Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2014
The second part of this volume considers cases by taking up particular issues or the empirical situation on caste, village and religious communities, and gender. Most of the articles are empirical in nature and are a result of in-depth field investigations. Social exclusion has been mapped with its myriad dimensions with the help of quantitative data in these studies. These chapters may be broadly divided into two parts. The first three offer empirical investigations into the social exclusion in Punjab and Jammu. The next two chapters examine strategies for overcoming social exclusion in Punjab and Haryana, of which one examines the social movement strategy, and the other takes stock of the success of state intervention in empowering the Dalits and women.
Chapter six is an empirical and analytical examination of caste and religious exclusion in Punjab. Paramjit S. Judge, based on the empirical investigation of four villages of Punjab, examines the modes of caste-based social and religious exclusion by probing into multiple layers of discrimination and deprivation – subtle or obvious – of the Dalits at certain informal and formal levels. Friendship patterns, inter dining and mutual participations on various social occasions remain caste-specific. Egalitarian values of Sikhism are violated in terms of religious places where the Dalits have constructed their separate gurdwaras. The most important element in the contemporary practices of social exclusion is their subtlety and prevalence in private sphere which cannot be changed by the state intervention.