Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-g6cgc Total loading time: 0.617 Render date: 2021-10-26T20:14:48.462Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 7 - Moral leadership for ethical organizations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 January 2012

Suzanne Shale
Affiliation:
King's College London
Get access

Summary

This book is subtitled ‘Building Ethical Healthcare Organizations’, and in this chapter I consider the implications of my study for doing just that. The discussion falls into three parts. First I temporarily set aside our concern with moral leadership and look at the emergence of healthcare organizational ethics as a bioethical ‘sub-specialty’. I consider the reasons for its rise, and review its current form and content. Next I consider current approaches to healthcare organizational ethics, questioning whether applied normative analysis is the best way to proceed. Readers of earlier chapters will not be surprised to discover that I find applied normative analysis to have yielded limited benefits, or that I suggest that a focus on expressive moral behaviours could enhance our understanding of how to build ethical organizations. I then ask what healthcare organizational ethics ought to be about. In the third and final part of the chapter I return to my analysis of moral leadership as an expressive moral behaviour. I ask how ethical expertise is learned, and how we might set about developing the moral leadership that secures ethical behaviour in organizational settings.

Building ethical organizations: learning from healthcare organizational ethics

My own starting point for thinking about healthcare organizational ethics is the question ‘what do patients, and those who care about them, normatively expect of healthcare organizations?’ A part of the answer is that they normatively expect their confidence and trust in healthcare organizations to be justified, and the components of confidence and trust were discussed in Chapter 5.

Type
Chapter
Information
Moral Leadership in Medicine
Building Ethical Healthcare Organizations
, pp. 222 - 260
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

André, J.Bioethics as PracticeChapel HillUniversity of North Carolina Press 2002Google Scholar
Lindemann, HVerkerk, MWalker, MUNaturalized Bioethics: Toward Responsible Knowing and PracticeCambridgeCambridge University Press 2009
Rasmussen, LMEthics Expertise: History, Contemporary Perspectives, and ApplicationsDordrechtSpringer 2005CrossRef
Gentile, MC.Giving Voice to Values: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What's RightNew HavenYale University Press 2010Google Scholar
Kritek, PB.Negotiating at an Uneven Table: Developing Moral Courage in Resolving Our ConflictsSan FranciscoJossey Bass 2002Google Scholar
Joffe, SManocchia, MWeeks, JCCleary, PD.What do patients value in their hospital care? An empirical perspective on autonomy centred bioethicsJournal of Medical Ethics 2003 29 103CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narenda, DP.What do patients value in their hospital care? A response to Joffe et alJournal of Medical Ethics 2004 30 610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joffe, SManocchia, MWeeks, JCCleary, PD. 2003 http://jme.bmj.com/content/29/2/103.abstract/reply
Agledahl, KMFørde, RWifstad, Å.
Pearson, SSabin, JEmanuel, EJ.No Margin, No Mission: Health-care, Organizations, and the Quest for Ethical ExcellenceNew YorkOxford University Press 2003Google Scholar
McDonald, FSimpson, CO'Brien, F.Including organizational ethics in policy review processes in healthcare institutions: a view from CanadaHEC Forum 2008 20 137CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rozovsky, LE.Abolish medical staff on hospital boardsHospital Trustee 1977 1 5Google ScholarPubMed
Cunningham, R.Of snake oil and science: hospital marketing must never ignore the professional ethic that grows out of patient trustHospitals 1978 52 79Google ScholarPubMed
Umbeck, P.The church related hospital in a secular societyBulletin American Protestant Hospital Association 1977 41 14Google Scholar
Doughty, E.Purchasing ethics and the supplierHospital Equipment Supplies 1975 21 6ffGoogle ScholarPubMed
1979
Bishop, LJCherry, MNDarragh, M.Organizational ethics and health care: expanding bioethics to the institutional arenaKennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1999 9 189CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kushner, THeilig, SHäyry, MTakala, T 2000
Khushf, G 1999
Ozar, DBerg, JWerhane, PHEmanuel, LL.Organizational Ethics in Healthcare: Toward a Model for Ethical Decision-making by Provider OrganizationsAMA Institute for Ethics National Working Group Report: American Medical Association 2000Google Scholar
Boyle, PJDuBose, EREllingson, SJGuinn, DEMcCurdy, DB.Organizational Ethics in Health Care: Principles, Cases, and Practical SolutionsSan Francisco, CAJossey-Bass and AHA Press 2000Google Scholar
Hall, RT.An Introduction to Healthcare Organizational EthicsNew YorkOxford University Press 2000Google Scholar
Spencer, EMMills, AERorty, MVWerhane, PH.Organization Ethics in Health CareNew YorkOxford University Press 2000Google Scholar
Weber, LJ.Business Ethics in HealthcareSmith, DHVeatch, RMBloomingtonIndiana University Press 2001Google Scholar
Anderlik, MR.The Ethics of Managed Care: A Pragmatic ApproachBloomingtonUniversity of Indiana Press 2001Google Scholar
Žydžiūnaite, VSuominen, TÅstedt-Kurki, PLepait, D.Ethical dilemmas concerning decision-making within health care leadership: a systematic literature reviewMedicina (Kaunas) 2010 46 595Google ScholarPubMed
Shale, S.Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests – ethical leadership in health care organizationsThe Keio Journal of Medicine 2008 57 37CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khushf, G.The case for managed care: reappraising medical and socio-political idealsJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 1999 24 415CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khushf, G.The value of comparative analysis in framing the problems of organizational ethicsHEC Forum 2001 13 125CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cribb, A.Reconfiguring professional ethics: the rise of managerialism and public health in the U.K. National Health ServiceHEC Forum 2001 13 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bitton, AKahn, JG.Share of healthcare expendituresJournal of the American Medical Association 2003 289 1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemble, SB.A better idea for United States healthcare: the balanced choice proposalThe Hawai Medical Journal, a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine 2010 69 294Google ScholarPubMed
Caronna, CA.Clash of logics, crisis of trust: entering the era of public for-profit health care?Pescosolido, BAMartin, JKMcLeod, JDRogers, AHandbook of the Sociology of Health, Illness, and HealingNew YorkSpringer 2011 255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiener, C.The Elusive Quest: Accountability in HospitalsNew YorkAldine de Gruyter 2000Google Scholar
Walshe, K.Regulating Healthcare: A Prescription for Improvement? MaidenheadOpen University Press 2003Google Scholar
Schyve, PM.The evolution of external quality evaluation: observations from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare OrganizationsInternational Journal For Quality in Health Care 2000 12 255CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, RWebster, J. 2010
Gomes, BHigginson, I.Factors influencing death at home in terminally ill patients with cancer: a systematic reviewBMJ 2006 332 515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LaMantia, MAScheuneman, LPViera, AJBusby-Whitehead J Hanson, LC.Interventions to improve transitional care between nursing homes and hospitals: a systematic reviewJournal of the American Geriatric Society 2010 58CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brecher, B.The politics of professional ethicsJournal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2010 16 351CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohn, LTTo Err is Human: Building a Safer Health SystemWashington DCInstitute of Medicine: National Academy Press 2000
Meister, DJ. 1990
Wells, C.Corporate manslaughter: A cultural and legal formCriminal Law Forum 1995 6 45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, C.The reform of corporate criminal liabilityDe Lacy, JThe Reform of United Kingdom Company LawLondonCavendish 2002 301Google Scholar
Wells, C.Corporate criminal responsibilityTully, SResearch Handbook on Corporate Legal ResponsibilityCheltenhamEdward Elgar 2007Google Scholar
Ridley, ADunford, L.Corporate killing – legislating for unlawful death?Industrial Law Journal 1997 26 99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samanta, ASamanta, J.Charges of corporate manslaughter in the NHS may be brought if patients die after clinical negligenceBMJ 2006 332 1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gobert, J.The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 – Thirteen years in the making but was it worth the wait?The Modern Law Review 2008 71 413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, DP.Proposed new law on manslaughter: implications for the NHS and doctorsBritish Journal of General Practice 2001 51 156Google ScholarPubMed
Childs, M.Medical manslaughter and corporate liabilityLegal Studies 1999 19 316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belcher, A.Corporate killing as a corporate governance issueCorporate Governance: An International Review 2002 10 47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarkson, C.Kicking corporate bodies and damning their soulsModern Law Review 1996 59 557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langsford, HClark, B.A rebirth of corporate killing: lessons from America in a new law for scotlandInternational Company and Commercial Law Review 2005 16 28Google Scholar
Werhane, PH.Persons, Rights, and CorporationsEnglewood Cliffs, NJPrentice Hall 1985Google Scholar
Jonsen, AR.The Birth of BioethicsOxfordOxford University Press 1998Google Scholar
Agich, GJ.The importance of management for understanding managed careJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 1999 24 518CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, DF.Hospital ethicsCambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1992 3 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolpe, PR.From bedside to boardroom: sociological shifts and bioethicsHEC Forum 2000 12 191CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodwin, MA.Medicine, Money and MoralsNew YorkOxford University Press 1993Google Scholar
Morreim, H.Balancing Act; The New Medical Ethics of Medicine's New EconomicsWashington DCGeorgetown University Press 1995Google Scholar
Wong, K.Medicine and the Market Place: The Moral Dimensions of Managed CareNotre Dame, INUniversity of Notre Dame Press 1998Google Scholar
Annas, GJ.Some Choice: Law, Medicine, and the MarketNew YorkOxford University Press 1998Google Scholar
Blau, PM.The Dynamics of BureaucracyChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 1955Google Scholar
Lipsky, M.Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public ServicesNew YorkRussell Sage Foundation 1980Google Scholar
Spielman, B.Organizational ethics programs and the lawCambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2000 9 218CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kurlander, JEDanis, M.Organizational ethics in health careAshcroft, RDraper, HDawson, AMcMillan, JPrinciples of Health Care EthicsNew YorkJohn Wiley 2007 593Google Scholar
Rorty, MVWerhane, PHMills, AE.The effect: organization ethics in health careHEC Forum 2004 16 75CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loewy, RS.The ‘ethics’ of organizational/institutional ethics in a pluralistic setting: conflicts of interests, values, and goalsMcGeorge Law Review 2008 39 703Google Scholar
Peppin, JF.Business ethics and health care: the re-emerging institution-patient relationshipJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 1999 24 535CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fesmire, S.John Dewey and Moral Imagination: Pragmatism in EthicsBloomington, INIndiana University Press 2003Google Scholar
Fins, JJMiller, FGBacchetta, MD.Clinical pragmatism: bridging theory and practiceKennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1998 8 37CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Churchill, LRSchenk, D.One cheer for bioethics: engaging the moral experiences of patients and practitioners beyond the big decisionsCambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2005 14 389CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
André, J.Bioethics as PracticeChapel HillUniversity of North Carolina Press 2002Google Scholar
Crigger, B-J.As time goes by: an intellectual ethnography of bioethicsde Vries, RSubedi, JBioethics and Society: Constructing the Ethical EnterpriseUpper Saddle River, NJPrentice-Hall 1998 196Google Scholar
Walker, MU.Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in EthicsNew YorkOxford University Press 2007Google Scholar
Fox, RSwazey, JP.Medical morality is not bioethics: medical ethics in China and the United StatesPerspectives in Biology and Medicine 1984 27 336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCullough, LB.Methodological concerns in bioethicsJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 1986 11 17CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Light, DWMcGee, G.On the social embeddedness of bioethicsDe Vries, RSubedi, JBioethics and Society: Constructing the Ethical EnterpriseUpper Saddle River, NJPrentice Hall 1998Google Scholar
Wolpe, PR.The triumph of autonomy in American bioethics: a sociological viewde Vries, RSubedi, JBioethics and Society: Constructing the Ethical EnterpriseUpper Saddle River, NJPrentice Hall 1998Google Scholar
Hoffmaster, B.Can ethnography save the life of medical ethics?Social Science & Medicine 1992 35 1421CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffmaster, B.The forms and limits of medical ethicsSocial Science & Medicine 1994 39 1155CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caplan, A.Can applied ethics be effective in health care and should it strive to be?Ethics 1983 93 311CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, MRMeilander, G.The anencephalic newborn as organ donorHastings Center Report 1986 16 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agich, GJ.What kind of doing is clinical ethics?Theoretical Medicine 2005 26 7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Agich, GJ.The question of method in ethics consultationThe American Journal of Bioethics 2001 1 31CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kass, L.Practising ethics: where's the action?The Hastings Center Report 1990 20 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapple, H.No Place for Dying: Hospitals and the Ideology of RescueWalnut Creek, CALeft Coast Press 2010Google Scholar
Guillemin, J.Bioethics and the coming of the corporation to medicinede Vries, RSubedi, JBioethics and Society: Constructing the Ethical EnterpriseUpper Saddle River, NJPrentice Hall 1998 73Google Scholar
Jonsen, ARToulmin, S.The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral ReasoningBerkeleyUniversity of California Press 1988Google Scholar
Arras, J.The revival of casuistry in bioethicsJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 1991 16 9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopelman, L.Case method and casuistry: the problem of biasTheoretical Medicine 1994 15 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Annas, J.Virtue ethicsCopp, DThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical TheoryOxfordOxford University Press 2005 515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foot, P.Natural GoodnessOxfordClarendon Press 2001 14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J.Ethics in MedicineCambridgePolity Press 2006 11Google Scholar
Beauchamp, TLChildress, JF.Principles of Biomedical EthicsOxfordOxford University Press 2001 34Google Scholar
Murray, TH.What do we mean by ‘narrative ethics?’Lindemann Nelson, HStories and their Limits: Narrative Approaches to BioethicsNew YorkRoutledge 1997 3Google Scholar
Fox, RCSwazey, JP.Observing BioethicsNew YorkOxford University Press 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoeyer, K.‘Ethics wars’: reflections on the antagonism between bioethicists and social science observers of biomedicineHuman Studies 2006 29 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heimer, CAStaffen, LR.For the Sake of the Children: The Social Organization of Responsibility in the Hospital and the HomeChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 1998Google Scholar
Quill, TEDresser, RBrock, DW.The rule of double effect – a critique of its role in end-of-life decision makingNew England Journal of Medicine 1997 337 1768CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fohr, SA.The double effect of pain medication: separating myth from realityJournal of Palliative Medicine 1998 1 315CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, CHerring, JMelham, KHope, T.The double effect effectCambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2011 20 56CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, RT.Emile Durkheim: Ethics and the Sociology of MoralsNew YorkGreenwood Press
Pope, WCohen, JHazelrigg, L.On the divergence of Weber and Durkheim: a critique of Parson's convergence thesisAmerican Sociological Review 1975 40 417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freidson, E.Profession of Medicine: A Study in the Sociology of Applied KnowledgeChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 1970Google Scholar
Freidson, E.Process of control in a company of equalsFreidson, ELorber, JMedical Men and their Work: A Sociological ReaderChicagoAldine–Atherton 1972 185Google Scholar
Bosk, CL.Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical FailureChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chambliss, DF.Beyond Caring: Hospitals, Nurses, and the Social Organization of EthicsChicagoChicago University Press 1996Google Scholar
Anspach, RMizrachi, N.The field worker's fields: ethics, ethnography and medical sociologyde Vries, RTurner, LOrfali, KBosk, CThe View From Here: Bioethics and the Social SciencesOxfordBlackwell 2007 48Google Scholar
Bosk, C.Irony, ethnography, and informed consentHoffmaster, BBioethics in a Social ContextPhiladelphiaTemple University Press 2000 199Google Scholar
Jackall, R.Moral MazesNew YorkOxford University Press 1988Google Scholar
Kritek, PB.Negotiating at an Uneven Table: Developing Moral Courage in Resolving Our ConflictsSan FranciscoJossey Bass 2002Google Scholar
Bosk, CL.All God's Mistakes: Genetic Counseling in a Pediatric HospitalChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 1992 xviiGoogle Scholar
Zussman, R.Sociological perspectives on medical ethics and decision-makingAnnual Review of Sociology 1997 23 171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zussman, R.Intensive Care: Medical Ethics and the Medical ProfessionChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press 1992 3Google Scholar
Borry, PSchotsman, PDierickx, K.What is the role of empirical research in bioethical reflection and decision-making? An ethical analysisMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2004 7 41CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hedgecoe, A.It's money that matters: the financial context of ethical decision-making in modern biomedicinede Vries, RTurner, LOrfali, KBosk, CThe View From Here: Bioethics and the Social SciencesOxfordBlackwell 2007Google Scholar
Scully, JShakespeare, TBanks, S.Gift not commodity? Lay people deliberating social sex selectionde Vries, RTurner, LOrfali, KBosk, CThe View From Here: Bioethics and the Social SciencesOxfordBlackwell 2007Google Scholar
Pearlman, RAMiles, SHArnold, RM.Empirical research in medical ethicsTheoretical Medicine 1993 14 197CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atkinson, P.Medical Talk and Medical Work: The Liturgy of the ClinicThousand Oaks, CASage 1995Google Scholar
Anspach, RR.Deciding Who Lives: Fateful Choices in the Intensive Care NurseryBerkeleyUniversity of California Press 1993Google Scholar
Holm, S.Ethical Problems in Clinical Practice: The Ethical Reasoning of Healthcare ProfessionalsManchesterManchester University Press 1997 145Google Scholar
Hurst, SAHull, SCDuVal, GDanis, M.Physicians' responses to resource constraintsArchives of Internal Medicine 2005 165 639CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strech, DSynofzik, MMarckmann, G.How physicians allocate scarce resources at the bedside; a systematic review of qualitative studiesJournal of Medicine and Philosophy 2008 33 80CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxwell, BRacine, E.Should empathic development be a priority in biomedical ethics teaching?. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2010 19 433CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rest, J.Moral Development; Advances in Research and TheoryNew YorkPraeger 1986Google Scholar
Jones, TM.Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations; an issue contingent modelAcademy of Management Review 1991 16 366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loe, TWFerrell, LMansfield, P.A review of empirical studies assessing ethical decision making in businessJournal of Business Ethics 2000 25 185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ajzen, I.Attitude, structure and behaviorBreckler, SJGreenwald, AGAttitude Structure and FunctionHillsdale, NJLawrence Erlbaum 1989 241Google Scholar
McMahon, JMHarvey, RJ.The effect of moral intensity on ethical judgmentJournal of Business Ethics 2007 72 335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gentile, MC.Giving Voice to Values: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What's RightNew HavenYale University Press 2010Google Scholar
Walker, MU.Moral Repair: Reconstructing Moral Relations after WrongdoingCambridgeCambridge University Press 2006 24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strawson, PF.Freedom and resentmentStrawson, PFStudies in the Philosophy of Thought and ActionNew YorkOxford University Press 1968Google Scholar
Saeed, KS.How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitalsJournal of Medical Ethics 1999 25 51CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silva, DSGibson, JSibbald, RConnolly, ESinger, PA.Clinical ethicists' perspectives on organizational ethics in healthcare organizationsJournal of Medical Ethics 2007 34 320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wall, S.Organizational ethics, change and stakeholder involvement; a survey of physiciansHEC Forum 2007 19 227CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mamhidir, A-GKihlgren, MSørlie, V.Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiencesBMC Medical Ethics 2007 8 3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kälvemark, SHöglund, AHansson, MWesterholm, PArnetz, B.Living with conflicts-ethical dilemmas and moral distress in the health care systemSocial Science & Medicine 2004 58 1075CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Margalit, A.The Decent SocietyGoldblum, NaomiHarvardHarvard University Press 1996Google Scholar
Smith, Iltis AInstitutional Integrity in Health CareDordrechtKluwer Academic 2003
Michael, SJ.Healthcare for All: report of the independent inquiry into access to healthcare for people with learning disabilitiesDepartment of Health 2008Google Scholar
Santry, C. 2008
A Very Present Dangerhttp://www.nhsalliance.org/documents/survey-reports/http://www.nhsalliance.org/press-releases/article/date/2007/03/institutionalised-contempt-puts-patients-at-risk/
2007
Francis, R.The Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust InquiryDepartment of Health 2010Google Scholar
Abraham, A.Care and Compassion: Report of the Health Service Ombudsman on ten investigations into NHS care of older peopleParliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman 2011Google Scholar
MacIntyre, A.After VirtueLondonDuckworth 2007 194ffGoogle Scholar
Dailey, J.Modeling manipulation in medical educationAdvances in Health Sciences Education. Theory and Practice 2010 15 291CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez, LKatz, J.Perspective: creating an ethical workplace: reverberations of resident work hours reformAcademic Medicine 2009 84 315CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Higginson, J.Perspective: limiting resident work hours is a moral concernAcademic Medicine 2009 84 310CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDougall, R.Combating junior doctors' ‘4am logic’: a challenge for medical ethics educationMedical Ethics 2009 35 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez, WLo, B.Medical students' experiences with medical errors: an analysis of medical student essaysMedical Education 2008 42 733CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cordingley, LHyde, CPeters, SVernon, BBundy, C.Undergraduate medical students' exposure to clinical ethics: a challenge to the development of professional behaviours?Medical Education 2007 41 1202Google ScholarPubMed
Aroskar, M.Healthcare organizations as moral communitiesJournal of Clinical Ethics 2006 17 255Google ScholarPubMed
Austin, W.The ethics of everyday practice: healthcare environments as moral communitiesAdvances in Nursing Science 2007 30 81CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, WAGardent, PBShulman, ESplaine, ME.Preventing ethics conflicts and improving healthcare quality through system redesignQuality & Safety in Health Care 2010 19 526Google ScholarPubMed
Cholbi, M.Moral expertise and the credentials problemEthical Theory & Moral Practice 2007 10 323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasmussen, LMEthics Expertise: History, Contemporary Perspectives, and ApplicationsDordrechtSpringer 2005CrossRef
Weinstein, BD.What is an expert?Theoretical Medicine 1993 14 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstein, BD.The possibility of ethical expertiseTheoretical Medicine 1994 15 61CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiester, A.Why the clinical ethics we teach fails patientsAcademic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2007 82 684CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kinghorn, W.Medical education as moral formation: an Aristotelian account of medical professionalismPerspectives in Biology and Medicine 2010 53 87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryan, CBabelay, A.Building character: a model for reflective practiceAcademic Medicine 2009 84 1283CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buyx, AMaxwell, BSupper, HSchöne-Seifert, B.Medical ethics teachingWiener Klinische Wochenschrift 2008 120 655CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eckles, RMeslin, EGaffney, MHelft, P.Medical ethics education: where are we? Where should we be going? A reviewAcademic Medicine 2005 80 1143CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, EArnold, RBrody, B.Medical ethics education: past, present, and futureAcademic Medicine 1995 70 761Google ScholarPubMed
Bloom, BSTaxonomy of Educational Objectives. The Classification of Educational Goals: Handbook 1, Cognitive DomainNew YorkLongmans 1956
Stirrat, GJohnston, CGillon, RBoyd, K.Medical ethics and law for doctors of tomorrow: the 1998 Consensus Statement updatedJournal of Medical Ethics 2010 36 55CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mattick, KBligh, J.Undergraduate ethics teaching: revisiting the Consensus StatementMedical Education 2006 40 329CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
1998
Persad, GCElder, LSedig, LFlores, LEmanuel, EJ. 2008
Soleymani, Lehmann LKasoff, WSKoch, PFederman, DD.A survey of medical ethics education at U.S. and Canadian medical schoolsAcademic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2004 79 682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DuBois, JBurkemper, J.Ethics education in U.S. medical schools: a study of syllabiAcademic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2002 77 432CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christakis, DAFeudtner, C.Ethics in a short white coat: the ethical dilemmas that medical students confrontAcademic Medicine 1993 68 249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomasma, DCKushner, T.Ward EthicsCambridgeCambridge University Press 2001Google Scholar
McDougall, RSokol, DK.The ethical junior: a typology of ethical problems faced by house officersJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2008 101 67CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
André, J.Learning to see: moral growth during medical trainingJournal of Medical Ethics 1992 18 148CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leget, COlthuis, G.Compassion as a basis for ethics in medical educationJournal of Medical Ethics 2007 33 617CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumagai, A.A conceptual framework for the use of illness narratives in medical educationAcademic Medicine 2008 83 653CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cowley, C.The dangers of medical ethicsJournal of Medical Ethics 2005 31 739CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mills, SBryden, D.A practical approach to teaching medical ethicsJournal of Medical Ethics 2010 36 50CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelly, ENisker, J.Increasing bioethics education in preclinical medical curricula: what ethical dilemmas do clinical clerks experience?Academic Medicine 2009 84 498CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, M.A skills-based approach to teach clinical ethicsAcademic Medicine 2009 84 154CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, AGallagher, TKrauss, MGarbutt, JWaterman, ADunagan, WThe attitudes and experiences of trainees regarding disclosing medical errors to patientsAcademic Medicine 2008 83 250CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molewijk, AAbma, TStolper, MWiddershoven, G.Teaching ethics in the clinic. The theory and practice of moral case deliberationJournal of Medical Ethics 2008 34 120CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thulesius, HSallin, KLynoe, NLöfmark, R. 2007
Campbell, AVChin, JVoo, T-C.How can we know that ethics education produces ethical doctors?Medical Teacher 2007 29 431CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fryer-Edwards, KWilkins, MBaernstein, ABraddock, C.Bringing ethics education to the clinical years: ward ethics sessions at the University of WashingtonAcademic Medicine 2006 81 626CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pauls, MAckroyd-Stolarz, S.Identifying bioethics learning needs: a survey of Canadian emergency medicine residentsAcademic Emergency Medicine 2006 13 645CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singer, PA.Strengthening the role of ethics in medical educationCanadian Medical Association Journal 2003 168 854Google ScholarPubMed
Sokol, DK.William Osler and the jubjub of ethics; or how to teach medical ethics in the 21st centuryJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2007 100 544CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
http://www.institute.nhs.uk/assessment_tool/personal_qualities/personal_qualities_-_acting_with_integrity.html
Lane, DSRoss, V.Defining competencies and performance indicators for physicians in medical managementAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998 14 229CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levertov, D. (Book 1, Poem 1, Stanza 1)Breathing the WaterNew YorkNew Directions 1987Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×