up of 1,039 patients consecutively treated at one institution during three decades. Surg 1988; 104:11571166.Google Scholar
Ferradace, CC, Godoy, CC, Martinez, AA, et al. Papillary thyroid cancer case reports of four family cases. Rev Chil Pediatr 2014; 85:351358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugino, K, Nagahama, M, Kitagawa, W, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Long term follow-up and clinical characteristics. World J Surg 2015, March 24 [E pub ahead of print]
Soares, J, Limbert, E, Sobrinho-Simoes, M. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyoid carcinoma. A clinicopathologic study of 10 cases. Path Res Pract 1989; 185:200206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, ED, Revelli, L, Martini, M, et al. Cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an 8 year old girl: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular testing. In J Surg Pathol 2012; 20:629632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enomoto, K, Enomoto, Y, Uchino, S, et al. Follicular thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: clinicopathologic features, long term survival and risk factors for recurrence. Endoc J 2013; 60:629635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Medeiros-Neto, G, Gil-Da-Costa, MJ, Santos, CL, et al. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma arising from congenital goiter due to mutation in thyroperoxidase gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(11): 41624164.Google ScholarPubMed
Feinmesser, R, Lubin, E, Segal, K, Noyek, A. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children–a review.J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1997; 10:561568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lazar, L, Lebenthal, A, Steinmetz, M, et al. Differentiated thyroid cancer in pediatric patients: comparison of presentation and course between pre-pubertal children and adolescents. J Pediatric 2009; 154:708714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demidenik, K, Demidchik, EP, Reiners, C. Comprehensive clinical assessment of 741 operated pediatric thyroid cancer cases in Belarus. Ann Surg 2006; 525–532.
Rivera, G, Lugo-Vincente, H. Thyroid cancer in children. Bol Asoc Med PR 2014; 106:4854.Google ScholarPubMed
Viola, D, Romei, C, Elisei, R. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children. Endocr Dev 2014; 26:202213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Telander, RL, Moir, CR. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children. Semin Pediatr Surg Aug 1994; 3:188193.Google ScholarPubMed
Skinner, MA, Wells, SA Jr. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and the MEN 2 syndromes. Semin Pediatr Surg Aug 1997; 6:134140.Google ScholarPubMed
La Quaglia, MP, Telander, RL. Differentiated and medullary thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence.Semin Pediatr Surg Feb 1997; 6:42–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Shankar, R, Rutter, M, Chernausek, s, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer in a 9-week-old infant with familial MEN 2B: Implications for timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2012 Sep 19; 2012(1):125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zenaty, D, Aigrain, Y, Peuchmaur, M, Philippe-Chomette, P, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma identified within the first year of life in children with hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (codon 634) and 2B. Eur J Endocrinol 2009; 160:807813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kebebew, E, Ituarte, PHG, Siperstein, AE, et al. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 2000; 88:11391148.3.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brauckhoff, M, Machens, A, Loren, ZK. Surgical curability of medullary thyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia. 2B: a changing perspective. Ann Surg 2014; 259:800806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivkees, SA, Mazzaferri, EL, Verburg, FA, et al. The treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer in children: emphasis on surgical approach and radioactive iodine therapy. Endocrinol Rev 2011; 32:798805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachmiel, M, Charron, M, Gupta, A, et al. Evidence-based review of treatment and followup of pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19:13771381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hung, W, Sarlis, NJ. Current controversies in the management of pediatric patients in well differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer. A review. Thyroid 2002; 12:683686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force. Kloos, RT, Eng, C, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer: management and guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 2009; 19:565567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hassoun, A, Hay, I, Goellner, J, Zimmerman, D. Insular thyroid carcinoma in adolescents. Cancer 1997; 79:10441048.3.0.CO;2-0>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sironi, M, Collini, P, Cantaboni, A. Fine needle aspiration cytology of insular thyroid carcinoma. A report of four cases. Actacytol 1992; 36:435439.Google ScholarPubMed
Hassoun, AA, Hay, ID, Goeller, R, et al. Insular thyroid carcinoma in adolescents: a potentially lethal endocrine malignancy. Cancer 1997; 79:10441048.3.0.CO;2-0>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaisman, F, Corbo, R, Vaisman, M. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents – systematic review of the literature. J Thyroid Research 2011; http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/845362.CrossRef
Sakamoto, A. Definition of poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. The Japanese experience. Endocr Pathol 2004; 15:307311CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magnata Filho, LA, Bordallo, MA, Pessoa, CH, et al. Thyroid spindle epithelial tumor with thymus differentiation (SETTLE): case report and review. Arg Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2010; 54:657662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, JK, Rosai, J. Tumors of the neck showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation: a unifying concept. Hum Pathol 1991; 22(4):349367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheuk, W, Jacobson, A, Chan, J. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus like differentiation (SETTLE): A distinctive malignant thyroid neoplasm with significant metastatic potential. Mod Pathol 2000; 13:11501155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saw, D, Wu, D, Chess, Q, Sherman, I. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus like elements (SETTLE), a primary thyroid tumor. Int J Surg Pathol 1997; 4:169174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Llamas-Gutierrez, FJ, Falcon-Escobedo, R, DeAnda-Gonzalez, J, et al. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (SETTLE). Report of two cases with associated parathyroid adenoma. Ann Diag Pathol 2013; 17:217221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roizen, J, Levine, M. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children and adolescents. J Clin Med Assoc 2012; 75:425434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Girard, RM, Belanger, A, Hazel, B. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children. Can J Surg 1982 ; 25:1113.Google ScholarPubMed
Cronin, C, Reeve, T, Robinson, B, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Child Health 1996; 32:397399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loh, K, Duh, Q, Shoback, D, et al. Clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism in adolescents and young adults. Clin Endocrinol 1998; 48:435443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mallet, E. Working group on calcium metabolism. Primary hyperparathyroidism in neonates and childhood. The French experience (1984–2004). Horm Res 2008; 69:180188.Google Scholar
Bhadada, S, Bhansali, A, Dutta, P, et al. Characteristic of primary hyperparathyroidism in adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2008; 21:11471153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kollar, J, Zarroug, A, van Heerden, J, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pediatric patients. Pediatrics 2004; 115:974980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ho, C, Conner, D, Pollak, M, et al. A mouse model of human familial hypocalcuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Nat Genet 1995; 11:389394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollak, MR, Chou, YH, Marx, SJ, et al. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Effects of mutant gene dosage on phenotype. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:11081112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pidasheva, S, D’Souza-Li, L, Canaff, L, et al. Calcium-sensing receptor locus specific database for mutations causing familial (benign) hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. Hum Mutat 2004 ; 24:107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felderbauer, P, Hoffman, P, Lein, W, et al. Identification of a novel calcium-sensing receptor gene mutation causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia by single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005; 113:3134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sathasivam, A, Garibaldi, L, Murphy, R, et al. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19:859862.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norwood, S, Andrassy, R. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children: a review. Mill Med 1983; 148:812814.Google ScholarPubMed
Waller, S, Kurzawinski, T, Spitz, L, et al. Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism: genotype/phenotype correlation and use of pamidronate as rescue therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163:589594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gannon, AW, Monk, HM, Levine, MA. Cinacalet monotherapy in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. A case study and review. J Clin Endo Crinol 2014; 99:711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallet, E. Working group on calcium metabolism. Primary hyperparathyroidism in neonates and childhood. The French experience. (1984–2004). Horms Res 2008; 69:180188.Google Scholar
Iacobone, M, Masi, G, Barzon, L, et al. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: a report of three large kindred. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2009; 394:817825.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cetani, F, Pardi, E, Giovannetti, A, et al. Genetic analysis of the MENI and HPRT2 locus in two Italian kindreds with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Clin Endocrinol 2002; 56:456457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLellis, RA, Mazzaglia, P, Mingray, S. Primary hyperparathyroidism. A current perspective. Arch Patho Lab Med 2008; 132:12511262.Google ScholarPubMed
Melton, LJ. The epidemiology of primary hyperparathyroidism in North America. J Bone Miner Res 2002; 17:N12N17.Google ScholarPubMed
Safarti, E, Lavergne, A, Le Charpentier, Y, et al. Parathyroid microadenoma. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 1987; 138:604606.Google Scholar
Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L, Kimura, N. The parathyroid adenoma. A histopathologic definition with a study of 172 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Pathol 1984; 115:7083.Google ScholarPubMed
Venail, F, Nicollas, R, Morin, T, et al. Solitary parathyroid adenoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in children. Laryngoscope 2007; 117:946949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shan, AA, Shah, AV. Parathyroid adenoma in a two month old child. Indian Pediatrics 2003; 40:10971098.Google Scholar
Allo, M, Thompson, NW, Harness, JK. Primary parathyroidism in children, adolescents and young adults. World J Surg 1982; 6:771776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delellis, RA. Tumors of the Parathyroid Glands. Ed 3. Bethesda: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1993.Google Scholar
Fernandez-Ranvier, GG, KHanafshar, E, Jensen, K, et al. Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, or parathyromatosis? Cancer 2007; 110:255264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliot, DD, Monroe, DP, Perrier, ND. Parathyroid histopathology: is it of value today? J Am Coll Surg 2006; 203:758765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ippolito, G, Palazzo, FF, Sebag, F, et al. Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma. Br J Surg 2007; 94:566570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, JF, Chen, H, Gosain, A. Parathyroid conditions in childhood. Semin Pediatr Surg 2014; 23:6670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiedler, AG, Rossi, G, Gingalewski, CA. Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 44:16491652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mittendorf, EA, McHenry, CR. Parathyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 2005; 89:136142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, CA, Gaz, RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 1985; 149:522527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, PK, Jarosek, SL, Virnig, BA, et al. Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States. Cancer 2007; 109:17361741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLellis, RA. Parathyroid carcinoma. An overview. Adv Anat Pathol 2005; 112:5361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoadinovic, A, Hoos, A, Nissan, A, et al. Parathyroid neoplasms: clinical, histopathological, and tissue microarray-based molecular analysis. Hum Pathol 2003; 34:5464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Entwistle, JW, Pierce, CV, Johson, et al. Parathyroid cysts: report of the sixth youngest pediatric case. J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29:15281529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Kamura, K, Ikenoue, H, Sato, K, et al. Sclerotherapy for benign parathyroid cysts. Am J Surg 1992; 163:344345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DaSilva, D, Machado, MC, Brito, LL. Parathyroid cysts: diagnosis and treatment. Rev Bras Otorhinol 2004; 70:840844.Google Scholar
Vaizey, CJ, Ali, M, Gilbert, JM. Chronic parathyroiditis associated with primary hyperplastic hyperparathyroidism. J R Soc Med 1997; 90:336337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furuto-Kato, S, Matsukura, S, Ogata, M, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism presumably caused by chronic parathyroiditis manifesting from hypocalcemia to severe hypercalcemia. Intern Med 2005; 44:6064.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batsakis, JG, El-Naggar, AK, Luna, MA. Thyroid gland ectopias. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1996; 105:1000.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basaria, S, Westra, WH, Cooper, DS. Ectopic lingual thyroid masquerading as thyroid cancer metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:392395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averno, G, et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphagia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2009; 29:213217.Google ScholarPubMed
Peters, P, Stark, P, Essig, G, et al. Lingual thyroid: an unusual and surgically curable cause of sleep apnea in a male. Sleep and Breathing 2010; 14:377380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neinas, FW, Gorman, CA, Devine, KD, Woolner, LB. Lingual thyroid. Clinical characteristics of 15 cases. Ann Int Med 1973; 79:205210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoen, EJ, Clapp, W, To, T, Fireman, B. The key role of newborn thyroid scintography with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatr 2004; 114:e683e688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baughman, R. Lingual thyroid and lingual thyroglossal tract remnants. An oral clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972; 34:781799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, TS, Cheng, HY. Dual thyroid ectopic with a normally located pretracheal thyroid gland: case report and literature review. Head and Neck 2007, 29:885888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ugar-Cankal, D, Denizci, S, Hocaoglu, T. Prevalence of tongue lesions among Turkish school children. Saudi Med J 2005; 26:19621967.Google Scholar
Prasad, KC, Bhat, V. Surgical management of lingual thyroid: a report of four cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000; 58:223227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eugene, D, Djemli, A, Van Vilet, G. Sexual dimorphism of thyroid function in newborns with congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:26962700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capelli Gandossi, E, Cumetti, D, et al. Ectopic lingual thyroid tissue and acquired hypothyroidism: Case report. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2006; 67:245248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singhal, P, Sharma, KR, Singhal, A. Lingual thyroid in children. J Indian Soc of Pedodo and Preventive Dentistry 2012; 29:270272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, R, Mitchell, ML. Hypothyroidism in infants and children. In: Braverman, LE, Utiger, RO, eds. Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Ed 8. Sidney: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 973982.Google Scholar
Diaz-Arias, AA, Bickel, JT, Loy, TS, et al. Follicular carcinoma with clear cell change arising in lingual thyroid. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74:206211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averono, G., et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphasia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otochinolaryngologia Ital 2009; 29:213217.Google Scholar
Seonane, JM, Cameselle-Teijerio, J, Romero, MA. Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13:353360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaabouni, AM, Intidhar Labidi, S, Kraiem, T., et al. Papillary follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid. Ann Otolaryngol Chircevicofac 2006; 123:199202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massinc, RE, Durning, SJ, Koroscil, TM. Lingual thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid 2001; 11:11911196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allard, LH. The thyroglossal cyst. Head Neck Surg 1982; 5:134146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dedivitis, RA, Camargo, DL, Peisoto, GL, et al. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:274277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mondin, V, Ferlito, A, Muzzi, E, Silver, CE, et al. Thyroglossal duct cyst: personal experience and literature review. Auris Nasus Larynx 2008; 35:1125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz, MC, Stormorken, A, Christopher, NC. Thyroglossal duct causing apnea and cyanosis in a neonate. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005; 21(2): 3537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soloman, JR, Rangercroft, L. Thyroglossal duct lesions in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 1984; 19:555561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peretz, A, Lieberman, E, Kapelushnik, J, Hershkovitz, E. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma in children: case presentation and review of the literature. Thyroid 2004; 14:777785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, NN, Hartley, BE, Howard, DJ. Management of thyroglossal tract disease after failed Sistrunk procedure. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117:710712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noussios, G, Panaglotis, A, Goults, D, et al. Ectopic thyroid tissue: anatomical, clinical, and surgical implication of a rare entity. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 165:375382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LiVolsi, V. Thyroid lesions in unusual locations. In: Bennington, JL, ed. Surgical Pathology of the Thyroid. Major Problems in Pathology. Vol. 22. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990, 351363.Google Scholar
Kumar, R, Khullar, S, Gupta, R, et al. Dual thyroid ectopy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Nucl Med 2000; 25:253254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldfischer, S, Grotsky, HW, Chang, CH, et al. Idiopathic neonatal iron storage involving the liver, pancreas, heart and endocrine and exocrine glands. Hepatology 1981; 1:5864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, CB, Herrera, GA, Jaffe, K, et al. Black thyroid. Clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms. Hum Pathol 1985; 16:7278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, JD, Choi, CH, Oldroyd, N. Calcium oxalate crystals in the thyroid. Their identification, prevalence, origin, and possible significance. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87:443454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lorini, R, Gastaldi, R, Traggiai, C, et al. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2003; 1:205211.Google ScholarPubMed
Tandon, N, Zhang, L, Weetman, AP. HLA associations with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1991; 34:383386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicholson, L, Wong, F, Ewins, D, et al. Susceptibility to autoimmune thyroiditis in Down’s syndrome is associated with the major histocompatibility class II DQA 0301 allele. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1994; 41:381383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goudie, RB, Anderson, JR, Gray, KG, et al. Autoimmune associations of Hashimoto’s disease. Lancet 1965; 17:322323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furszyfer, J, Kurland, LT, McConahey, WM, et al. Graves’ disease in Omsted county, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Mayo Clin Proc 1970; 45:636644.Google Scholar
Erickson, LA, Yousef, OM, Lin, L, et al. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves’s disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathology 2000; 13:10141019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beahrs, OH, McConahey, WM, Woolner, LB. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Reidel’s struma). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975; 17:201220.Google Scholar
Best, TB, Munro, RE, Burwell, S, et al. Reidel’s thyroiditis associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperparathyroidism, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. J Endocrinol Invest 1991; 14:767772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, HS, Hwang, JS. The natural course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in children and adolescents. J Pediat Endocrinol Met 2014; 27:807812.Google ScholarPubMed
Menconi, F, Marcocci, M. Diagnosis and classification of Graves’ disease. Autoimmunity Reviews 2014; 13:398402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brent, GA. Clinical practice: Graves’ disease. New England J of Med 2008; 358:25942605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Genovese, BM, Noureldine, SI, Gleeson, EM, et al. What is the best definitive treatment for Graves’ disease? A systemic review of the existing literature. Annals of Surgical Oncology (review) 2013; 20:660667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soh, SB, Pham, A, O’Hehir, RE, et al. Novel use of rituximab in a case of Riedels thyroiditis refractory to glucocortogoids and taxoxifen. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2013; 98:35433549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fatourechi, MM, Hay, ID, McIver, B. et al. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis. (Riedel thyroiditis) The Mayo Clinic experience, 1976–2008. Thyroid 2011; 21:765772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Divatia, K, Kim, SA, Ro, JY. IgG4 related sclerosing disease, an emerging entity: a review of multi system disease. Yonsei Med J 2012; 53:1534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bahn, RS, Castro, MR. Approach to the patient with nontoxic multinodular goiter. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:12021212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braverman, LE, Utiger, RD, Hermus, AR, Juysmans, AD. Clinical manifestations and treatment of nontoxic diffuse and nodular goiter. In: Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 866871.Google Scholar
Hegedus, L, Gerber, H. Multinodular goiter. In: DeGroot, LJ, Jameson, JL, eds. Endocrinology. Philadelphia, 2001; 2:15171528.Google Scholar
Shah, SS, Baum, SG. Diagnosis and management of infectious thyroiditis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2:147153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paes, JE, Burman, KD, Cohen, J, et al. Acute bacterial suppurative thyroiditis. A clinical review and expert opinion. Thyroid 2010; 20:247255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghaemi, N, Sayedi, J, Bagheri, S. Acute suppurative thyroiditis with thyroid abscess: a case report and review of the literature. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2014; 26:5155.Google ScholarPubMed
Dussault, JH. Anecdotal history of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:43324334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thyroid Association, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, et al. Update of newborn screening and therapy for congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics 2006 Jun; 117:22902303.CrossRefPubMed
Klein, AH, Meltzer, S, Kenny, FM. Improved prognosis in congenital hypothyroidism treated before age three months. J Pediatr 1972; 81:912915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, ML, Hsu, HW, Sahai, I, et al. The increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism; fact or fancy? Clin Endocrinol 2011; 75:806810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delange, F. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism: result and perspectives. Horm Res 1997; 48:5161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonger- Schokking, JJ, deMuink, SM. Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothytidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siebner, R, Merlob, P, Kaiserman, I, Sack, J. Congenital anomalies concomitant persistent primary congenital hypothyroidism. Am J Med Genet 1992; 44:5760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, J, Gordillo, R, Kaskel, FJ, et al. Increased prevalence of renal and urinary tract anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2009; 154:263266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopp, P. Pendred’s syndrome: identification of the genetic defect century after its recognition. Thyroid 1999; 9:6569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bongers-Schokking, J, de Muinck, KS, Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyerdahl, S, Oerbeck, B. Congenital hypothyroidism: a review of current diagnostic and treatment practices in relation to levothyroxine treatment variables. Thyroid 2003; 13:10291038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zakaruija, M, McKenzie, JM. Pregnancy associated changes in the thyroid stimulating antibody of Graves’ disease and the relationship to neonatal hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57:10361040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohn, LD, Suzuki, K, Hoffman, WH, et al. Characterization of monoclonal thyroid stimulating and thyrotropin binding-inhibiting autoantibodies from a Hashimoto’s patient whose children had intrauterine and neonatal thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82:39984009.Google ScholarPubMed
Schwab, KO, Gerlich, M, Broeker, M, et al. Congenital active germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor gene as a cause of congenital hyperthyroidism. J Pediatr 1997; 131:899904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shore, R, Hildreth, N, Dvortsky, P, et al. Benign thyroid adenomas among persons X-irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands. Radiat Res 1993; 134:217223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katoh, R, Harach, HR, Williams, E, et al. Solitary, multiple, and familial oxyphil tumors of the thyroid gland.J Pathol 1998; 186:292299.3.0.CO;2-Y>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mai, KT, Landry, D, Thomas, J, et al. Follicular adenoma with papillary architecture: a lesion mimicking papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histopathology 2001; 39:2532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castro, P, Sansontty, F, Soares, P, et al. Fetal adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas of the thyroid frequently display a triploid or near triploid DNA pattern. Virch Arch 2001; 438:336342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alsop, JE, Yerbury, PJ, O’Donnell, PJ, Heyderman, E. Signet ring microfollicular adenoma arising in a nodular ectopic thyroid. A case report. J Oral Pathol 1986; 15:518519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gherardi, G. Signet ring mucinous thyroid adenoma: a follicle cell tumor with abnormal accumulation of thyroglobulin and a peculiar histochemical profile. Histopathology 1987; 11:317326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demidchik, L, Subhani, Z, Gordon, RE. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case and ultrastructural study. Cancer 1980; 45:25642567.Google Scholar
Schroder, S, Niendorf, A, Achilles, E, et al. Lipid rich cell adenoma of the thyroid gland. Report of a peculiar thyroid tumor. Virch Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1984; 404:105108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Namba, H, Rubin, SA, Fagin, JA. Point mutations of as oncogenes are an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol 1990; 4:14741479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krohn, K, Paschke, R. Clinical review 133: Progress in understanding the etiology of thyroid autonomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:33363345.Google ScholarPubMed
Belge, G, Roque, L, Soares, J, et al. Cytogenic investigation of 340 thyroid hyperplasias and adenomas revealing correlations between cytogenetic findings and history. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1998; 101:4248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, A, Ly, S, Castroneves, LA, et al. A standardized assessment of thyroid nodules in children confirms higher cancer prevalence than in adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013, 98:32383245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, CC, Boerner, SL, Macmillan, CM, et al. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: a variant of papillary carcinoma proved by molecular genetics. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24:16221626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papotti, M, Volante, M, Giuliano, A, et al. RET/PTC activation in hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24:16151621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCluggage, WG, Sloan, JM. Hyalinizing trabecular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Histopathol 1996; 28:357362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chan, JK, Tse, CC, Chiu, HS. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma-like lesion in multinodular goiter. Histopathol 1990; 16:611614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronner, MP, LiVolsi, VA, Jennings, TA. Paragenglioma like adenomas of the thyroid. Surg Pathol 1988; 1:383389.Google Scholar
Nose, V, Volante, M, Papotti, M. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol 2008; 19:18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bettendorf, M. Thyroid disorders in children from birth to adolescence. European J Nuclear Med 2002; 29:54395446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gorla, S, DiBella, C, Leone, B. Cytological and histological findings of thyroid florid papillary hyperplasia. Cytopathology 2012; 23: 417419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niedziela, M. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13:427453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francis, G, Waguespack, SG, Bauer, AJ, et al. Management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The American Thyroid Associaton Guidelines Taskforce on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. {Epub} ahead of print, April 21, 2015.
Dinauer, CA, Breuer, C, Rivkees, SA. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children: diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Oncol 2008; 20:5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirath, P, Volkan-Salanci, B, Gunay, E, et al. Thyroid cancer in pediatric age group: an institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatric Hemato/Oncol 2013; 35:9397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luster, M, Lassmann, M, Freudenberg, LS, Reiners, C. Thyroid cancer in childhood: management strategy, including dosimetry and long term results. Hormones 2007; 6:269278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ries, LAG, Melbert, D, Krapcho, M, et al., ed. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2004. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, 2007.Google Scholar
Baverstock, K, Egloff, B, Pinchera, A, et al. Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 1992; 359:2122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogan, AR, Zhuge, Y, Perez, EA, et al. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma: incidence and outcome in 1753 patients. J Surg Res 2009; 156:167172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, NL, Bhattacharyya, N. Population-based outcomes for pediatric thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope 2005; 115:337340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imai, Y, Yamakawa, M, Matsuda, M, et al. Endogenous sex hormone and estrogen binding activity in thyroid cancer. Histol Histopathol 1989; 4:3942.Google ScholarPubMed
Niedziela, M. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13:427453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boelaert, K, Horacek, J, Holder, RL, et al. Serum thyrotropin concentration as a novel predictor of malignancy in thyroid nodule investigated by fine needle aspiration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:42954301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Disen, D, Skinner, M. Pediatric thyroid cancer. SemPediatrSurg 2012; 21:4450.Google Scholar
Fenton, CL, Lukes, Y, Nicholson, D, et al. The RET/PTC mutations are common in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma of children and young adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:11701175.Google ScholarPubMed
Santoro, M, Thomas, GA, Vecchio, G, et al. Gene rearrangement and Chernobyl related cancers. Br J Cancer 2000; 82:315322.Google Scholar
Henderson, YC, Shellenberger, TD, Williams, MD, et al. High rate of BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:485491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stein, L, Rothschild, J, Luce, J, et al. Copy number and gene expression alterations in radiation induced papillary thyroid carcinoma from Chernobyl pediatric patients. Thyroid 2012; 20:475487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikiforov, YE, Rowland, JM, Bove, KE, et al. Distinct pattern of RET oncogene rearrangements in morphological variants of radiation induced and sporadic thyroid papillary carcinomas in children. Cancer Res 1997; 57:16901694.Google ScholarPubMed
Lupi, C, Giannini, R, Ugolini, C, et al. Association of BRAF V600E mutation with poor clinicopathological outcomes in 500 consecutive cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:40854090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leboeuf, R, Baumgartner, JE, Benezra, M, et al. BRAFV600E mutation is associated with preferential sensitivity to mitogen activated protein kinase inhibition in thyroid cancer cell lines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93:21942201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edge, S, Byrd, DR, Compton, CC, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manuel. Ed 6. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.Google Scholar
Alessandri, AJ, Goddard, KJ, Blair, GK, et al. Age is the major determinant of recurrence in pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 2000; 35:4146.3.0.CO;2-7>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaisman, F, Rossana, C, Vaisman, M. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents – systemic review of the literature. J Thyroid Research 2011; DOI. 10.4061/2011/845362.
Acharya, S, Sarafuglou, M, Gutjahr, P. Thyroid neoplasms after therapeutic radiation for malignancies in childhood and adolescence. Cancer 2003; 97: 10:23972403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimmerman, ID, Hay, I, Gough, R. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adults. Long term follow-up of 1,039 patients consecutively treated at one institution during three decades. Surg 1988; 104:11571166.Google Scholar
Ferradace, CC, Godoy, CC, Martinez, AA, et al. Papillary thyroid cancer case reports of four family cases. Rev Chil Pediatr 2014; 85:351358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugino, K, Nagahama, M, Kitagawa, W, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Long term follow-up and clinical characteristics. World J Surg 2015, March 24 [E pub ahead of print]
Soares, J, Limbert, E, Sobrinho-Simoes, M. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyoid carcinoma. A clinicopathologic study of 10 cases. Path Res Pract 1989; 185:200206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, ED, Revelli, L, Martini, M, et al. Cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an 8 year old girl: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular testing. In J Surg Pathol 2012; 20:629632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enomoto, K, Enomoto, Y, Uchino, S, et al. Follicular thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: clinicopathologic features, long term survival and risk factors for recurrence. Endoc J 2013; 60:629635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Medeiros-Neto, G, Gil-Da-Costa, MJ, Santos, CL, et al. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma arising from congenital goiter due to mutation in thyroperoxidase gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(11): 41624164.Google ScholarPubMed
Feinmesser, R, Lubin, E, Segal, K, Noyek, A. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children–a review.J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1997; 10:561568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lazar, L, Lebenthal, A, Steinmetz, M, et al. Differentiated thyroid cancer in pediatric patients: comparison of presentation and course between pre-pubertal children and adolescents. J Pediatric 2009; 154:708714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demidenik, K, Demidchik, EP, Reiners, C. Comprehensive clinical assessment of 741 operated pediatric thyroid cancer cases in Belarus. Ann Surg 2006; 525–532.
Rivera, G, Lugo-Vincente, H. Thyroid cancer in children. Bol Asoc Med PR 2014; 106:4854.Google ScholarPubMed
Viola, D, Romei, C, Elisei, R. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children. Endocr Dev 2014; 26:202213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Telander, RL, Moir, CR. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children. Semin Pediatr Surg Aug 1994; 3:188193.Google ScholarPubMed
Skinner, MA, Wells, SA Jr. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and the MEN 2 syndromes. Semin Pediatr Surg Aug 1997; 6:134140.Google ScholarPubMed
La Quaglia, MP, Telander, RL. Differentiated and medullary thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence.Semin Pediatr Surg Feb 1997; 6:42–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Shankar, R, Rutter, M, Chernausek, s, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer in a 9-week-old infant with familial MEN 2B: Implications for timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2012 Sep 19; 2012(1):125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zenaty, D, Aigrain, Y, Peuchmaur, M, Philippe-Chomette, P, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma identified within the first year of life in children with hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (codon 634) and 2B. Eur J Endocrinol 2009; 160:807813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kebebew, E, Ituarte, PHG, Siperstein, AE, et al. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 2000; 88:11391148.3.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brauckhoff, M, Machens, A, Loren, ZK. Surgical curability of medullary thyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia. 2B: a changing perspective. Ann Surg 2014; 259:800806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivkees, SA, Mazzaferri, EL, Verburg, FA, et al. The treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer in children: emphasis on surgical approach and radioactive iodine therapy. Endocrinol Rev 2011; 32:798805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachmiel, M, Charron, M, Gupta, A, et al. Evidence-based review of treatment and followup of pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19:13771381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hung, W, Sarlis, NJ. Current controversies in the management of pediatric patients in well differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer. A review. Thyroid 2002; 12:683686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force. Kloos, RT, Eng, C, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer: management and guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 2009; 19:565567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hassoun, A, Hay, I, Goellner, J, Zimmerman, D. Insular thyroid carcinoma in adolescents. Cancer 1997; 79:10441048.3.0.CO;2-0>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sironi, M, Collini, P, Cantaboni, A. Fine needle aspiration cytology of insular thyroid carcinoma. A report of four cases. Actacytol 1992; 36:435439.Google ScholarPubMed
Hassoun, AA, Hay, ID, Goeller, R, et al. Insular thyroid carcinoma in adolescents: a potentially lethal endocrine malignancy. Cancer 1997; 79:10441048.3.0.CO;2-0>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaisman, F, Corbo, R, Vaisman, M. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents – systematic review of the literature. J Thyroid Research 2011; http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/845362.CrossRef
Sakamoto, A. Definition of poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. The Japanese experience. Endocr Pathol 2004; 15:307311CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magnata Filho, LA, Bordallo, MA, Pessoa, CH, et al. Thyroid spindle epithelial tumor with thymus differentiation (SETTLE): case report and review. Arg Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2010; 54:657662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, JK, Rosai, J. Tumors of the neck showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation: a unifying concept. Hum Pathol 1991; 22(4):349367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheuk, W, Jacobson, A, Chan, J. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus like differentiation (SETTLE): A distinctive malignant thyroid neoplasm with significant metastatic potential. Mod Pathol 2000; 13:11501155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saw, D, Wu, D, Chess, Q, Sherman, I. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus like elements (SETTLE), a primary thyroid tumor. Int J Surg Pathol 1997; 4:169174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Llamas-Gutierrez, FJ, Falcon-Escobedo, R, DeAnda-Gonzalez, J, et al. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (SETTLE). Report of two cases with associated parathyroid adenoma. Ann Diag Pathol 2013; 17:217221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roizen, J, Levine, M. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children and adolescents. J Clin Med Assoc 2012; 75:425434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Girard, RM, Belanger, A, Hazel, B. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children. Can J Surg 1982 ; 25:1113.Google ScholarPubMed
Cronin, C, Reeve, T, Robinson, B, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Child Health 1996; 32:397399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loh, K, Duh, Q, Shoback, D, et al. Clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism in adolescents and young adults. Clin Endocrinol 1998; 48:435443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mallet, E. Working group on calcium metabolism. Primary hyperparathyroidism in neonates and childhood. The French experience (1984–2004). Horm Res 2008; 69:180188.Google Scholar
Bhadada, S, Bhansali, A, Dutta, P, et al. Characteristic of primary hyperparathyroidism in adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2008; 21:11471153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kollar, J, Zarroug, A, van Heerden, J, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pediatric patients. Pediatrics 2004; 115:974980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ho, C, Conner, D, Pollak, M, et al. A mouse model of human familial hypocalcuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Nat Genet 1995; 11:389394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollak, MR, Chou, YH, Marx, SJ, et al. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Effects of mutant gene dosage on phenotype. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:11081112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pidasheva, S, D’Souza-Li, L, Canaff, L, et al. Calcium-sensing receptor locus specific database for mutations causing familial (benign) hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. Hum Mutat 2004 ; 24:107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felderbauer, P, Hoffman, P, Lein, W, et al. Identification of a novel calcium-sensing receptor gene mutation causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia by single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005; 113:3134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sathasivam, A, Garibaldi, L, Murphy, R, et al. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19:859862.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norwood, S, Andrassy, R. Primary hyperparathyroidism in children: a review. Mill Med 1983; 148:812814.Google ScholarPubMed
Waller, S, Kurzawinski, T, Spitz, L, et al. Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism: genotype/phenotype correlation and use of pamidronate as rescue therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163:589594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gannon, AW, Monk, HM, Levine, MA. Cinacalet monotherapy in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. A case study and review. J Clin Endo Crinol 2014; 99:711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallet, E. Working group on calcium metabolism. Primary hyperparathyroidism in neonates and childhood. The French experience. (1984–2004). Horms Res 2008; 69:180188.Google Scholar
Iacobone, M, Masi, G, Barzon, L, et al. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: a report of three large kindred. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2009; 394:817825.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cetani, F, Pardi, E, Giovannetti, A, et al. Genetic analysis of the MENI and HPRT2 locus in two Italian kindreds with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Clin Endocrinol 2002; 56:456457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLellis, RA, Mazzaglia, P, Mingray, S. Primary hyperparathyroidism. A current perspective. Arch Patho Lab Med 2008; 132:12511262.Google ScholarPubMed
Melton, LJ. The epidemiology of primary hyperparathyroidism in North America. J Bone Miner Res 2002; 17:N12N17.Google ScholarPubMed
Safarti, E, Lavergne, A, Le Charpentier, Y, et al. Parathyroid microadenoma. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 1987; 138:604606.Google Scholar
Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L, Kimura, N. The parathyroid adenoma. A histopathologic definition with a study of 172 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Pathol 1984; 115:7083.Google ScholarPubMed
Venail, F, Nicollas, R, Morin, T, et al. Solitary parathyroid adenoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in children. Laryngoscope 2007; 117:946949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shan, AA, Shah, AV. Parathyroid adenoma in a two month old child. Indian Pediatrics 2003; 40:10971098.Google Scholar
Allo, M, Thompson, NW, Harness, JK. Primary parathyroidism in children, adolescents and young adults. World J Surg 1982; 6:771776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delellis, RA. Tumors of the Parathyroid Glands. Ed 3. Bethesda: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1993.Google Scholar
Fernandez-Ranvier, GG, KHanafshar, E, Jensen, K, et al. Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, or parathyromatosis? Cancer 2007; 110:255264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliot, DD, Monroe, DP, Perrier, ND. Parathyroid histopathology: is it of value today? J Am Coll Surg 2006; 203:758765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ippolito, G, Palazzo, FF, Sebag, F, et al. Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma. Br J Surg 2007; 94:566570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, JF, Chen, H, Gosain, A. Parathyroid conditions in childhood. Semin Pediatr Surg 2014; 23:6670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiedler, AG, Rossi, G, Gingalewski, CA. Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 44:16491652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mittendorf, EA, McHenry, CR. Parathyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 2005; 89:136142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, CA, Gaz, RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 1985; 149:522527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, PK, Jarosek, SL, Virnig, BA, et al. Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States. Cancer 2007; 109:17361741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLellis, RA. Parathyroid carcinoma. An overview. Adv Anat Pathol 2005; 112:5361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoadinovic, A, Hoos, A, Nissan, A, et al. Parathyroid neoplasms: clinical, histopathological, and tissue microarray-based molecular analysis. Hum Pathol 2003; 34:5464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Entwistle, JW, Pierce, CV, Johson, et al. Parathyroid cysts: report of the sixth youngest pediatric case. J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29:15281529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Kamura, K, Ikenoue, H, Sato, K, et al. Sclerotherapy for benign parathyroid cysts. Am J Surg 1992; 163:344345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DaSilva, D, Machado, MC, Brito, LL. Parathyroid cysts: diagnosis and treatment. Rev Bras Otorhinol 2004; 70:840844.Google Scholar
Vaizey, CJ, Ali, M, Gilbert, JM. Chronic parathyroiditis associated with primary hyperplastic hyperparathyroidism. J R Soc Med 1997; 90:336337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furuto-Kato, S, Matsukura, S, Ogata, M, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism presumably caused by chronic parathyroiditis manifesting from hypocalcemia to severe hypercalcemia. Intern Med 2005; 44:6064.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batsakis, JG, El-Naggar, AK, Luna, MA. Thyroid gland ectopias. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1996; 105:1000.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basaria, S, Westra, WH, Cooper, DS. Ectopic lingual thyroid masquerading as thyroid cancer metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:392395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averno, G, et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphagia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2009; 29:213217.Google ScholarPubMed
Peters, P, Stark, P, Essig, G, et al. Lingual thyroid: an unusual and surgically curable cause of sleep apnea in a male. Sleep and Breathing 2010; 14:377380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neinas, FW, Gorman, CA, Devine, KD, Woolner, LB. Lingual thyroid. Clinical characteristics of 15 cases. Ann Int Med 1973; 79:205210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoen, EJ, Clapp, W, To, T, Fireman, B. The key role of newborn thyroid scintography with isotopic iodide (123I) in defining and managing congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatr 2004; 114:e683e688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baughman, R. Lingual thyroid and lingual thyroglossal tract remnants. An oral clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972; 34:781799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, TS, Cheng, HY. Dual thyroid ectopic with a normally located pretracheal thyroid gland: case report and literature review. Head and Neck 2007, 29:885888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ugar-Cankal, D, Denizci, S, Hocaoglu, T. Prevalence of tongue lesions among Turkish school children. Saudi Med J 2005; 26:19621967.Google Scholar
Prasad, KC, Bhat, V. Surgical management of lingual thyroid: a report of four cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000; 58:223227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eugene, D, Djemli, A, Van Vilet, G. Sexual dimorphism of thyroid function in newborns with congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:26962700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capelli Gandossi, E, Cumetti, D, et al. Ectopic lingual thyroid tissue and acquired hypothyroidism: Case report. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2006; 67:245248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singhal, P, Sharma, KR, Singhal, A. Lingual thyroid in children. J Indian Soc of Pedodo and Preventive Dentistry 2012; 29:270272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, R, Mitchell, ML. Hypothyroidism in infants and children. In: Braverman, LE, Utiger, RO, eds. Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Ed 8. Sidney: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 973982.Google Scholar
Diaz-Arias, AA, Bickel, JT, Loy, TS, et al. Follicular carcinoma with clear cell change arising in lingual thyroid. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74:206211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toso, A, Colombani, F, Averono, G., et al. Lingual thyroid causing dysphasia and dyspnea. Case reports and review of the literature. Acta Otochinolaryngologia Ital 2009; 29:213217.Google Scholar
Seonane, JM, Cameselle-Teijerio, J, Romero, MA. Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol 2002; 13:353360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaabouni, AM, Intidhar Labidi, S, Kraiem, T., et al. Papillary follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid. Ann Otolaryngol Chircevicofac 2006; 123:199202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massinc, RE, Durning, SJ, Koroscil, TM. Lingual thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid 2001; 11:11911196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allard, LH. The thyroglossal cyst. Head Neck Surg 1982; 5:134146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dedivitis, RA, Camargo, DL, Peisoto, GL, et al. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:274277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mondin, V, Ferlito, A, Muzzi, E, Silver, CE, et al. Thyroglossal duct cyst: personal experience and literature review. Auris Nasus Larynx 2008; 35:1125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz, MC, Stormorken, A, Christopher, NC. Thyroglossal duct causing apnea and cyanosis in a neonate. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005; 21(2): 3537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soloman, JR, Rangercroft, L. Thyroglossal duct lesions in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 1984; 19:555561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peretz, A, Lieberman, E, Kapelushnik, J, Hershkovitz, E. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma in children: case presentation and review of the literature. Thyroid 2004; 14:777785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, NN, Hartley, BE, Howard, DJ. Management of thyroglossal tract disease after failed Sistrunk procedure. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117:710712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noussios, G, Panaglotis, A, Goults, D, et al. Ectopic thyroid tissue: anatomical, clinical, and surgical implication of a rare entity. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 165:375382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LiVolsi, V. Thyroid lesions in unusual locations. In: Bennington, JL, ed. Surgical Pathology of the Thyroid. Major Problems in Pathology. Vol. 22. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990, 351363.Google Scholar
Kumar, R, Khullar, S, Gupta, R, et al. Dual thyroid ectopy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Nucl Med 2000; 25:253254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldfischer, S, Grotsky, HW, Chang, CH, et al. Idiopathic neonatal iron storage involving the liver, pancreas, heart and endocrine and exocrine glands. Hepatology 1981; 1:5864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, CB, Herrera, GA, Jaffe, K, et al. Black thyroid. Clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms. Hum Pathol 1985; 16:7278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, JD, Choi, CH, Oldroyd, N. Calcium oxalate crystals in the thyroid. Their identification, prevalence, origin, and possible significance. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87:443454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lorini, R, Gastaldi, R, Traggiai, C, et al. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2003; 1:205211.Google ScholarPubMed
Tandon, N, Zhang, L, Weetman, AP. HLA associations with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1991; 34:383386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicholson, L, Wong, F, Ewins, D, et al. Susceptibility to autoimmune thyroiditis in Down’s syndrome is associated with the major histocompatibility class II DQA 0301 allele. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1994; 41:381383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goudie, RB, Anderson, JR, Gray, KG, et al. Autoimmune associations of Hashimoto’s disease. Lancet 1965; 17:322323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furszyfer, J, Kurland, LT, McConahey, WM, et al. Graves’ disease in Omsted county, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Mayo Clin Proc 1970; 45:636644.Google Scholar
Erickson, LA, Yousef, OM, Lin, L, et al. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves’s disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathology 2000; 13:10141019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beahrs, OH, McConahey, WM, Woolner, LB. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Reidel’s struma). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975; 17:201220.Google Scholar
Best, TB, Munro, RE, Burwell, S, et al. Reidel’s thyroiditis associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperparathyroidism, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. J Endocrinol Invest 1991; 14:767772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, HS, Hwang, JS. The natural course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in children and adolescents. J Pediat Endocrinol Met 2014; 27:807812.Google ScholarPubMed
Menconi, F, Marcocci, M. Diagnosis and classification of Graves’ disease. Autoimmunity Reviews 2014; 13:398402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brent, GA. Clinical practice: Graves’ disease. New England J of Med 2008; 358:25942605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Genovese, BM, Noureldine, SI, Gleeson, EM, et al. What is the best definitive treatment for Graves’ disease? A systemic review of the existing literature. Annals of Surgical Oncology (review) 2013; 20:660667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soh, SB, Pham, A, O’Hehir, RE, et al. Novel use of rituximab in a case of Riedels thyroiditis refractory to glucocortogoids and taxoxifen. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2013; 98:35433549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fatourechi, MM, Hay, ID, McIver, B. et al. Invasive fibrous thyroiditis. (Riedel thyroiditis) The Mayo Clinic experience, 1976–2008. Thyroid 2011; 21:765772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Divatia, K, Kim, SA, Ro, JY. IgG4 related sclerosing disease, an emerging entity: a review of multi system disease. Yonsei Med J 2012; 53:1534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bahn, RS, Castro, MR. Approach to the patient with nontoxic multinodular goiter. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:12021212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braverman, LE, Utiger, RD, Hermus, AR, Juysmans, AD. Clinical manifestations and treatment of nontoxic diffuse and nodular goiter. In: Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000, 866871.Google Scholar
Hegedus, L, Gerber, H. Multinodular goiter. In: DeGroot, LJ, Jameson, JL, eds. Endocrinology. Philadelphia, 2001; 2:15171528.Google Scholar
Shah, SS, Baum, SG. Diagnosis and management of infectious thyroiditis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2:147153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paes, JE, Burman, KD, Cohen, J, et al. Acute bacterial suppurative thyroiditis. A clinical review and expert opinion. Thyroid 2010; 20:247255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghaemi, N, Sayedi, J, Bagheri, S. Acute suppurative thyroiditis with thyroid abscess: a case report and review of the literature. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2014; 26:5155.Google ScholarPubMed
Dussault, JH. Anecdotal history of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:43324334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thyroid Association, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, et al. Update of newborn screening and therapy for congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics 2006 Jun; 117:22902303.CrossRefPubMed
Klein, AH, Meltzer, S, Kenny, FM. Improved prognosis in congenital hypothyroidism treated before age three months. J Pediatr 1972; 81:912915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, ML, Hsu, HW, Sahai, I, et al. The increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism; fact or fancy? Clin Endocrinol 2011; 75:806810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delange, F. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism: result and perspectives. Horm Res 1997; 48:5161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonger- Schokking, JJ, deMuink, SM. Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothytidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siebner, R, Merlob, P, Kaiserman, I, Sack, J. Congenital anomalies concomitant persistent primary congenital hypothyroidism. Am J Med Genet 1992; 44:5760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, J, Gordillo, R, Kaskel, FJ, et al. Increased prevalence of renal and urinary tract anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2009; 154:263266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopp, P. Pendred’s syndrome: identification of the genetic defect century after its recognition. Thyroid 1999; 9:6569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bongers-Schokking, J, de Muinck, KS, Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 2005; 147:768774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyerdahl, S, Oerbeck, B. Congenital hypothyroidism: a review of current diagnostic and treatment practices in relation to levothyroxine treatment variables. Thyroid 2003; 13:10291038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zakaruija, M, McKenzie, JM. Pregnancy associated changes in the thyroid stimulating antibody of Graves’ disease and the relationship to neonatal hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57:10361040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohn, LD, Suzuki, K, Hoffman, WH, et al. Characterization of monoclonal thyroid stimulating and thyrotropin binding-inhibiting autoantibodies from a Hashimoto’s patient whose children had intrauterine and neonatal thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82:39984009.Google ScholarPubMed
Schwab, KO, Gerlich, M, Broeker, M, et al. Congenital active germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor gene as a cause of congenital hyperthyroidism. J Pediatr 1997; 131:899904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shore, R, Hildreth, N, Dvortsky, P, et al. Benign thyroid adenomas among persons X-irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands. Radiat Res 1993; 134:217223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katoh, R, Harach, HR, Williams, E, et al. Solitary, multiple, and familial oxyphil tumors of the thyroid gland.J Pathol 1998; 186: