Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-mhl4m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-23T21:43:03.229Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

21 - Does disordered brain development occur across diagnostic boundaries?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 August 2010

Christian W. Kreipke
Affiliation:
Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, USA
David R. Rosenberg
Affiliation:
Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, USA
Matcheri S. Keshavan
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, USA
Matcheri S. Keshavan
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
James L. Kennedy
Affiliation:
Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto
Robin M. Murray
Affiliation:
Institute of Psychiatry, London
Get access

Summary

This chapter focuses on the neurodevelopmental basis of diagnostic overlap and symptom commonality by addressing similarities and differences in the neuroanatomical and functional neurochemical basis of three common childhood/adolescent-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and mood disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). These disorders are selected because of the clinical commonalities with schizophrenia and because of the known or presumed developmental origins of these disorders. Schizophrenia, BPD, and OCD have their onset in adolescence or early adulthood, and they may be preceded by symptoms similar to those in developmental disorders such as ADHD. The disorders are discussed in comparison with schizophrenia. The chapter describes the relevant findings in schizophrenia. It limits the pathophysiological discussion to the neuroimaging findings, and considers common genetic and environmental etiologic factors that may cut across these disorders.
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2004

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adler, C. M., Strakowski, S. M. (2003). Boundaries of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Clin North Am 26: 1–23CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altshuler, L. L., Bartzokis, G., Grieder, T.et al. (2000). An MRI study of temporal lobe structures in men with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 48: 147–162CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andreasen, N. C., Rezai, K., Alliger, R.et al. (1992). Hypofrontality in neuroleptic-naive patients and in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Assessment with xenon 133 single-photon emission computed tomography and the Tower of London. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 943–958CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aylward, E. H., Reiss, A. L., Reader, M. J.et al. (1996). Basal ganglia volumes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Neurol 11: 112–115CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badner, J. A., Gershon, E. S. (2002). Meta-analysis of whole-genome scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 7: 405–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartha, R., Stein, M. B., Williamson, P. C.et al. (1998). A short echo 1H spectroscopy and volumetric MRI study of the corpus striatum in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder and comparison subjects. Am J Psychiatry 155: 1584–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behar, D., Rapoport, J. L., Berg, C. J.et al. (1984). Computerized tomography and neuropsychological test measures in adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 141: 363–369Google ScholarPubMed
Bellak, L., Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A. (1987). Attention deficit disorder psychosis as a diagnostic category. Psychiatr Dev 5: 239–263Google ScholarPubMed
Benazon, N. R., Ager, J., Rosenberg, D. R. (2001). Cognitive behavior therapy in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder: an open trial. Behav Res Ther 40: 529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benjamin, J., Li, L., Patterson, C.et al. (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nat Genet 12: 81–84CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berrettini, W. (2000). Review of bipolar molecular linkage and association studies. Curr Psychiatry Rep 4: 124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berrettini, W. H., Ferraro, T. N., Alexander, R. C., Buchberg, A. M., Vogel, W. H. (1994). Quantitative trait loci mapping of three loci controlling morphine preference using inbred mouse strains. Nat Genet 7: 54–58CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, V., Tsuang, M. T. (1991). Evidence of familial association between attention deficit disorders and major affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 78: 633–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, K.et al. (1992). Further evidence for familial-genetic risk factors in ADHD: patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives in psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 728–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birken, D. L., Oldendorf, W. H. (1989). N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid: a literature review of a compound prominent in 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies of brain. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 13: 23–31CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolton, J., Moore, G. J., MacMillan, S., Stewart, C. M., Rosenberg, D. R. (2001). Case study: caudate glutamatergic changes with paroxetine persist after medication discontinuation in pediatric OCD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40: 903–906CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botteron, K. N., Raichle, M. E., Drevets, W. C., Heath, A. C., Todd, R. D. (2002). Volumetric reduction in left subgenual prefrontal cortex in early onset depression. Biol Psychiatry 51: 342–344CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brambilla, P., Harenski, K., Nicoletti, M. A.et al. (2001). Anatomical MRI study of basal ganglia in bipolar disorder patients. Psychiatry Res 106: 65–80CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brambilla, P., Nicoletti, M. A., Harenski, K.et al. (2002). Anatomical MRI study of subgenual prefrontal cortex in bipolar and unipolar subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 792–799CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bremner, J. D., Vythilingam, M., Vermetten, E.et al. (2002). Reduced volume of orbitofrontal cortex in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 51: 273–279CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Browne, R., Byrne, M., Mulryan, N.et al. (2000). Labor and delivery complications at birth and later mania. Br J Psychiatry 176: 369–372CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buka, S., Fan, A (1999). Association of prenatal and perinatal complications with subsequent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 39: 113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bush, G., Frazier, J. A., Rauch, S. L.et al. (1999). Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop. Biol Psychiatry 45: 1542–1552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caplan, R., Guthrie, D., Tang, B., Nuechterlein, K. H., Asarnow, R. E. (2002). Thought disorder in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int Rev Neurobiol 49: 269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter, C. S., Botvinick, M. M., Cohen, J. D. (1999). The contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex to executive process in cognition. Rev Neurosci 10: 49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casey, B. J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N.et al. (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36: 374–383CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Eckburg, P.et al. (1994). Quantitative morphology of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 151: 1791–1796Google ScholarPubMed
Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Berquin, P. C.et al. (2001). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58: 289–295CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W.et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Mod Assoc 288: 1740–1748CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, K. D., Steiner, H., Ketter, T. A. (2000). Psychiatric phenomenology of child and adolescent bipolar offspring. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39: 453–460CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, E. H., Sterin, M. A., Krasowski, M. D.et al. (1995). Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet 56: 993–998Google ScholarPubMed
Drevets, W. C. (2000). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry 48: 813–829CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durston, S., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Casey, B. J.et al. (2001). Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned?J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40: 1012–1020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ebert, D., Speck, O., Konig, A.et al. (1997). 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obsessive–compulsive disorder: evidence for neuronal loss in the cingulate gyrus and the right striatum. Psychiatry Res 74: 173–176CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R.et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nat Genet 12: 78–80CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ernst, M., Zametkin, A. J., Matochik, J. A., Jons, P. J., Cohen, R. M. (1998). DOPA decarboxylase activity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults. A [fluorine-18]fluorodopa positron emission tomographic study. J Neurosci 18: 5901–5907CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ernst, M., Zametkin, A. J., Matochik, J. A.et al. (1999). High midbrain [18F]DOPA accumulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 156: 1209–1215Google Scholar
Farchione, T. R., MacMillan, S. N., Rosenberg, D. R. (2003). Obsessive–compulsive disorder as a fronto–striatal–thalamic dysfunction. In Mental and Behavioral Dysfunction in Movement Disorders, ed. M. A. Bedord, Y. Agid, S. Chouinard, et al. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, pp. 477–488CrossRef
Filipek, P. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J.et al. (1997). Volumetric MRI analysis comparing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal controls. Neurology 48: 589–601CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fitzgerald, K. D., Moore, G. J., Paulson, L. D., Stewart, C. M., Rosenberg, D. R. (2000). Proton spectroscopic imaging of the thalamus in treatment-naive pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 48: 55–72Google Scholar
Frodl, T., Meisenzahl, E., Zetzsche, T.et al. (2002). Enlargement of the amygdala in patients with a first episode of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 51: 708–714CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geller, B., Zimerman, B., Williams, M., Bolhofner, K., Craney, J. L. (2001). Bipolar disorder at prospective follow-up of adults who had prepubertal major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158: 125–127CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V.et al. (2002). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder: fact or artifact?J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41: 52–58CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, A. R., Moore, G. J., Keshavan, M. S.et al. (2000). Decrease in thalamic volumes of pediatric patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder who are taking paroxetine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57: 449–456CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, A. R., Rosenberg, D. R., Harenski, K.et al. (2001). Thalamic volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 158: 618–624CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gill, M., Daly, G., Heron, S., Hawi, Z., Fitzgerald, M. (1997). Confirmation of association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a dopamine transporter polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry 2: 311–313Google Scholar
Gogos, J. A., Morgan, M., Luine, V.et al. (1998). Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 9991–9996CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gottesman, I. L. (1991). Schizophrenia Genesis: The Origins of Madness. New York: Freeman
