Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-42gr6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-17T19:32:48.273Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

4 - Vertebrate sex-determining genes and their potential utility in conservation, with particular emphasis on fishes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2014

J. Andrew DeWoody
Purdue University
Matthew C. Hale
Purdue University
John C. Avise
University of California
J. Andrew DeWoody
Purdue University, Indiana
John W. Bickham
Purdue University, Indiana
Charles H. Michler
Purdue University, Indiana
Krista M. Nichols
Purdue University, Indiana
Gene E. Rhodes
Purdue University, Indiana
Keith E. Woeste
Purdue University, Indiana
Get access



Individual identification

Often, animals leave clues that can provide some information about their individual identities. These may be conventional fingerprints, which are extremely useful in courts of law but can be physically altered or removed and are restricted to humans. In contrast, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting (Avise 2004) is important not only in human forensics and paternity analysis but also in conservation biology and resource management (Table 4–1). When monitoring DNA fingerprints, biologists are capitalizing on the permanent genetic tags by which nature has labeled each individual. In principle, DNA fingerprints (e.g., from leaves, root tips, blood, hair, or feathers) can be traced over space and time, thereby yielding insights into organismal behavior, population structure, and population demography.

Sexing assays and conservation

In concert with individual identification via DNA fingerprinting, molecular sexing has proven valuable in conservation and management (see Box 4 by Lisette Waits). Molecular assays that distinguish males from females can be informative in many ways. For example, the sexes of most dioecious plants are indistinguishable prior to sexual maturity, yet molecular assays have revealed that sex ratios change as seeds develop into reproductively mature plants (Korpelainen 2002; Korpelainen & Kostamo 2008). For vertebrates, most efforts in molecular sexing have focused on mammals and birds in part because of the special interest in these animals, but also because the mode of sex determination is known and conserved within each of these two taxonomic groups. Thus, reliable molecular-sexing assays have been relatively straightforward to develop and also to transfer across species within each group.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alam, MA, Kobayashi, Y, Horiguchi, R et al. (2008) Molecular cloning and quantitative expression of sexually dimorphic markers Dmrt1 and Foxl2 during female-to-male sex change in Epinephelus merra. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 157, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arakawa, Y, Nishida-Umehara, C, Matsuda, Y et al. (2002) X-chromosomal localization of mammalian Y-linked genes in two XO species of the Ryukyu spiny rat. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 99, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avise, JC (2004) Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution. Sinauer Press, Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
Avise, JC (2008) Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals. Oxford University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avise, JC, Mank, JE (2010) Evolutionary perspectives on hermaphroditism in fishes. Sexual Development, 3, 152–163.CrossRef
Baras, E, Jacobs, B, Melard, C (2001) Effects of water temperature on survival, growth and phenotypic sex of mixed (XX–XY) progenies of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 192, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blejwas, KM, Williams, CL, Shin, GT et al. (2006) Salivary DNA evidence convicts breeding male coyotes of killing sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 1087–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, BJ, Doran-Sheehy, DM, Vigilant, L (2008) Genetic identification of elusive animals: re-evaluating tracking and nesting data for wild western gorillas. Journal of Zoology, 275, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunner, B, Hornung, U, Shan, Z et al. (2001) Genomic organization and expression of the doublesex-related gene cluster in vertebrates and detection of putative regulatory regions for DMRT1. Genomics, 77, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bull, JJ (1981) Evolution of environmental sex determination from genotypic sex. Heredity, 47, 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bull, JJ (1983) Evolution of Sex-Determining Mechanisms. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
Bull, JJ, Vogt, RC (1979) Temperature dependent sex-determination in turtles. Science, 206, 1186–1188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cathey, JC, Bickham, JW, Patton, JC (1998) Introgressive hybridization and nonconcordant evolutionary history of maternal and paternal lineages in North American deer. Evolution, 52, 1224–1229.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charlesworth, D, Charlesworth, B, Marais, G (2005) Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Heredity, 95, 118–128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clout, MN, Elliott, GP, Robertson, BC (2002) Effects of supplementary feeding on the offspring sex ratio of kakapo: a dilemma for the conservation of a polygynous parrot. Biological Conservation, 107, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cnaani, A, Lee, BY, Ozouf-Costaz, C et al. (2007) Mapping of sox2 and sox14 in Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Sexual Development, 1, 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cnaani, A, Lee, BY, Zilberman, N et al. (2008) Genetics of sex determination in tilapiine species. Sexual Development, 2, 43–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colombo, RE, Garvey, JE, Wills, PS (2007) Gonadal development and sex-specific demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon in the Middle Mississippi River. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 23, 420–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conover, DO (1984) Adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex-determination in a fish. American Naturalist, 123, 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conover, DO, Kynard, BE (1981) Environmental sex determination: interaction of temperature and genotype in a fish. Science, 250, 577–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crews, D (1996) Temperature-dependent sex determination: the interplay of steroid hormones and temperature. Zoological Science, 13, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cui, JZ, Shen, XY, Gong, QL et al. (2006) Identification of sex markers by cDNA-AFLP in Takifugu rubripes. Aquaculture, 257, 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desperz, D, Melard, C (1998) Effect of ambient water temperature on sex determination in the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture, 162, 1–2.Google Scholar
Devlin, RH, Biagi, CA, Smailus, DE (2001) Genetic mapping of Y-chromosomal DNA markers in Pacific salmon. Genetica, 111, 43–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devlin, RH, McNeil, BK, Groves, TDD, Donaldson, EM (1991) Isolation of a Y-chromosomal DNA probe capable of determining genetic sex in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48, 1606–1612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devlin, RH, McNeil, BK, Solar, II, Donaldson, EM (1994) A rapid PCR-based test for Y-chromosomal DNA allows simple production of all-female strains of chinook salmon. Aquaculture, 128, 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devlin, RH, Nagahama, Y (2002) Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: an overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture, 208, 191–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, SJ, Devlin, RH, Hew, CL (1993) Genomic structure of growth hormone genes in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): presence of two functional genes, GH-I and GH-II, and a male-specific pseudogene, GH-Ψ. DNA and Cell Biology, 12, 739–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eggert, C (2004) Sex determination: the amphibian models. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 44, 539–549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezaz, T, Quin, AE, Miura, I et al. (2005) The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes. Chromosome Research, 13, 763–776.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezaz, T, Stiglec, R, Veyrunes, F et al. (2006) Relationships between vertebrate ZW and XY sex chromosome systems. Current Biology, 16, R736–R743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feist, G, Van Eenennaam, JP, Doroshov, SI et al. (2004) Early identification of sex in cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, using plasma steroid levels. Aquaculture, 232, 581–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson-Smith, M (2007) The evolution of sex chromosomes and sex determination in vertebrates and the key role of DMRT1. Sexual Development, 1, 2–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fernandez, MP, Campbell, PM, Ikonomou, MG, Devlin, RH (2007) Assessment of environmental estrogens and the intersex/sex reversal capacity for chinook salmon in primary and final municipal wastewater effluents. Environment International, 33, 391–396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goa, F, Maiti, S, Alam, N et al. (2006) The Wilm's tumor gene, Wt1, is required for Sox9 expression and the maintenance of tubular architecture in the developing testis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103, 11987–11992.Google Scholar
Godwin, J (1994) Behavioral aspects of protandrous sex change in the anemonefish Amphirion melanopus and endocrine correlates. Animal Behavior, 48, 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graves, JAM (2002) Evolution of the testis-determining gene – the rise and fall of SRY. Genetics and Biology of Sex Determination, 244, 86–101.Google ScholarPubMed
Gregory, TR, Nicol, JA, Tamm, H et al. (2006) Eukaryotic genome size databases. Nucleic Acids Research, 35 (Database issue), D332–D338; doi:10.1093/nar/gkl828.Google ScholarPubMed
Griffin, DK, Harvey, SC, Campos-Ramos, R et al. (2002) Early origins of the X and Y chromosomes: lessons from tilapia. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 99, 157–163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griffith, SC, Owens, IPF, Thuman, KA (2002) Extra pair paternity in birds: a review of interspecific variation and adaptive function. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2195–2212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griffiths, R, Double, MC, Orr, K, Dawson, RJ (1998) A DNA test to sex most birds. Molecular Ecology, 7, 1071–1075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griffiths, R, Orr, KJ, Adam, A, Barber, I (2000) DNA sex identification in the three-spined stickleback. Journal of Fish Biology, 57, 1331–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grützner, F, Rens, W, Tsend-Ayush, E et al. (2004) In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes. Nature, 432, 913–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, YQ, Cheng, HH, Huang, X et al. (2005) Gene structure, multiple alternative splicing, and expression in gonads of zebrafish DMRT1. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 330, 950–957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hale, MC, Jackson, , DeWoody, JA (2010) Discovery and evaluation of candidate sex-determining genes and xenobiotics in the gonads of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), Genetica DOI 10.1007/s10709-010-9455-y.