Gross-Isseroff, R., Hermesh, H., Zohar, J., Weizman, A. (2003). Neuroimaging communality between schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder: a putative basis for schizo-obsessive disorder?World J Biol Psychiatry 4: 129–134CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrington, R., Fudge, H., Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Hill, J. (1990). Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression: psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47: 465–473CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hauser, P., Dauphinais, I. D., Berrettini, W.et al. (1989). Corpus callosum dimensions measured by magnetic resonance imaging in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 26: 659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hesslinger, B., Thiel, T., Tebartz van Elst, L., Hennig, J., Ebert, D. (2001). Attention-deficit disorder in adults with or without hyperactivity: where is the difference? A study in humans using short echo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurosci Lett 304: 117–119CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, D. E., Yeo, R. A.et al. (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Neuropsychology 17: 496–506CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hynd, G. W., Semrud-Clikeman, M, Lorys, A. R., Novey, E. S., Eliopulos, D. (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Arch Neurol 47: 919–926CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Novey, E. S.et al. (1993). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. J Child Neurol 8: 339–347CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kayl, A. E., Moore, III, B. D., Slopis, J. M., Jackson, E. F., Leeds, N. E. (2000). Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in children with neurofibromatosis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Neurol 15: 90–96CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, M. S., Montrose, D. M., Pierri, J. N.et al. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in offspring at risk for schizophrenia: preliminary studies. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21: 1285–1295CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, M. S., Rosenberg, D., Sweeney, J. A., Pettegrew, J. W. (1998). Decreased caudate volume in neuroleptic-naive psychotic patients. Am J Psychiatry 155: 774–778Google ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, M. S., Sujata, M., Mehra, A., Montrose, D. M., Sweeney, J. A. (2002a ). Psychosis proneness and ADHD in young relatives at risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 59: 85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keshavan, M. S., Dick, E., Mankowski, I.et al. (2002b). Decreased left amygdala and hippocampal volumes in young offspring at risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 58: 173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellner, C. H., Jolley, R. R., Holgate, R. C.et al. (1991). Brain MRI in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 36: 45–49CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E.et al. (2003). Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60: 709–717CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, E. Y., Miklowitz, D. J. (2002). Childhood mania, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a critical review of diagnostic dilemmas. Bipolar Disord 4: 215–225CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaHoste, G. J., Swanson, J. M., Wigal, S. B.et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 1: 121–124Google ScholarPubMed
Ledoux, J (2003). The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala. Cell Mol Neurobiol 23: 727–738CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luxenberg, J. S., Swedo, S. E., Flament, M. F.et al. (1988). Neuroanatomical abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder detected with quantitative X-ray computed tomography. Am J Psychiatry 145: 1089–1093Google ScholarPubMed
MacMaster, F. P., Carrey, N., Sparkes, S., Khan, S., Kusumakar, V. (2003). Proton spectroscopy in medication free pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 53: 184–187CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacMillan, S. N., Szeszko, P. R., Moore, G. J.et al. (2003). Increased amygdala: hippocampal volumes associated with severity of anxiety in pediatric major depression. J Child Adol Psychpharm 13: 65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. X., Guite, J., Tsuang, M. T. (1997). Pregnancy, delivery, and infancy complications and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: issues of gene–environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry 41: 65–75CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Modell, J. G., Mountz, J. M., Curtis, G. C., Greden, J. F. (1989). Neurophysiologic dysfunction in basal ganglia/limbic striatal and thalamocortical circuits as a pathogenetic mechanism of obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1: 27–36Google ScholarPubMed
Moldin, S. O., Gottesman, I. I. (1997). At issue: genes, experiments and chance in schizophrenia-positioning for the 21st century. Schizoph Bull 23: 547–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moller, H. J. (2003). Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: distinct illnesses or a continuum?J Clin Psychiatry 64: 23–27Google ScholarPubMed
National Institute of Mental Health Genetics Initiative Bipolar Group (1997). Genomic survey of bipolar illness in the NIMH Genetics Initiative pedigrees: a preliminary report. Am J Med Gen Neuropsychiatr Genet 74: 227–2373.0.CO;2-N>CrossRef
Noga, J. T., Aylward, E., Barta, P. E., Pearlson, G. D. (1995). Cingulate gyrus in schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers. Psychiatry Res 61: 201–208CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nolan, C. L., Moore, G. J., Madden, R.et al. (2002). Prefrontal cortical volume in childhood-onset major depression: preliminary findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59: 173–179CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donovan, M. C., Williams, N. M., Owen, M. J. (2003). Recent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet 12(Suppl 2): R125–R133CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Brook, J. (2001). Adolescent fears as predictors of depression. Biol Psychiatry 50: 721–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., Keshavan, M. S., Dick, E. L.et al. (1997a). Corpus callosal morphology in treatment-naive pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21: 1269–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., Keshavan, M. S., O'Hearn, K. M.et al. (1997b). Frontostriatal measurement in treatment-naive children with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54: 824–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., Keshavan, M. S. (1998). A. E. Bennett Research Award. Toward a neurodevelopmental model of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 43: 623–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., MacMaster, F. P., Keshavan, M. S.et al. (2000a). Decrease in caudate glutamatergic concentrations in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder patients taking paroxetine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39: 1096–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., Benazon, N. R., Gilbert, A., Sullivan, A., Moore, G. J. (2000b). Thalamic volume in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder patients before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Biol Psychiatry 48: 294–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., MacMillan, S. N., Moore, G. J. (2001). Brain anatomy and chemistry may predict treatment response in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 4: 179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, D. R., Davanzo, P. A., Gershon, S. (2002a). Pharmacotherapy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders, 2nd edn (revised and expanded). New York: Marcel Dekker
Rosenberg, D. R., Madden, R., Tang, J., et al. (2002b). Anterior cingulate glutamate and treatment response in pediatric OCD. In Scientific Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. D18, p. 118
Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E.et al. (1999). Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: a study with functional MRI. Am J Psychiatry 156: 891–896CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sawa, A., Snyder, S. (2002). Schizophrenia: diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science 296: 692–695CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schweitzer, J. B., Anderson, C., Ernst, M. (2000). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: neuroimaging and behavioral/cognitive probes. In Functional Neuroimaging in Child Psychiatry, ed. M. Ernst, J. Rumsey. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 278–297CrossRef
Shenton, M. E., Dickey, C. C., Frumin, M., McCarley, R. W. (2001). A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 49: 1–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shihabuddin, L., Buchsbaum, M. S., Hazlett, E. A.et al. (1998). Dorsal striatal size, shape, and metabolic rate in never-medicated and previously medicated schizophrenics performing a verbal learning task. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 235–243CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soares, J. C., Mann, J. J. (1997). The anatomy of mood disorders: review of structural neuroimaging studies. Biol Psychiatry 41: 86–106CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sowell, E. R., Toga, A. W., Asarnow, R. (2000). Brain abnormalities observed in childhood-onset schizophrenia: a review of the structural magnetic resonance imaging literature. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 6: 180–1853.0.CO;2-I>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sprich-Buckminster, S., Biederman, J., Milberger, S., Faraone, S. W., Lehman, B. K. (1993). Are perinatal complications relevant to the manifestation of ADD? Issues of comorbidity and familiality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32: 1032–1037CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steingard, R. J., Renshaw, P. F., Hennen, J.et al. (2002). Smaller frontal lobe white matter volumes in depressed adolescents. Biol Psychiatry 52: 413–417CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stine, O. C., Xu, J., Koskela, R.et al. (1995). Evidence for linkage of bipolar disorder to chromosome 18 with a parent-of-origin effect. Am J Hum Genet 57: 1384–1394Google ScholarPubMed
Strakowski, S. M., DelBello, M. P., Sax, K. W.et al. (1999). Brain magnetic resonance imaging of structural abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 254–260CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strakowski, S. M., DelBello, M. P., Zimmerman, M. E.et al. (2002). Ventricular and periventricular structural volumes in first- versus multiple-episode bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159: 1841–1847CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takahashi, T., Suzuki, M., Kawasaki, Y.et al. (2003). Perigenual cingulate gyrus volume in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 53: 593–600CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tannock, R. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: advances in cognitive, neurobiological, and genetic research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39: 65–99CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, M. A. (1992). Are schizophrenia and affective disorder related? A selective literature review. Am J Psychiatry 149: 22–32Google ScholarPubMed
Teicher, M. H., Anderson, C. M., Polcari, A.et al. (2000). Functional deficits in basal ganglia of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder shown with functional magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry. Nat Med 6: 470–473CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, K. M., Drevets, W. C., Dahl, R. E.et al. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58: 1057–1063CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaidya, C. J., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G.et al. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 14494–14499CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verdoux, H., Sutter, A. L. (2002). Perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia: diagnostic specificity and relationships with maternal psychopathology. Am J Med Genet 114: 898–905CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weissman, M. M., Wolk, S., Wickramaratne, P.et al. (1999). Children with prepubertal-onset major depressive disorder and anxiety grown up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 794–801CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, J. C., Buchsbaum, M. S., Johnson, J. C.et al. (1993). Magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging of the corpus callosum: size, shape and metabolic rate in unipolar depression. J Affect Disord 28: 15–25CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M.et al. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. N Engl J Med 323: 1361–1366CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×