Hale, MC, McCormick, CR, Jackson, , DeWoody, JA (2009) Next-generation pyrosequencing of gonad transcriptomes in the polyploid lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens): the relative merits of normalization and rarefaction in gene discovery. BMC Genomics, 10, 203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hattori, A (1991) Socially controlled growth and size-dependent sex-change in the anemonefish Amphiprion frenatus in Okinawa, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 38, 165–177.Google Scholar
Hayes, T, Haston, K, Tsui, M et al. (2002) Herbicides: feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature, 419, 895–896.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, TB, Khoury, V, Narayan, A, Nazir, M, Park, A, Brown, T, Adame, L, Chan, E, Buchholz, D, Stueve, T, Gallipeau, S (2010) Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 107, 4612–4617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, TB (1998) Sex determination and primary sex differentiation in amphibians: genetic and developmental mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 281, 373–399.3.0.CO;2-L>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henry, J, Sakhrani, D, Devlin, RH (2004) Production of all-female populations of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, using Y-chromosomal DNA markers. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, 104–2, 34–38.Google Scholar
Hett, AK, Ludwig, A (2005) SRY-related (Sox) genes in the genome of European Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser sturio). Genome, 48, 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, X, Hong, CS, O'Donnell, M et al. (2005) The doublesex-related gene XDmrt4 is required for neurogenesis in the olfactory system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102, 11349–11354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutchings, JA, Gerber, L (2002) Sex-biased dispersal in a salmonid fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 269, 2487–2493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, JR, VanDeValk, AJ, Brooking, TE et al. (2002) Growth and feeding dynamics of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, in Oneida Lake, New York: results from the first five years of a restoration program. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 18, 439–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janzen, FJ, Krenz, JG (2004) Phylogenetics: which was first, TSD or GSD? In: Temperature Dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates (eds. Valenzuela, N, Lance, VA), pp. 121–130. Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Jarvi, SI, Farias, ME (2006) Molecular sexing and sources of CHD1–Z/W sequence variation in Hawaiian birds. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, 1003–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, W, Baumstark, A, Suss, A et al. (2007) Ellobius lutescens: sex determination and sex chromosome. Sexual Development, 1, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Just, W, Rau, W, Vogel, W et al. (1995) Absence of SRY in species of the vole Ellobius. Nature Genetics, 11, 117–118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kallman, KD (1984) Sex ratio and the genetics of sex determination in swordtails, Xiphophorus Poeciliidae. Genetics, 107, S54.Google Scholar
Katagiri, T, Kidd, C, Tomasino, E et al. (2005) A BAC-based physical map in the Nile tilapia genome. BMC Genomics, 6, 89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyvanshokooh, S, Pourkazemi, M, Kalbassi, MR (2007) The RAPD technique failed to identify sex-specific sequences in beluga (Huso huso). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 23, 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kikuchi, K, Kai, W, Hosokawa, A et al. (2007) The sex-determining locus in the tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Genetics, 175, 2039–2042.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knight, ME, Oppen, MJ, Smith, HL et al. (1999) Evidence for male-biased dispersal in Lake Malawi cichlids from microsatellites. Molecular Ecology, 8, 1521–1527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kobayashi, Y, Sunobe, T, Kobayashi, T et al. (2005) Gonadal structure of the serial-sex changing gobiid fish Trimma okinawae. Developmental Growth and Differentiation, 47, 7–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kondo, M, Nanda, I, Hornung, U et al. (2004) Evolutionary origin of the medaka Y chromosome. Current Biology, 14, 1664–1669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korpelainen, H (2002) A genetic method to resolve gender complements investigations on sex ratios in Rumex acetosa. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2151–2156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korpelainen, H, Kostamo, K (2008) Excessive variation in Y chromosomal DNA in Rumex acetosa (Polygonaceae). Plant Biology, 9, 383–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuroiwa, A (2009) No final answers yet on sex determination in birds. Nature, 462, 34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lagomarsino, IV, Conover, DO (1993) Variation in environmental and genotypic sex-determining mechanisms across a latitudinal gradient in the fish, Menidia menidia. Evolution, 47, 487–494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, BY, Hulata, G, Kocher, TD (2004) Two unlinked loci controlling the sex of blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus). Heredity, 92, 543–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, BY, Kocher, TD (2007) Exclusion of Wilm's tumour (Wt1b) and ovarian cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) as candidates for sex determination genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Animal Genetics, 38, 85–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisitsyn, N, Lisitsyn, N, Wigler, M (1993) Cloning the differences between two complex genomes. Science, 259, 946–951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, ZH, Wul, FR, Jiao, BW et al. (2007) Molecular cloning of doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor1, forkhead transcription factor gene 2, and two types of cytochrome P450 aromatase in Southern catfish and their possible roles in sex differentiation. Journal of Endocrinology, 194, 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, A, Belfiore, NM, Pitra, C et al. (2001) Genome duplication events and functional reduction of ploidy levels in sturgeon (Acipenser, Huso, and Scaphirhynchus). Genetics, 158, 1203–1215.Google Scholar
Mair, GC, Beardmore, JA, Skibinski, DOF (1990). Experimental evidence for environmental sex determination in Oreochromis species. In: Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum (eds. Hirano R, Hanyu I), pp. 555–558. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines.
Mair, GC, Scott, AG, Penman, DJ et al. (1991) Sex determination in the genus Oreochromis 1. Sex reversal, gynogenesis and triploidy in Oreochromis niloticus. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 82, 144–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mank, JE, Avise, JC (2009) Evolutionary diversity and turn-over of sex determination in teleost fishes. Sexual Development, 3, 60–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mank, JE, Ellegren, H (2007) Parallel divergence and degradation of the avian W sex chromosome. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 389–391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mank, JE, Promislow, DEL, Avise, JC (2006) Evolution of alternative sex-determining mechanisms in teleost fishes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 87, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, NJ, Kimme, DE (1985) The effects of temperature on testicular steroid production in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in vitro and in vivo. Genetics and Comparative Endocrinology, 57, 377–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Margulies, MM, Egholm, W, Altman, E et al. (2005) Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature, 437, 376–380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marshall Graves, JA (2009) Sex determination: birds do it with a Z gene. Nature, 461, 177–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsuba, C, Miura, I, Merilä, J (2008) Disentangling genetic vs. environmental causes of sex determination in the common frog, Rana temporaria. BMC Genetics, 9, 3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsubara, K, Tarui, H, Toriba, M et al. (2006) Evidence for different origins of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103, 18190–18195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsuda, M (2005) Sex determination in the teleost medaka, Oryzias latipes. Annual Review of Genetics, 39, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsuda, M, Nagahama, Y, Schinomiya, A et al. (2002) DMT is a Y-specific DM-domain gene required for male development in the medaka fish. Nature, 417, 559–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCormick, CR, Bos, DH, DeWoody, JA (2008) Multiple molecular approaches yield no evidence of sex-determining genes in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 24, 643–645.Google Scholar
Millar, CD, Reed, CEM, Halverson, JL et al. (1997) Captive management and molecular sexing of endangered avian species: an application to the black stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae and hybrids. Biological Conservation, 82, 81–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munday, PL, Buston, PM, Warner, RR (2006) Diversity and flexibility of sex-change strategies in animals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 89–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakamura, M (2009). Sex determination in amphibians. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nanda, I, Kondo, M, Hornung, U et al. (2002) A duplicated copy of DMRT1 in the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 11778–11783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogata, M, Hasegawa, Y, Ohtani, H et al. (2008) The ZZ/ZW sex-determining mechanism originated twice and independently during evolution of the frog, Rana rugosa. Heredity, 100, 92–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olsen, JB, Miller, SJ, Harper, K, Nagler, JJ, Wenburg, JK (2006) Contrasting sex ratios in juvenile and adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) from southwest Alaska: sex reversal or differential survival?Journal of Fish Biology, 69, 140–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otake, H, Shinomiya, A, Kawaguchi, A et al. (2008) The medaka sex-determining gene DMY acquired a novel temporal expression pattern after duplication of DMRT1. Genesis, 46, 719–723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paetkau, D, Calvert, W, Stirling, I, Strobeck, C (1995) Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian polar bears. Molecular Ecology, 4, 347–354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patino, R, David, KB, Schoore, JE et al. (1996) Sex differentiation of channel catfish gonads: normal development and effects of temperature. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 276, 209–218.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearse, DE, Janzen, FJ, Avise, JC (2001) Genetic markers substantiate long-term storage and utilization of sperm by female painted turtles. Heredity, 86, 378–384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peichel, CL, Ross, JA, Matson, CK et al. (2004) The master sex-determination locus in threespine sticklebacks is on a nascent Y chromosome. Current Biology, 14, 1416–1424.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penman, DJ, Piferrer, F (2008) Fish gonadogenesis. Part I: Genetic and environmental mechanisms of sex determination. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 16 (Suppl. 1), 14–32.Google Scholar
Perez-Perez, J, Barragan, C (1998) Isolation of four pig male-specific DNA fragments by RDA. Animal Genetics, 29, 157–158.Google ScholarPubMed
Peterson, DL, Gunderman, B, Vecsei, P (2002) Lake sturgeon of the Manistee River: a current assessment of spawning stock size, age and growth. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 28, 175–182.Google Scholar
Peterson, DL, Vecsei, P, Jennings, CA (2007) Ecology and biology of the lake sturgeon: a synthesis of current knowledge of a threatened North American Acipenseridae. Reviews of Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17, 59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, RB, Konkol, NR, Reed, KM et al. (2001) Chromosome painting supports lack of homology among sex chromosomes in Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus (Salmonidae). Genetica, 111, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomp, D, Good, BA, Geisert, RD, Corbin, CJ, Conley, AJ (1995) Sex identification in mammals with polymerase chain reaction and its use to examine sex effects on diameter of day-10 or -11 pig embryos. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 1408–1415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Primmer, CR, Koskinen, MT, Piironen, J (2000) The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 267, 1699–1704.Google Scholar
Quinn, AE, Georges, A, Sarre, SD et al. (2007) Temperature sex reversal implies sex gene dosage in a reptile. Science, 316, 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radder, RS, Quinn, AE, Georges, A et al. (2007) Genetic evidence for co-occurrence of chromosomal and thermal sex-determining systems in a lizard. Biology Letters, 4, 176–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raymond, CS, Shamu, CE, Shen, MM et al. (1998) Evidence for evolutionary conservation of sex-determining genes. Nature, 391, 691–695.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reed, JZ, Tollit, DJ, Thompson, PM et al. (1997) Molecular scatology: the use of molecular genetic analysis to assign species, sex and individual identity to seal faeces. Molecular Ecology, 6, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro de Oliveira, R, Souza, IL, Venere, PC (2008) Karyotype description of three species of Loricariidae (Siluriformes) and occurrence of the ZZ/ZW sexual system in Hemiancistrus spilomma. Neotropical Ichthyology, 4, 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rice, WR (1986) On the instability of polygeneic sex determination – the effects of sex specific selection. Evolution, 40, 633–639.Google Scholar
Rice, WR (1987) The accumulation of sexually antagonistic genes as a selective agent promoting the evolution of reduced recombination between primate sex-chromosomes. Evolution, 41, 911–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudnick, JA, Katzner, TE, Bragin, EA et al. (2005) Using naturally shed feathers for individual identification, genetic parentage analyses, and population monitoring in an endangered Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) population from Kazakhstan. Molecular Ecology, 14, 2959–2967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudnick, JA, Katzner, TE, Bragin, EA et al. (2008) A non-invasive genetic evaluation of population size, natal philopatry, and roosting behavior of non-breeding eastern imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) in central Asia. Conservation Genetics, 9, 667–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schafer, AJ, Goodfellow, PN (1996) Sex determination in humans. Bioessays, 18, 955–963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultheis, C, Zhou, Q, Froschauer, A et al. (2006) Molecular analysis of the sex-determining region of the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. Zebrafish, 3, 299–309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultz, RJ (1993) Genetic regulation of temperature-mediated sex ratios on the livebearing fish Poeciliopsis lucida. Copeia, 1993(4), 1148–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shine, R (1999) Why is sex determined by nest temperature in many reptiles?Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 186–189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shinomiya, A, Otake, H, Togashi, K et al. (2004) Field survey of sex-reversals in the medaka, Oryzias latipes: genotypic sexing of wild populations. Zoological Science, 21, 613–619.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shirak, A, Seroussi, E, Cnaani, A et al. (2006) Amh and Dmrta2 genes map to tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) linkage group 23 within quantitative trait locus regions for sex determination. Genetics, 174, 1573–1581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sinclair, AH, Berta, P, Palmer, MS et al. (1990) A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif. Nature, 346, 240–244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, CA, Sinclair, AH (2004) Sex determination: insights from the chicken. Bioessays, 26, 120–132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, CA, Roeszler, KN, Ohnesorg, T, Cummins, DM, Farlie, PG, Doran, TJ, Sinclair, AH (2009) The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken. Nature, 461, 267–271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spidle, AP, Quinn, TP, Bentzen, P (1998) Sex-biased marine survival and growth in a population of coho salmon. Journal of Fish Biology, 52, 907–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunobe, T, Nakazono, A (1993) Sex-change in both directions but alternation of social dominance in Trimma okinawae (Pisces, Gobiidae). Ethology, 94, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takehana, Y, Demiyah, D, Naruse, K et al. (2007a) Evolution of different Y chromosomes in two medaka species, Oryzias dancena and O. latipes. Genetics, 175, 1335–1340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takehana, Y, Naruse, K, Hamaguchi, S et al. (2007b) Evolution of ZZ/ZW and XX/XY sex-determination systems in the closely related medaka species, Oryzias hubbsi and O. dancena. Chromosoma, 116, 463–470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turner, TF, Richardson, LR, Gold, (2002) Temporal genetic variation of mitochondrial DNA and the female effective population size of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Molecular Ecology, 8, 1223–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ueno, K, Takai, A (2008) Multiple sex chromosome system of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y type in lutjanid fish, Lutjanus quinquelineatus (Perciformes). Genetica, 132, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2008) Lake sturgeon biology and population history in the Great Lakes. Available at . Accessed 3 February 2010.
Valenzuela, N (2008) Relic thermosensitive gene expression in a turtle with genotypic sex determination. Evolution, 62, 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valenzuela, N, Adams, DC, Janzen, FJ (2003) Pattern does not equal process: exactly when is sex environmentally determined?American Naturalist, 161, 676–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valenzuela, N, Lance, VA, editors (2004) Temperature Dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates. Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Valenzuela, N, LeClere, A, Shikano, T (2006) Comparative gene expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in Chrysemys picta and Apalone mutica turtles with temperature dependent and genotypic sex determination. Evolution and Development, 8, 424–432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Eenennaam, AL, Van Eenennaam, JP, Medrano, JF et al. (1999) Evidence of female heterogametic genetic sex determination in white sturgeon. Journal of Heredity, 90, 231–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vecsei, P, Litvak, MK, Noakes, DLG, Rein, T, Hochleithner, M (2003) A noninvasive technique for determining sex of live adult North American sturgeons. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 68, 333–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veyrunes, F, Waters, PD, Miethke, P et al. (2008) Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes. Genome Research, 18, 965–973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vicari, MR, Artoni, RF, Moreira, O et al. (2008) Diversification of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fish (Crenuchidae, Characiformes). Genetica, 134, 311–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volff, JN, Nanda, I, Schmid, M (2007) Governing sex determination in fish: regulatory putsches and ephemeral dictators. Sexual Development, 1, 85–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volff, JN, Shartl, M (2001) Variability of genetic sex determination in poeciliid fishes. Genetics, 111, 101–110.Google ScholarPubMed
Volff, JN, Schartl, M (2002) Sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 99, 170–177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volff, JN, Zarkower, D, Bardwell, VJ et al. (2003) Evolutionary dynamics of the DM domain gene family in metazoans. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 57, 241–249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallner, B, Piumi, F, Brem, G et al. (2004) Isolation of Y chromosome-specific microsatellites in the horse and cross-species amplification in the genus Equus. Journal of Heredity, 95, 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, LH, Tsai, CL (2006) Influence of temperature and gonadal steroids on the ontogenetic expression of brain serotonin 1A and 1D receptors during the critical period of sexual differentiation in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 143, 116–125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warner, DA, Shine, R (2008) Maternal nest-site choice in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Animal Behaviour, 75, 861–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warner, RR, Swearer, SE (1991) Social-control of sex change in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum (Pisces, Labridae). Biological Bulletin, 181, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, KS, May, B (2002) Incidence of phenotypic female chinook salmon positive for the male Y-chromosome-specific marker OtY1 in the Central Valley, California. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 14, 176–183.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Withler, RE, MacPhail, JD, Devlin, RH (1986) Electrophoretic polymorphism and sexual dimorphism in the freshwater and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. Biochemical Genetics, 24, 701–713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woram, RA, Gharbi, K, Sakamoto, T et al. (2003) Comparative genome analysis of the primary sex-determining locus in salmonid fishes. Genome Research, 13, 272–280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wuertz, S, Gaillard, S, Barbisan, F et al. (2006) Extensive screening of sturgeon genomes by random screening techniques revealed no sex-specific marker. Aquaculture, 258, 685–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshimoto, S, Okada, E, Umemoto, H et al. (2008) A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105, 2469–2474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhan, XJ, Zhang, ZJ, Wu, H et al. (2007) Molecular analysis of dispersal in giant pandas. Molecular Ecology, 16, 3792–3800.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats