Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jqctd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-01T01:31:13.596Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 4 - Changes in Impacts of Climate Extremes: Human Systems and Ecosystems

from Section III

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2012

Christopher B. Field
Co-Chair IPCC Working Group II, Carnegie Institution for Science
Vicente Barros
Co-Chair IPCC Working Group II, Universidad de Buenos Aires
Thomas F. Stocker
Co-Chair IPCC Working Group I, University of Bern
Qin Dahe
Co-Chair IPCC Working Group I, China Meteorological Administration
Get access


Executive Summary

Extreme impacts can result from extreme weather and climate events, but can also occur without extreme events. This chapter examines two broad categories of impacts on human and ecological systems, both of which are influenced by changes in climate, vulnerability, and exposure: first, the chapter primarily focuses on impacts that result from extreme weather and climate events, and second, it also considers extreme impacts that are triggered by less-than-extreme weather or climate events. These two categories of impacts are examined across sectors, systems, and regions. Extreme events can have positive as well as negative impacts on ecosystems and human activities.

Economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters have increased, but with large spatial and interannual variability (high confidence, based on high agreement, medium evidence). Global weather- and climate-related disaster losses reported over the last few decades reflect mainly monetized direct damages to assets, and are unequally distributed. Estimates of annual losses have ranged since 1980 from a few US$ billion to above 200 billion (in 2010 dollars), with the highest value for 2005 (the year of Hurricane Katrina). In the period 2000 to 2008, Asia experienced the highest number of weather- and climate-related disasters. The Americas suffered the most economic loss, accounting for the highest proportion (54.6%) of total loss, followed by Asia (27.5%) and Europe (15.9%). Africa accounted for only 0.6% of global economic losses. Loss estimates are lower bound estimates because many impacts, such as loss of human lives, cultural heritage, and ecosystem services, are difficult to value and monetize, and thus they are poorly reflected in estimates of losses. [4.5.1,,]

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation
Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
, pp. 231 - 290
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abegg, B., S., Agrawala, F., Crick, and A., Montfalcon, 2007: Climate change impacts and adaptation in winter tourism. In: Climate Change in the European Alps: Adapting Winter Tourism and Natural Hazards Management [S., Agrawala (ed.)]. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, pp. 25–60.Google Scholar
ABI, 2005a: Financial Risks of Climate Change: Summary Report. Association of British Insurers, London, UK, 129 pp.
ABI, 2005b: Financial Risks of Climate Change: Technical Annexes. Climate Risk Management Ltd. for the Association of British Insurers, London, UK, 125 pp.
ABI, 2009. The Financial Risk of Climate Change. Research Paper No. 19, Association of British Insurers, London, UK, 107 pp.
Abraham, J., F., Bendimerad, A., Berger, A., Boissonnade, O., Collignon, E., Couchmann, F., Grandjean, S., McKay, C., Miller, C., Mortgat, R., Muir-Wood, B., Page, T., Shah, S., Smith, P., Wiart, and Y., Xien, 2000: Windstorms Lothar and Martin. December 26-28, 1999. Risk Management Solutions, Newark, CA, 20 pp.Google Scholar
ABS, 2010: Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2008–09. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia,
ACIA, 2004: Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Overview Report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 139 pp.
Adamo, S.B., 2010: Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(3), 161–165, doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, W.N., 2000. Social and ecological resilience: Are they related?Progress in Human Geography, 24, 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, W.N., 2006: Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, W.N., T.A., Benjaminsen, K., Brown, and H., Svarstad, 2001: Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 32(4), 681–715. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, W.N., T.P., Hughes, C., Folke, S.R., Carpenter, and J., Rockstrom, 2005: Socialecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science, 309(5737), 1036–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, W.N., S., Agrawala, M.M.Q., Mirza, C., Conde, K., O'Brien, J., Pulhin, R., Pulwarty, B., Smit, and K., Takahashi, 2007: Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 717–743.Google Scholar
Aggarwal, P.K. and A.K., Singh, 2010: Implications of global climatic change on water and food security. In: Global Change: Impacts on Water and Food Security [Ringler, C., A.K., Biswas, and S., Kline (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 49–63.Google Scholar
Agrawala, S. and S., Fankhauser (eds.), 2008: Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change: Costs, Benefits and Policy Instruments. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, 133 pp.
Albala-Bertrand, J., 1993: Political Economy of Large Natural Disasters. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 272 pp.Google Scholar
Alexander, D., 2005: Vulnerability to landslides. In: Landslide Hazards and Risk [Glade, T., M., Anderson, and M., Crozier (eds.)]. Wiley & Sons, Sussex, UK, pp.175–198.Google Scholar
Allen, C.D. and D.D., Breshears, 1998: Drought-induced shift of a forest–woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(25), 14839–14842.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alpa, B., 2009: Vulnerability of Turkish coasts to accelerated sea-level rise. Geomorphology, 107, 58–63.Google Scholar
AMCEN/UNEP, 2002: Africa environment outlook: past, present and future perspectives. United Nations Environmental Programme and the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment, Earthprint, Stevenage, UK, 422 pp.
Amien, I., P., Rejekiningrum, A., Pramudia, and E., Susanti, 1996: Effects of interannual climate variability and climate change on rice yields in Java, Indonesia. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 92, 29–39.Google Scholar
Anderson, M.G., L., Holcombe, and J.-P., Renaud, 2007: Assessing slope stability in unplanned settlements in developing countries. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(1), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anisimov, O.A. and M.A., Belolutskaya, 2002: Assessment of the impact of climate change and permafrost degradation on infrastructure in northern regions of Russia. Meteorology and Hydrology, 6, 15–22.Google Scholar
Anisimov, O.A. and S.A., Lavrov, 2004: Global warming and permafrost melting: assessment of risks for energy-sector industrial facilities. Tekhnologii TEK, 3, 78–83.Google Scholar
Anisimov, O.A., A.A., Velichko, P.F., Demchenko, A.V., Yeliseyev, I.I., Mokhov, and V.P., Nechaev, 2004: Impact of climate change on permafrost in the past, present and future. Physics of Atmosphere and Oceans, 38(1), 25–39.Google Scholar
Anyamba, A., J-P., Chretien, J., Small, C.J., Tucker, and K.J., Linthicum, 2006: Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006-2007. International Journal of Health Geographics, 5(60), doi:10.1186/1476-072X-5-60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arianoutsou, M., S., Koukoulas, and D., Kazanis, 2011: Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece. Journal of Environmental Management, 47, 384–397.Google ScholarPubMed
Arkell, B.P. and G.J.C., Darch, 2006: Impact of climate change on London's transport network. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers – Municipal Engineer, 159(4), 231–237.Google Scholar
Arnone, J.A. III, P.S.J., Verburg, D.W., Johnson, J.D., Larsen, R.L., Jasoni, L.J., Annmarie, C.M., Batts, C., von Nagy, W.G., Coulombe, D.E., Schorran, P.E., Buck, B.H., Braswell, J.S., Coleman, R.A., Sherry, L.L., Wallace, Y., Luo, and D.S., Schimel, 2008: Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year. Nature, 455, 383–386.Google Scholar
AusAID, 2005: Economic Impact of Natural Disasters on Development in the Pacific. Volume 1: Research Report, Australian Agency for International Development, Canberra, Australia, 92 pp.,
Baccini, M., T., Kosatsky, A., Analitis, H.R., Anderson, M., D'Ovidio, B., Menne, P., Michelozzi, A., Biggeri, and the PHEWE Collaborative Group, 2011: Impact of heat on mortality in 15 European cities: attributable deaths under different weather scenarios. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(1), 64–70, doi:10.1136/jech.2008.085639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banks, S., M., Blyton, D., Blair, L., McBurney, and D., Lindenmayer, 2011: Adaptive responses and disruptive effects: how major wildfire influences kinship-based social interactions in a forest marsupial. Molecular Ecology, doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05282.x.Google Scholar
Barnett, T.P. and D.W., Pierce, 2008: When will Lake Mead run dry?Journal of Water Resources Research, 44, W03201, doi:10.1029/2007WR006704.Google Scholar
Barnett, T.P. and D.W., Pierce, 2009: Sustainable water deliveries from the Colorado River in a changing climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(18), 7334–7338, doi:10.1073/pnas.0812762106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barredo, J.I., 2009: Normalised flood losses in Europe: 1970-2006. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 97–104.Google Scholar
Barriopedro, D., E.M., Fischer, J., Luterbacher, R.M., Trigo, and R., Garcia-Herrara, 2011: The hot summer of 2010: redrawing the temperature record map of Europe. Science, 332, 220–224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basara, J.B., H.G., Basara, B.G., Illston, and K.C., Crawford, 2010: The impact of the urban heat island during an intense heat wave in Oklahoma City. Advances in Meteorology, (2010), 230365, doi:10.1155/2010/230365.Google Scholar
Battisti, D.S. and R.L., Naylor, 2009: Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science, 323, 240–244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bebi, P., D., Kulakowski, and C., Rixen, 2009: Snow avalanche disturbances in forest ecosystems – State of research and implications for management. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(9), 1883–1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becken, S. and J.E., Hay, 2007: Tourism and climate change: risks and opportunities. Climate Change, Economies and Society Series, Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK, 352 pp.Google Scholar
Bender, M.A., T.R., Knutson, R.E., Tuleya, J.J., Sirutis, G.A., Vecchi, S.T., Garner, and I.M., Held, 2010: Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science, 327, 454–458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beniston, M., 2004: The 2003 heatwave in Europe: A shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L02202.Google Scholar
Beniston, M. and H., Diaz, 2004: The 2003 heatwave as an example of summers in a greenhouse climate? Observations and climate model simulations for Basel, Switzerland. Global and Planetary Change, 44(1–4), 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beniston, M., F., Keller, and S., Goyette, 2003: Snow pack in the Swiss Alps under changing climatic conditions: An empirical approach for climate impact studies. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 74, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benito, G., T., Grodek, and Y., Enzel, 1998: The geomorphic and hydrologic impacts of the catastrophic failure of flood-control-dams during the 1996-Biescas flood (Central Pyrennes, Spain). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 42(4), 417–437.Google Scholar
Benito, G., R.F., Rohde, M., Seely, C., Kulls, O., Dahan, Y., Enzel, S., Todd, B., Botero, and T., Grodek, 2010: Management of alluvial aquifers in two southern African ephemeral rivers: implications for IWRM. Water Resources Management, 24, 641–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, C. and E., Clay, 1998: The Impact of Drought on Sub-Saharan African Economies: A Preliminary Examination. World Bank Technical Paper Series No. 401, World Bank, Washington, DC, 80 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, C. and E.J., Clay, 2000: Developing countries and the economic impacts of natural disasters. In: Managing disaster risk in emerging economies [Kreimer, A. and A., Margaret (eds.)]. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 2, World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 11–21.Google Scholar
Benson, C. and E., Clay, 2003: Disasters, vulnerability, and global economy. In: Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk [Kreimer, A., M., Arnold, and A., Carlin (eds.)]. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 3, World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 3–31.Google Scholar
Benson, C. and E., Clay, 2004: Understanding the Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters. Disaster Risk Management Series, No. 4, World Bank, Washington, DC, 119 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, C. and J., Twigg, 2004. Measuring Mitigation: Methodologies for assessing natural hazard risks and the net benefits of mitigation – A Scoping Study. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies/The ProVention Consortium, Geneva, Switzerland, 149 pp.Google Scholar
Berrittella, M., A., Bigano, and R.S.J., Tol, 2006: A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism. Tourism Management, 27(5), 913–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, M., 2003: Why is it important to boost the supply of affordable housing in Australia – and how can we do it?Urban Policy and Research, 21, 413–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, H., K., Bowen, and T., Kjellstrom, 2010: Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. International Journal of Public Health, 55, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertness, M.D. and P.J., Ewanchuk, 2002: Latitudinal and climate-driven variation in the strength and nature of biological interactions in New England salt marshes. Oecologia, 132, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beven, J.L., L.A., Avila, E.S., Blake, D.P., Brown, J.L., Franklin, R.D., Knabb, R.J., Pasch, J.R., Rhome, and S.R., Stewart, 2008: Atlantic hurricane season of 2005. Monthly Weather Review, 136, 1109–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhuiyan, C., R.P., Singh, and F.N., Kogan, 2006: Monitoring drought dynamics in the Aravalli region (India) using different indices based on ground and remote sensing data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 8(4), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bigano, A., F., Bosello, R., Roson, R.S.J., Tol, 2008: Economy-wide impacts of climate change: a joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism. Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change, 13, 765–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bindoff, N., J., Willebrand, V., Artale, A., Cazenave, J., Gregory, S., Gulev, K., Hanawa, C., Le Quéré, S., Levitus, Y., Nojiri, C.K., Shum, L.D., Talley and A., Unnikrishnan, 2007: Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor, and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 385–432.Google Scholar
Birch, E.L. and S.M., Wachter (eds.), 2006: Rebuilding Urban Places after Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 375 pp.
Bongaerts, P., T., Ridgeway, E.M., Sampayo, and O., Hoegh-Guldberg, 2010: Assessing the ‘deep reef refugia’ hypothesis: focus on Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs, 29, 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borrell, C, M., Marí-Dell'Olmo, M., Rodríguez-Sanz, P., Garcia-Olalla, J.A., Caylà, J., Benach, and C., Muntaner, 2006: Socioeconomic position and excess mortality during the heat wave of 2003 in Barcelona. European Journal of Epidemiology, 21(9), 633–640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boruff, B.J., J.A., Easoz, S.D., Jones, H.R., Landry, J.D., Mitchem, and S.L., Cutter, 2003: Tornado hazards in the United States. Climate Research, 24, 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Botzen, W.J.W., L.M., Bouwer, and J.C.J.M., van den Bergh, 2010: Climate change and hailstorm damage: Empirical evidence and implications for agriculture and insurance. Resource and Energy Economics, 32, 341–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouwer, L.M., 2010: Disasters and climate change: analysis and methods for projecting future losses from extreme weather. Ph.D. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 141 pp., dissertation.pdf.Google Scholar
Bouwer, L.M., 2011: Have disaster losses increased due to anthropogenic climate change?Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouwer, L.M. and W.J.W., Botzen, 2011: How sensitive are US hurricane damages to climate? Comment on a paper by W.D. Nordhaus. Climate Change Economics, 2, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouwer, L.M., R.P., Crompton, E., Faust, P., Höppe, and R.A., Pielke Jr., 2007: Confronting disaster losses. Science, 318, 753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bouwer, L.M., P., Bubeck, and J.C.J.H., Aerts, 2010: Changes in future flood risk due to climate and development in a Dutch polder area. Global Environmental Change, 20, 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breshears, D.D. and C.D., Allen, 2002: The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in carbon management and sequestration. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breshears, D.D., N.S., Cobb, P.M., Rich, K.P., Price, C.D., Allen, R.G., Balice, W.H., Romme, J.H., Kastens, M.L., Floyd, J., Belnap, J.J., Anderson, O.B., Myers, and C.W., Meyer, 2005: Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(42), 15144–15148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bronstert, A., A., Bárdossy, C., Bismuth, H., Buiteveld, M., Disse, H., Engel, U., Fritsch, Y., Hundecha, R., Lammersen, D., Niehoff, and N., Ritter, 2007: Multi-scale modelling of land-use change and river training effects on floods in the Rhine basin. River Research and Applications, 23(10), 1102–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, N., 2004: Drought in the Africa Sahel: long-term perspectives and future prospects. Working paper 61, Tyndall Centre for Climate Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 31 pp.Google Scholar
Brooks, N., W.N., Adger, and P.M., Kelly, 2005: The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 15, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brookshire, D.S., S.E., Chang, H., Cochrane, R.A., Olson, A., Rose, and J., Steenson, 1997: Direct and indirect economic losses from earthquake damage. Earthquake Spectra, 13, 683–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brouwer, R., S., Akter, L., Brander, and E., Haque, 2007: Socioeconomic vulnerability and adaptation to environmental risk: acase study of climate change and flooding in Bangladesh. Risk Analysis, 27, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BTE, 2001: Economic costs of natural disasters in Australia. Report 103, Bureau of Transport Economics, Canberra, Australia, 170 pp.
Burnley, I. and P., Murphy, 2004: Sea Change: Movement from Metropolitan to Arcadian Australia. UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, 272 pp.Google Scholar
Burton, I. and E., May, 2004: The adaptation deficit in water resources management. IDS Bulletin, 35(3), 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burton, K., R., Kates, and G., White, 1993: The Environment as Hazard. 2nd ed. Guilford Press, New York, NY, 290 pp.Google Scholar
Bussotti, F., E., Cenni, M., Ferretti, A., Cozzi, L., Brogi, and A., Mecci, 1995: Forest condition in Tuscany (Central Italy) – Field surveys 1987-1991. Forestry, 68(1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butcher, G.V. and S., Ford, 2009: Modeling the regional economic impacts of the 2007/08 drought: results and lessons. Paper presented at the 2009 NZARES Conference, Nelson, New Zealand, 27-28 August 2009, 11 pp., Scholar
Butry, D., E., Mercer, J., Prestemon, J., Pye, and T., Holmes, 2001: What is the price of catastrophic wildfire?Journal of Forestry, 99(11), 9–17.Google Scholar
Buzinde, C.N., D., Manuel-Navarrete, E.E., Yoo, and D., Morais, 2010: Tourists' perceptions in a climate of change: Eroding destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(2), 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buzna, L., K., Peters, and D., Helbing, 2006: Modelling the dynamics of disaster spreading in networks. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 363(1), 132–140.Google Scholar
Cadier, E., M., Villacis, A., Graces, P., Lhuissier, L., Maisincho, R., Laval, D., Paredes, B., Caceres, and B., Francou, 2007: Variation of a low latitude Andean glacier according to global and local climate variations: first results. In: Glacier Mass Balances and Meltwater Discharge [Ginot, P. and J.E., Sicart (eds.)]. IAHS Pub. No. 318, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK, pp. 66–74.Google Scholar
Campbell, J.R., 2006: Traditional Disaster Reduction in Pacific Island Communities. GNS Science Report 2006/38, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 46 pp.Google Scholar
Cardemil, L., J.C., Di Tata, and F., Frantischek, 2000: Central America: adjustment and reforms in the 1990s. Finance and Development, 37(1), 34–37, Scholar
Carson, R., R., Mitchell, M., Hanemann, R., Kopp, S., Presser, and P., Ruud, 2003: Contingent valuation and lost passive use: damages from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Environmental and Resource Economics, 25, 257–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter, L.M., S.J., Cohen, N.B., Grimm, and J.L., Hatfield, 2008: Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate, Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean and U.S. Pacific Islands. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3, Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change, Washington, DC, 162 pp.Google Scholar
Carter, M.R., P.D., Little, T., Mogues, and W., Negatu, 2007: Poverty traps and natural disasters in Ethiopia and Honduras. World Development, 35(5), 835–856, doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2006.09.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caselli, F. and P., Malhotra, 2004: Natural Disasters and Growth: from Thought Experiment to Natural Experiment, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, 29 pp.Google Scholar
Casimiro, E. and J.M., Calheiros, 2002: Human health. In: Climate Change in Portugal. Scenarios, Impacts and Adaptation Measures—SIAM Project [Santos, F.D., K., Forbes, and R., Moita (eds.)]. Gradiva Publishers, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 241–300.Google Scholar
Cavallo, E. and I., Noy, 2009: The Economics of Natural Disasters: A Survey. IDB Working Paper 09-19, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, 48 pp.Google Scholar
Cavallo, E. and I., Noy, 2010: The Economics of Natural Disasters: A Survey. IDB Working Paper Series, No. IDB-WP-124, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, 50 pp., Scholar
CCSP, 2008: Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study, Phase I. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [Savonis, M.J., V.R., Burkett, and J.R., Potter (eds.)]. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, 445 pp.
CDHS, 2007: Review of July 2006 Heatwave Related Fatalities in California. CDHS Report, Epidemiology and Prevention for Injury Control Branch, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, CA, 10 pp.
Chang, H., J., Franczyk, and C., Kim, 2009: What is responsible for increasing flood risks? The case of Gangwon Province, Korea. Natural Hazards, 48, 399–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Changnon, S. (ed.), 1996: The Great Flood of 1993. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 321 pp.
Changnon, S.A., 2001: Damaging thunderstorm activity in the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82, 597–608.Google Scholar
Changnon, S.A., 2006: Railroads and Weather: From Fogs to Floods and Heat to Hurricanes, the Impacts of Weather and Climate on American Railroading. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 136 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Changnon, S.A., 2009: Increasing major hail losses in the U.S.Climatic Change, 96, 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapin, F.S., T.V., Callaghan, Y., Bergeron, M., Fukuda, J.F., Johnstone, G., Juday, and S.A., Zimov, 2004: Global change and the boreal forest: thresholds, shifting states or gradual change?Ambio, 33, 361–365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charveriat, C., 2000: Natural Disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview of Risk. IDB Working Paper 434, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, 104 pp.Google Scholar
Chen, K. and J., McAneney, 2006: High-resolution estimates of Australia's coastal population with validations of global population, shoreline and elevation datasets. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L16601, doi:10.1029/2006GL026981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, S. and R., Wang, 2002: An approach for evaluating the hydrological effects of urbanization and its application. Hydrological Processes, 16(7), 1403–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi, O. and A., Fisher, 2003: The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses: Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) and the US. Climatic Change, 58(1–2), 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, J.H., B., Hewitson, A., Busuioc, A., Chen, X., Gao, I., Held, R., Jones, R.K., Kolli, W., Kwon, R., Laprise, V.M., Rueda, L., Mearns, C.G., Menéndez, J., Räisänen, A., Rinke, A., Sarr, and P., Whetton, 2007: Regional climate projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor, and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 847–933.Google Scholar
Christensen, N.S., A.W., Wood, N., Voisin, D.P., Lettenmaier, and R.N., Palmer, 2004: The effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin. Climatic Change, 62(1), 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ciais, P., M., Reichstein, N., Viovy, A., Granier, J., Ogée, V., Allard, M., Aubinet, N., Buchmann, Chr., Bernhofer, A., Carrara, F., Chevallier, N., De Noblet, A.D., Friend, P., Friedlingstein, T., Grünwald, B., Heinesch, P., Keronen, A., Knohl, G., Krinner, D., Loustau, G., Manca, G., Matteucci, F., Miglietta, J.M., Ourcival, D., Papale, K., Pilegaard, S., Rambal, G., Seufert, J.F., Soussana, M.J., Sanz, E.D., Schulze, T., Vesala, and R., Valentini, 2005: Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature, 437(7058), 529–533.Google Scholar
Ciscar, J.C. (ed.), 2009: Climate Change Impacts in Europe: Final Report of the PESE-TA research project. EUR 24093 EN-2009, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, EU Publications, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 113 pp.
Clarke, M.L. and H.M., Rendell, 2006: Hindcasting extreme events: the occurrence and expression of damaging floods and landslides in Southern Italy. Land Degradation and Development, 17(4), 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, P., V., Elliot, H., Hegre, A., Hoeffler, M., Reynal-Querol, and N., Sambanis, 2003: Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Corominas, J., 2005: Impacto sobre los riesgos naturales de origen climático: inestabilidad de laderas. In: Proyecto ECCE. Evaluación Preliminar de los impactos en España por efecto del Cambio Climático [Moreno, J.M. (ed.)]. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, Spain, pp. 549–579.Google Scholar
Costa, M.H. and G.F., Pires, 2010: Effects of Amazon and Central Brazil deforestation scenarios on the duration of the dry season in the arc of deforestation. International Journal of Climatology, 30(13), 1970–1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costanza, R. and J., Farley. 2007. Ecological economics of coastal disasters: Introduction to the Special Issue. Ecological Economics, 63, 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costello, L., 2007: Going bush: the implications of urban-rural migration. Geographical Research, 45, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costello, L., 2009: Urban-rural migration: housing availability and affordability. Australian Geographer, 40, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CRED, 2010: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Data Base. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium,
Crichton, D., 2007: What can cities do to increase resilience?Philosophical Transactions of the Royal SocietyA, 365(1860), 2731–2739.Google Scholar
Crompton, R.P. and K.J., McAneney, 2008: Normalised Australian insured losses from meteorological hazards: 1967-2006. Environmental Science and Policy, 11, 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crompton, R.P., K.J., McAneney, and K., Chen, 2010: Influence of location, population, and climate on building damage and fatalities due to Australian bushfire: 1925-2009. Weather, Climate, and Society, 2, 300–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crompton, R., R.A., Pielke Jr., and J., McAneney, 2011: Emergence timescales for detection of anthropogenic climate change in US tropical cyclone loss data. Environmental Research Letters, 6(1), doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/014003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crosta, G.B., H., Chen, and C.F., Lee, 2004: Replay of the 1987 Val Pola Landslide, Italian Alps. Geomorphology, 60(2, 3), 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowards, T., 2000: Comparative Vulnerability to Natural Disasters in the Caribbean. Staff Working Paper No. 1/00, Caribbean Development Bank, Charleston, SC, 21 pp.Google Scholar
Crozier, M.J., 2010: Deciphering the effect of climate change on landslide activity: A review. Geomorphology, 124(3–4), 260–267, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.04.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz, A., 2005: NaTech disasters: a review of practices, lessons learned and future research needs. Paper presented at the 5th Annual IIASA-DPRI Forum, Integrated Disaster Risk Management: Innovations in Science and Policy, Beijing, China, 14-18 September 2005, 10 pp.Google Scholar
Cruz, R.V., H., Harasawa, M., Lal, S., Wu, Y., Anokhin, B., Punsalmaa, Y., Honda, M., Jafari, C., Li and N. Huu, Ninh, 2007: Asia. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 469–506.Google Scholar
Cummins, J., and O., Mahul, 2009: Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries: Principles for Public Intervention. World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Cuny, F.C., 1983: Disasters and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 278 pp.Google Scholar
Curriero, F.C., J.A., Patz, J.B., Rose, and S., Lele, 2001: The association between extreme precipitation and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1948-1994. American Journal of Public Health, 91(8), 1194–1199, doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.8.1194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cutter, S. and C., Emrich, 2005: Are natural hazards and disaster losses in the U.S. increasing?EOS, 86(41), 381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cutter, S.L. and C.T., Emrich, 2006: Moral hazard, social catastrophe: the changing face of vulnerability along the hurricane coasts. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 102–112.Google Scholar
Cutter, S.L. and C., Finch, 2008: Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(7), 2301–2306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cutter, S.L., L., Barnes, M., Berry, C., Burton, E., Evans, E., Tate, and J., Webb, 2008: A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18, 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
D'Almeida, C., C.J., Vorosmarty, G.C., Hurtt, J.A., Marengo, S.L., Dingman, and B.D., Keim, 2007: The effects of deforestation on the hydrological cycle in Amazonia: a review on scale and resolution. International Journal of Climatology, 27, 633–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dao, H. and P., Peduzzi, 2004: Global evaluation of human risk and vulnerability to natural hazards In: Proceedings of ENVIROINFO 2004, 18th International Conference Informatics for Environmental Protection, Vol. 1, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2004, Sh@ring, Editions du Tricorne, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 435–446.Google Scholar
Dasgupta, S., B., Laplante, S., Murray, and D., Wheeler, 2009: Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts in Developing Countries. Policy Research Working Paper 4901, World Bank Development Research Group, Environment and Energy Team, Washington, DC, 41 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dash, S., R., Jenamani, S., Kalsi, and S., Panda, 2007: Some evidence of climate change in twentieth-century India, Climatic Change, 85, 299–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, R.E, P.C., Knappenberger, P.J., Michaels, and W.M., Novicoff, 2003: Changing heat-related mortality in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 1712–1718.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawson, R. J., J.W., Hall, P.D., Bates, and R.J., Nicholls, 2005: Quantified analysis of the probability of flooding in the Thames Estuary under imaginable worst-case sea level rise scenarios. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 21(4), 577–591, doi:10.1080/07900620500258380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, R.J., M.E., Dickson, R.J., Nicholls, J.W., Hall, M.J.A., Walkden, P.K., Stansby, M., Mokrech, J., Richards, J., Zhou, J., Milligan, A., Jordan, S., Pearson, J., Rees, P.D., Bates, S., Koukoulas, and A.R., Watkinson, 2009: Integrated analysis of risks of coastal flooding and cliff erosion under scenarios of long term change. Climatic Change, 95, 249–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Bruin, K., R.B., Dellink, A., Ruijs, L., Bolwidt, A., vanBuuren, J., Graveland, R.S., deGroot, P.J., Kuikman, S., Reinhard, R.P., Roetter, V.C., Tassone, A., Verhagen, and E.C., van Ierland, 2009: Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives. Climatic Change, 95(1–2), 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Wit, M. and J., Stankiewicz, 2006: Changes in water supply across Africa with predicted climate change. Science, 311, 1917–1921.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DEFRA, 2004: Scientific and Technical Aspects of Climate Change, including Impacts and Adaptation and Associated Costs. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK, 19 pp.,
DEFRA, 2006: The UK's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK, 135 pp.,
Delpla, I., A.-V., Jung, E., Baures, M., Clement, and O., Thomas, 2009: Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Environment International, 35(8), 1225–1233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deschênes, O. and M., Greenstone, 2007: The economic impacts of climate change: Evidence from agricultural output and random fluctuations in weather. The American Economic Review, 97(1), 354–385.Google Scholar
Devoy, R.J.N., 2008: Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea-level rise for Ireland. Journal of Coastal Research, 24(2), 325–341.Google Scholar
DHS, 2009: January 2009 Heatwave in Victoria: an Assessment of Health Impacts. Victorian Govt. Department of Human Services, Melbourne, Australia, 16 pp.
Dodman, D. and D., Satterthwaite, 2008: Institutional capacity, climate change adaptation and the urban poor. Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 39(4), 67–74.Google Scholar
Donat, M.G., G.C., Leckebusch, J.G., Pinto, and U., Ulbrich, 2010: European storminess and associated circulation weather types: future changes deduced from a multi-model ensemble of GCM simulations. Climate Research, 42, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donat, M.G., G.C., Leckebusch, S., Wild, and U., Ulbrich, 2011: Future changes in European winter storm losses and extreme wind speeds inferred from GCM and RCM multi-model simulations. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1351–1370.Google Scholar
Dorland, C., R.S.J., Tol, and J.P., Palutikof, 1999: Vulnerability of the Netherlands and Northwest Europe to storm damage under climate change. Climatic Change, 43, 513–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, I., 2009: Climate change, flooding and food security in south Asia, Food Security, 1(2), 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, I., K., Alam, M., Maghenda, Y., Mcdonnell, L., Mclean, and J., Campbell, 2008: Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa, Environment and Urbanization, 20 (1), 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downton, M. and R.A., Pielke Jr., 2005: How accurate are disaster loss data? The case of U.S. flood damage. Natural Hazards, 352, 211–228.Google Scholar
Downton, M.W., J.Z.B., Miller, and R.A., Pielke, 2005: Reanalysis of US National Weather Service flood loss database. Natural Hazards Review, 6, 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dregne, H.E., 1986: Desertification of arid lands. In: Physics of Desertification [El-Baz, F. and M.H.A., Hassan (eds.)]. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 4–34.Google Scholar
DSD, 1994: Barbados Declaration. A/CONF.167/9, I, Annex I. Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, NY, USA, 77 pp.,
Eakin, C.M., J. A., Morgan, S. F., Heron, T. B., Smith, G., Liu, et al., 2010: Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. Public Library of Science ONE, 5(11), e13969, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013969.Google ScholarPubMed
Easterling, W. and M., Apps, 2005: Assessing the consequences of climate change for food and forest resources: A view from the IPCC. Climate Change, 70, 165–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Easterling, W.E., P.K., Aggarwal, P., Batima, K.M., Brander, L., Erda, S.M., Howden, A., Kirilenko, J., Morton, J.-F., Soussana, J., Schmidhuber, and F.N., Tubiello, 2007: Food, fibre and forest products. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 273–313.Google Scholar
Ebersole, B.A., J.J., Westerink, S., Bunya, J.C., Dietrich, and M.A., Cialone, 2010: Development of storm surge which led to flooding in St. Bernard Polder during Hurricane Katrina. Ocean Engineering, 37, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebi, K.L. and G.A., Meehl, 2007: The Heat is On: Climate Change & Heatwaves in the Midwest. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, 14 pp., Scholar
Ebi, K.L., J., Balbus, P.L., Kinney, E., Lipp, D., Mills, M.S., O'Neill, and M., Wilson, 2008: Effects of global change on human health. In: Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems [Gamble, J.L. (ed.)]. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp. 2–1 to 2–78.Google Scholar
ECA, 2009: Shaping Climate-Resilient Development: A Framework for Decision-Making Study. Report of the Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group, New York, NY, 159 pp.
ECLAC, 2003: Handbook for Estimating the Socio-economic and Environmental Effects of Disasters. LC/MEX/G.5, LC/L 1874, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile, 354 pp.,
EEA, 2004: Impacts of Europe's changing climate. An indicator-based assessment. EEA Report No. 2/2004, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 100 pp.
EEA, 2008: Impacts of Europe's changing climate- 2008 indicator-based assessment. EEA Report No.4/2008, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19 pp., doi:10.2800/48117.
EEA, 2009: Regional Climate Change and Adaptation: The Alps Facing the Challenge of Changing Water Resources. EEA Report No. 8, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 143 pp.
Ehmer, P. and E., Heymann, 2008: Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead?Deutsche Bank Research, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 28 pp.Google Scholar
Ellson, R.W., J.W., Milliman, and R.B., Roberts, 1984: Measuring the regional economic effects of earthquakes and earthquake predictions. Journal of Regional Science, 24(4), 559–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elsasser, H. and R., Bürki, 2002: Climate change as a threat to tourism in the Alps. Climate Research, 20, 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emanuel, K., 2005: Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, 436(7051), 686–688.Google Scholar
Endfield, G.H. and I.F., Tejedo, 2006: Decades of drought, years of hunger: archival investigations of multiple year droughts in late colonial Chihuahua. Climatic Change, 75(4), 391–419, doi:10.1007/s10584-006-3492-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Endlicher, W., G., Jendritzky, J., Fischer, and J.-P., Redlich, 2008: Heat waves, urban climate and human health. In Urban Ecology [Marzluff, J.M., E., Shulenberger, W., Endlicher, M., Alberti, G., Bradley, C., Ryan, U., Simon, and C., ZumBrunnen (eds.)]. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 269–278.Google Scholar
Engelthaler, D.M., D.G., Mosley, J.E., Cheek, C.E., Levy, K.K., Komatsu, P., Ettestad, T., Davis, D.T., Tanda, L., Miller, J.W., Frampton, R., Porter, and R.T., Bryan, 1999: Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 87–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eriksen, S.H., K., Brown, and P.M., Kelly, 2005: The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geographical Journal, 171, 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esteban-Talaya, A., F. López, Palomeque, and E. Aguiló, Pérez, 2005: Impacts in the touristic sector. In: A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts in Spain due to the Effect of Climate Change [Moreno, J.M. (ed.)]. Ministry of Environment, Madrid, Spain, pp. 653–690.Google Scholar
Eurostat, , 2010: Ageing in the European Union: where exactly? Rural areas are losing the young generation quicker than urban areas. Eurostat Statistics in Focus, 26/2010, Eurostat, European Commission, Luxembourg, 16 pp.Google Scholar
Evans, B. and M., Webster, 2008: Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia. Background Paper on Water Supply and Sanitation. World Bank Sustainable Development Department, Europe and Central Asia Region, Washington, DC, 34 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, E.P., R., Ashley, J.W., Hall, E.C., Penning-Rowsell, A., Saul, P.B., Sayers, C.R., Thorne, and A., Watkinson, 2004. Foresight Flood and Coastal Defence Project: Scientific Summary: Volume I, Future risks and their drivers. Office of Science and Technology, London, UK, 366 pp., Scholar
Faccio, S.D., 2003: Effects of ice storm-created gaps on forest breeding bird communities in central Vermont. Forest Ecology and Management, 186(1–3), 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fankhauser, S., J.B., Smith, and R.S.J., Tol, 1999. Weathering climate change: some simple rules to guide adaptation decisions. Ecological Economics, 30(1), 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FAO, 2008: The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008, High food prices and food security – threats and opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 56 pp.
FAO, 2009: The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 63 pp.
Fallon, P. and R., Betts. 2010: Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation – the importance of an integrated approach. Science of Total Environment, 408, 5667–5687.Google Scholar
Fengqing, J., Z., Cheng, M., Guijin, H., Ruji, and M., Qingxia, 2005: Magnification of flood disasters and its relation to regional precipitation and local human activities since the 1980s in Xinxiang, Northwestern China. Natural Hazards, 36, 307–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Few, R., 2003: Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies, 3(43), 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Few, R., M., Ahern, F., Matthies, and S., Kovats, 2004: Floods, Health and Climate Change: A Strategic Review. Working Paper 63, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 138 pp.Google Scholar
Feyen, L., J.I., Barredo, and R., Dankers, 2009: Implications of global warming and urban land use change on flooding in Europe. Water and urban development paradigms – towards an integration of engineering. In: Design and Management Approaches [Feyen, J., K., Shannon, and M., Neville (eds.)]. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 217–225.Google Scholar
Field, C.B., L.D., Mortsch, M., Brklacich, D.L., Forbes, P., Kovacs, J.A., Patz, S.W., Running, and M.J., Scott, 2007: North America. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 617–652.Google Scholar
Field, R.D., G.R., Van Der Werf, and S.S.P., Shen, 2009: Human amplification of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960. Nature Geoscience, 2, 185–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink, A., T., Brücher, A., Krüger, G., Leckebusch, J., Pinto, and U., Ulbrich, 2004: The 2003 European summer heatwaves and drought – synoptic diagnosis and impacts. Weather, 59, 209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischlin, A., G.F., Midgley, J.T., Price, R., Leemans, B., Gopal, C., Turley, M.D.A., Rounsevell, O.P., Dube, J., Tarazona, and A.A., Velichko, 2007: Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 211–272.Google Scholar
FitzGerald, D.M., M.S., Fenster, B.A., Argow, and I.V., Buynevich, 2008: Coastal impacts due to sea-level rise, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 36(1), 601–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folke, C., S.R., Carpenter, T., Elmquist, L.H., Gunderson, C.S., Holling, and B.H., Walker, 2002: Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio, 31, 437–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folke, C., S., Carpenter, B., Walker, M., Scheffer, T., Elmqvist, L., Gunderson, and C.S., Holling, 2004: Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35, 557–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fouillet, A, G., Rey, V., Wagner, K., Laaidi, P., Empereur-Bissonnet, A., Le Tertre, P., Frayssinet, P., Bessemoulin, F., Laurent, P., De Crouy-Chanel, E., Jougla, D., Hémon, 2008: Has the impact of heat waves on mortality changed in France since the European heat wave of summer 2003? A study of the 2006 heat wave. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37(2), 309–317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowler, H.J., C.G., Kilsby, and P.E., O'Connell, 2003: Modeling the impacts of climatic change and variability on the reliability, resilience, and vulnerability of a water resource system. Water Resources Research, 39(8), 1222–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, H.J., C.G., Kilsby, and J., Stunell, 2007: Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11(3), 1115–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frazier, T.G., N., Wood, B., Yarnal, and D.H., Bauer, 2010: Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida. Applied Geography, 30(4), 490–505, doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.05.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, P.K., 2000: Estimating chronic risk from natural disasters in developing countries: A case study in Honduras. Presented at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics – Europe Development Thinking at the Millennium, Paris, France, 26-28 June, 2000, 10 pp.Google Scholar
Freeman, P.K., L., Martin, R., Mechler, K., Warner, with P., Hausman, 2002: Catastrophes and Development, Integrating Natural Catastrophes into Development Planning. World Bank Disaster Risk Management Working Paper Series No.4, World Bank, Washington, DC, 64 pp.Google Scholar
Frey, A.E., F., Olivera, J.L., Irish, L.M., Dunkin, J.M., Kaihatu, C.M., Ferreira, and B.L., Edge, 2010: The impact of climate change on hurricane flooding inundation, population affected, and property damages. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 46(5), 1049–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fritze, J., G., Blashki, S., Burke, and J., Wiseman, 2008: Hope, despair and transformation: climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2, 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuhrer, J., M., Beniston, A., Fischlin, C., Frei, S., Goyette, K., Jasper, and C., Pfister, 2006: Climate risks and their impact on agriculture and forests in Switzerland. Climatic Change, 79(1–2), 79–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaddis, E., B., Miles, S., Morse, and D., Lewis, 2007: Full-cost accounting of coastal disasters in the United States: Implications for planning and preparedness. Ecological Economics, 63, 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghesquiere, F., O., Mahul, M., Forni, and R., Gartley, 2006: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility: A solution to the short-term liquidity needs of small island states in the aftermath of natural disasters. IAT03-13/3, World Bank, Washington, DC, 4 pp., Scholar
Gillett, N.P., A.J., Weaver, F.W., Zwiers, and M.D., Flannigan, 2004: Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(18), L18211, doi:10.1029/2004GL020876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Githeko, A.K., S.W., Lindsay, U.E., Confalonieri, and J.A., Patz, 2000: Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 1136–1147.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitlin, A.R., C.M., Sthultz, M.A., Bowker, S., Stumpof, K.L., Paxton, K.A., Kennedy, A., Munoz, J.K., Bailey, and T.G., Whitham, 2006: Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought. Conservation Biology, 20(5), 1477–1486.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, R., 2003: A Survey of Water Use and Sustainability in the United States with a Focus on Power Generation. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 64 pp.Google Scholar
Gössling, S. and C.M., Hall, 2006a: Tourism and Global Environmental Change. Ecological, Social, Economic and Political Interrelationships. Routledge, London, UK, 330 pp.Google Scholar
Gössling, S. and C.M., Hall, 2006b: Uncertainties in predicting tourist flows under scenarios of climate change. Climatic Change, 79(3–4), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowdy, J., 2007: Toward an experimental foundation for benefit-cost analysis. Ecological Economics, 63, 649–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Granier, A., M., Reichstein, N., Bréda, I.A., Janssens, E., Falge, P., Ciais, T., Grünwald, M., Aubinet, P., Berbigier, C., Bernhofer, N., Buchmann, O., Facini, G., Grassi, B., Heinesch, H., Ilvesniemi, P., Keronen, A., Knohlc, B., Köstner, F., Lagergren, A., Lindroth, B., Longdoz, D., Loustau, J., Mateusq, L., Montagnanir, C., Nyst, E., Moors, D., Papale, M., Peiffer, K., Pilegaard, G., Pita, J., Pumpanen, S., Rambal, C., Rebmann, A., Rodrigues, G., Seufert, J., Tenhunen, T., Vesala, and Q., Wang, 2007: Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 143(1–2), 123–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith, G.P., E.A., Fulton, and A.J., Richardson, 2011: Effects of fishing and acidification-related benthic mortality on the southeast Australian marine ecosystem. Global Change Biology, 17(10), 3058–3074, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02453.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grothmann, T. and A., Patt, 2005: Adaptive capacity and human cognition: The process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change, Part A: Human and Policy Dimensions, 3(15), 199–213.Google Scholar
Guha-Sapir, D., F., Vos, R., Below, with S., Ponserre, 2011: Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2010: The numbers and trends. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, 42 pp., Scholar
Guimaraes, P., F.L., Hefner, and D.P., Woodward, 1993: Wealth and income effects of natural disasters: An econometric analysis of Hurricane Hugo. Review of Regional Studies, 23, 97–114.Google Scholar
Guo, Y., J., Zhang, L., Zhang, and Y., Shen, 2009: Computational investigation of typhoon-induced storm surge in Hangzhou Bay, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 85, 530–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haeberli, W., A., Kääb, D. Vonder, Mühll, and P., Teysseire, 2001: Prevention of outburst floods from periglacial lakes at Grubengletscher, Valais, Swiss Alps. Journal of Glaciology, 47, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haines, A., R.S., Kovats, D., Campbell-Lendrum, and C., Corvalan, 2006: Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability, and mitigation. The Lancet, 367, 2101–2109.Google Scholar
Hall, J.W., E.P., Evans, E.C., Penning-Rowsell, P.B., Sayers, C.R., Thorne, and A.J., Saul, 2003: Quantified scenarios analysis of drivers and impacts of changing flood risk in England and Wales: 2030-2100. Environmental Hazards, 5, 51–65.Google Scholar
Hall, J.W., P.B., Sayers, and R.J., Dawson, 2005: National-scale assessment of current and future flood risk in England and Wales. Natural Hazards, 36(1–2), 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallegatte, S., 2007: The use of synthetic hurricane tracks in risk analysis and climate change damage assessment. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46, 1956–1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallegatte, S., 2008: A roadmap to assess the economic cost of climate change with an application to hurricanes in the United States. In: Hurricanes and Climate Change [Elsner, J.B. and T.H., Jagger (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 361–386.Google Scholar
Hallegatte, S., 2009: Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallegatte, S. and P., Dumas, 2009: Can natural disasters have positive consequences? Investigating the role of embodied technical change. Ecological Economics, 68, 777–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallegatte, S. and M., Ghil, 2007: Endogenous Business Cycles and the Economic Response to Exogenous Shocks. Working Papers 2007. 20, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy, 20 pp.Google Scholar
Hallegatte, S., J.C., Hourcade, and P., Dumas, 2007: Why economic dynamics matter in assessing climate change damages: illustration on extreme events. Ecological Economics, 62, 330–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallegatte, S., F., Henriet, A., Patwardhan, K., Narayanan, S., Ghosh, S., Karmakar, U., Patnaik, A., Abhayankar, S., Pohit, J., Corfee-Morlot, C., Herweijer, N., Ranger, S., Bhattacharya, M., Bachu, S., Priya, K., Dhore, F., Rafique, P., Mathur, and N., Naville, 2010: Flood Risks, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Benefits in Mumbai: An Initial Assessment of Socio-Economic Consequences of Present and Climate Change Induced Flood Risks and of Possible Adaptation Options. OECD Environment Working Papers No. 27, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Publishing, Paris, France, 61 pp. Scholar
Hamilton, J.M., D.J., Maddison, and R.S.J., Tol, 2005: Climate change and international tourism: a simulation study. Global Environmental Change, 15, 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handmer, J., 2003: We are all vulnerable. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 18(3), 55–60.Google Scholar
Handmer, J. and S., Dovers, 2007: The Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Policy and Institutions. Earthscan, London, UK, 192 pp.Google Scholar
Handmer, J., C., Reed, and O., Percovich, 2002: Disaster Loss Assessment Guidelines. Department of Emergency Services, State of Queensland, Emergency Management Australia, Commonwealth Australia, 90 pp.Google Scholar
Handmer, J., S., O'Neil, and D., Killalea, 2010: Review of Fatalities in the February 7, 2009, Bushfires. Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
Hanson, S., R., Nicholls, N., Ranger, S., Hallegatte, J., Corfee-Morlot, C., Herweijer, and J., Chateau, 2011: A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Climatic Change, 104, 89–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardoy, J.E., D., Mitlin, and D., Satterthwaite, 2001: Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World: Finding Solutions for Cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Earthscan, London, UK, 448 pp.Google Scholar
Harvey, N. and B., Caton, 2003: Coastal Management in Australia. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 342 pp.Google Scholar
Hashizume, M., Y., Wagatsuma, A.S., Faruque, T., Hayashi, P.R., Hunter, B.G., Armstrong, D.A., Sack, 2008: Factors determining vulnerability to diarrhoea during and after severe floods in Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Health, 6(3), 323–332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hatfield, J.L., 2010: Climate impacts on agriculture in the United States: The value of past observations. In: Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: Impact, Adaptation and Mitigation [Hillel, D. and C., Rosenzweig(eds.)]. Imperial College Press, London, UK, pp. 239–253.Google Scholar
Hatfield, J.L., K.J., Boote, P., Fay, L., Hahn, C., Izaurralde, B.A., Kimball, T., Mader, J., Morgan, D., Ort, W., Polley, A., Thomson, and D., Wolfe, 2008: Agriculture. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Washington, DC, pp. 21–74.Google Scholar
Hatfield, J.L., K.J., Boote, B.A., Kimball, L., Ziska, R.C., Izaurralde, D., Ort, A.M., Thomson, and D.A., Wolfe, 2011: Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production. Agronomy Journal, 103(2), 351–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hay, J. and N., Mimura, 2010: The changing nature of extreme weather and climate events: risks to sustainable development. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 1(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heger, M., A., Julca, and O., Paddison, 2008: Analysing the Impact of Natural Hazards in Small Economies: The Caribbean Case. UNU/WIDER Research Paper 2008/25, The World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki, Finland, 27 pp.Google Scholar
Hein, L., M.J., Metzger, and A., Moren, 2009: Potential impacts of climate change on tourism; a case study for Spain. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1, 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hennessy, K., C., Lucas, N., Nicholls, J., Bathols, R., Suppiah, and J., Ricketts, 2006: Climate change impacts on fire-weather in south-east Australia. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Bushfire CRC and Australia Bureau of Meteorology, Clayton South Victoria, Australia, 88 pp.Google Scholar
Hennessy, K., B., Fitzharris, B.C., Bates, N., Harvey, S.M., Howden, L., Hughes, J., Salinger, and R., Warrick, 2007: Australia and New Zealand. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 507–540.Google Scholar
Hess, J.J., J.N., Malilay, and A.J., Parkinson, 2008: Climate change: The importance of place. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 468–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilker, N., A., Badoux, and C., Hegg, 2009: The Swiss flood and landslide damage database 1972-2007. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 913–925.Google Scholar
Hinkel, J., R.J., Nicholls, A.T., Vafeidis, R.S.J., Tol, and T., Avagianou, 2010: Assessing risk of and adaptation to sea-level rise in the European Union: an application of DIVA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15, 703–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirabayashi, Y. and S., Kanae, 2009: First estimate of the future global population at risk of flooding. Hydrological Research Letters, 3, 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hjelle, B. and G.E., Glass, 2000: Outbreak of Hantavirus infection in the Four Corners region of the United States in the wake of the 1997–1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 181(5), 1569–1573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hlavinka, P., M., Trnka, D., Semeradova, M., Dubrovsky, Z., Zalud, and M., Mozny, 2009: Effect of drought on yield variability of key crops in Czech Republic. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hochrainer, S., and R., Mechler, 2011: Natural disaster risk in Asian megacities. A case for risk pooling? Cities, 28(1), 53–61.Google Scholar
Hoes, O.A.C. 2007: Aanpak wateroverlast in polders op basis van risicobeheer. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 188 pp., Scholar
Hoes, O., and W., Schuurmans, 2006: Flood standards or risk analyses for polder management in The Netherlands. Irrigation and Drainage, 55, S113–S119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoes, O.A.C., W., Schuurmans, and J., Strijker, 2005: Water systems and risk analysis. Water Science and Technology, 51, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, R.N., P., Dailey, S., Hopsch, R.M., Ponte, K., Quinn, E.M., Hill, and B., Zachry, 2010: An estimate of increases in storm surge risk to property from sea level rise in the first half of the twenty-first century. Weather, Climate and Society, 2, 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holling, C.S. (ed.), 1978: Adaptive environmental assessment and management. John Wiley, New York, NY, 377 pp.
Holper, P.N., S., Lucy, M., Nolan, C., Senese, and K., Hennessy, 2007: Infrastructure and Climate Change Risk Assessment for Victoria. Consultancy Report to the Victorian Government prepared by CSIRO, Maunsell Australia, and Phillips Fox, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia,84 pp.Google Scholar
Höppe, P. and T., Grimm, 2009: Rising natural catastrophe losses: What is the role of climate change? In: Economics and Management of Climate Change: Risks, Mitigation and Adaptation [Hansjürgens, B. and R., Antes (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 13–22.Google Scholar
Huey, C.A.D., J.J., Tewksbury, L.J., Vitt, P.E., Hertz, H.J.A., Pérez, and T., Garland Jr., 2009: Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biology, 276, 1939–1948.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huggel, C., W., Haeberli, A., Kaab, D., Bieri, and S., Richardson, 2004: An assessment procedure for glacial hazards in the Swiss Alps. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 41, 1068–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.P., A.H., Baird, D.R., Bellwood, M., Card, S.R., Connolly, C., Folke, R., Grosberg, O., Hoegh-Guldberg, J.B.C., Jackson, J., Kleypas, J.M., Lough, P., Marshall, M., Nystrom, S.R., Palumbi, J.M., Pandolfi, B., Rosen, and J., Roughgarden, 2003: Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science, 301, 929–933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huigen, M.G.A. and I.C., Jens, 2006: Socio-economic impact of Super Typhoon Harurot in San Mariano, Isabela, the Philippines. World Development, 34(12), 2116–2136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huq, S., S., Kovats, H., Reid, and D., Satterthwaite, 2007: Editorial: Reducing risks to cities from disasters and climate change. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurkman, W.J., W.H., Vensel, C.K., Tanaka, L., Whitehead, and S.B., Altenbach, 2009: Effect of high temperature on albumin and globulin accumulation in the endosperm proteome of the developing wheat grain. Journal of Cereal Science, 49, 12–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iglesias, A., L., Garrote, and F., Martín-Carrasco, 2009: Drought risk management in Mediterranean river basins. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 5, 11–16, doi:10.1897/IEAM_2008-044.1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Innes, J.L., 1992: Observations on the condition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Britain in 1990. Forestry, 65(1), 35–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [McCarthy, J.J., O.F., Canziani, N.A., Leary, D.J., Dokken, and K. S., White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1032 pp.
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976 pp.
IPCC, 2010: Meeting Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Expert Meeting on Detection and Attribution Related to Anthropogenic Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., C.B., Field, D., Qin, V., Barros, G.-K., Plattner, M., Tignor, P.M., Midgley, and K.L., Ebi (eds.)]. IPCC Working Group I Technical Support Unit, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 55 pp.
Irish, J.L., A.E., Frey, J.D., Rosati, F., Olivera, L.M., Dunkin, J.M., Kaihatu, C.M., Ferreira, and B.L., Edge, 2010: Potential implications of global warming and barrier island degradation on future hurricane inundation, property damages, and population impacted. Ocean & Coastal Management, 53(10), 645–657, doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, B.M., C.D., Arp, M.T., Jorgenson, K.M., Hinkel, J.A., Schmutz, and P.L., Flint, 2009: Increase in the rate and uniformity of coastline erosion in Arctic Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L03503, doi:10.1029/2008GL036205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, R.N., 2004: Managing climate change risks. In: The Benefits of Climate Change Policies: Analytical and Framework Issues [Agrawal, S. and J., Corfee-Morlot (eds.)]. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, pp. 249–297.Google Scholar
Jonkman, S.N., 2007: Loss of Life Estimation in Flood Risk Assessment: Theory And Applications. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 354 pp.Google Scholar
Jonkman, S.N., M., Bockarjova, M., Kok, and P., Bernardini, 2008: Integrated hydrodynamic and economic modelling of flood damage in The Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 66, 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahn, M.E., 2005: The death toll from natural disasters: The role of income, geography and institutions. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(2), 271–284.Google Scholar
Kalkstein, L., S., Greene, D., Mills, and J., Samenow, 2011: An evaluation of the progress in reducing heat-related human mortality in major U.S. cities. Natural Hazards, 56(1), 113–129, doi:10.1007/s11069-010-9552-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, I.C., P.S., Levin, M., Burden, and E.A., Fulton, 2010: Fishing catch shares in the face of global change: a framework for integrating cumulative impacts and single species management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 67, 1968–1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karl, T.R., J.M., Melillo, and T.C., Peterson (eds.), 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 188 pp.,
Karoly, D., 2010: The recent bushfires and extreme heat wave in southeast Australia. Bulletin of Australian Meteorological and Oceanographical Societies, 22, 10–13.Google Scholar
Kazama, S., T., Kono, K., Kakiuchi, and M., Sawamoto, 2009: Evaluation of flood control and inundation conservation in Cambodia using flood and economic growth models. Hydrological Processes, 23, 623–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellenberg, D.K. and A.M., Mobarak, 2008: Does rising income increase or decrease damage risk from natural disasters?Journal of Urban Economics, 63(3), 788–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kettlewell, P.S., R.B., Sothern, and W.L., Koukkari, 1999: U.K. wheat quality and economic value are dependent on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Cereal Science, 29, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, H.Y., T., Horie, H., Nakagawa, and K., Wada, 1996: Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and high temperature on growth and yield of rice. II. The effect of yield and its component of Akihikari rice. Japanese Journal of Crop Science, 65, 644–651.Google Scholar
Kim, S., Y., Tachikawa, E., Nakakita, and K., Takara, 2009: Reconsideration of reservoir operations under climate change: case study with Yagisawa Dam, Japan. Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, 53, 597–611.Google Scholar
Kim, U. and J.J., Kaluarachchi, 2009: Climate change impacts on water resources in the upper blue Nile river basin, Ethiopia. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 45(6), 1361–1378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleinen, T. and G., Petschel-Held, 2007: Integrated assessment of changes in flooding probabilities due to climate change. Climatic Change, 81(3), 283–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowlton, K., M., Rotkin-Ellman, G., King, H.G., Margolis, D., Smith, G., Solomon, R., Trent, and P., English, 2008: The 2006 California heatwave: Impacts on hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(1), 61–67.Google Scholar
Koppe, C., G., Jendritzky, R.S., Kovats, and B., Menne, 2004: Heat Waves: Risks and Responses. Health and Global Environmental Change, Series No. 2, World Health Organization, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 123 pp., Scholar
Korf, B., 2004: War, livelihoods and vulnerability in Sri Lanka. Development and Change, 35(2), 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kosatsky, T., 2005: The 2003 European heatwaves. Euro Surveillance, 10(7), 148–149.Google Scholar
Kovats, R.S. and R., Akhtar, 2008: Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities. Environment and Urbanization, 20(1), 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovats, R.S. and K., Ebi, 2006: Heatwaves and public health in Europe. European Journal of Public Health, 16(6), 592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kramer, R.A. 1995. Advantages and limitations of benefit-cost analysis for evaluating investments in natural disaster mitigation. In: Disaster Prevention for Sustainable Development: Economic and Policy Issues [Munasinghe, M. and C., Clarke (eds.)]. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 61–76.Google Scholar
Kshirsagar, N., R., Shinde, and S., Mehta, 2006: Floods in Mumbai: Impact of public health service by hospital staff and medical students. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 52(4), 312.Google ScholarPubMed
Kumar, R., R., Venuprasad, and G.N., Atlin, 2007: Genetic analysis of rainfed lowland rice drought tolerance under naturally-occurring stress in eastern India: Heritability and QTL effects. Field Crops Research, 103, 42–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kundzewicz, Z., 2003: Water and climate – The IPCC TAR perspective. Nordic Hydrology, 34(5), 387–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kundzewicz, Z.W. and H.-J., Schellnhuber, 2004: Floods in the IPCC TAR perspective. Natural Hazards, 31, 111–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kundzewicz, Z.W., L.J., Mata, N., Arnell, P., Döll, P., Kabat, B., Jiménez, K., Miller, T., Oki, Z., Sen, and I., Shiklomanov, 2007: Freshwater resources and their management. Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 173–210.Google Scholar
Kunst, A.E., C.W.N., Looman, and J.P., Mackenbath, 1993: Outdoor air temperature and mortality in The Netherlands: a time-series analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 331–341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kurukulasuriya, P. and R., Mendelsohn, 2008a: Crop switching as a strategy for adapting to climate change. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2(1), 105–126.Google Scholar
Kurukulasuriya, P. and R., Mendelsohn, 2008b: How Will Climate Change Shift Agro-Ecological Zones and Impact African Agriculture? Policy Research Working Paper Series 4717, World Bank, Washington, DC, 31 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
L'Hôte, Y., G., Mahé, B., Some, and J.P., Triboulet, 2002: Analysis of a Sahelian annual rainfall index from 1896 to 2000: the drought continues. Hydrological Science Journal, 47, 563–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, P.N., 2010. Vulnerability to natural disasters: an economic analysis of the impact of the 2009 floods on the Fijian sugar belt. Pacific Economic Bulletin, 25(2), 62–77.Google Scholar
Langner, J., R., Bergström, and V., Foltescu, 2005: Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 39(6), 1129–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laschewski, G. and G., Jendritzky, 2002: Effects of the thermal environment on human health: an investigation of 30 years of daily mortality data from southwest Germany. Climate Research, 21, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavorel, S. and W., Steffen, 2004: Cascading impacts of land use through time: the Canberra bushfire disaster. In: Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure [Steffen, W., A., Sanderson, P.D., Tyson, J., Jäger, P.A., Matson, B., Moore III, F., Oldfield, K., Richardson, H.J., Schellnhuber, B.L., Turner II, and R.J., Wasson (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 186–188.Google Scholar
Leckebusch, G.C., U., Ulbrich, L., Fröhlich, and J.G., Pinto, 2007: Property loss potentials for European midlatitude storms in a changing climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L05703, doi:10.1029/2006GL027663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legesse, D., C., Vallet-Coulomb, and F., Gasse, 2003: Hydrological response of a catchment to climate and land use changes in Tropical Africa: case study South Central Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology, 275, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehner, B., P., Doell, J., Alcamo, T., Henrichs, and F., Kaspar, 2006: Estimating the impact of global change on flood and drought risks in Europe: A continental, integrated analysis. Climatic Change, 75(3), 273–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemke, P., J., Ren, R.B., Alley, I., Allison, J., Carrasco, G., Flato, Y., Fujii, G., Kaser, P., Mote, R.H., Thomas, and T., Zhang, 2007: Observations: Changes in snow, ice and frozen ground. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 337–383Google Scholar
Lemmen, D., F., Warren, J., Laeroix, and E., Bush (eds.), 2008: From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division, Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 448 pp.CrossRef
Lenton, T., A., Footitt, and A., Dlugolecki, 2009: Major Tipping Points in the Earth's Climate System and Consequences for the Insurance Sector. World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Allianz SE, Munich, Germany, 89 pp.Google Scholar
Létard, V., H., Flandre, and S., Lepeltier, 2004: France and the French response to the heatwave: Lessons from a crisis. In: Information report of the Senate number 195(2003–2004), Paris, France, 391 pp. (in French).Google Scholar
Levy, B.S. and V.W., Sidel (eds.), 2000: War and Public Health. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 436 pp.
Li, L.H., H.G., Xu, X., Chen, and S.P., Simonovic, 2010: Streamflow forecast and reservoir operation performance assessment under climate change. Water Resources Management, 24(1), 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lim, J.H., J.H., Chun, and J.H., Shin, 2010: Global warming related dieback of evergreen coniferous forests in Korea due to high temperature and drought stress in winter season. Proceedings of the XXIII IUFRO 2010 World Congress, 23-28 August, Seoul. The International Forestry Review, 12(5), 44–44.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D., D., Blair, L., McBurney, and S., Banks, 2010: Forest Phoenix: How A Great Forest Recovers After Wildfire. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
Lise, W. and R.S.J., Tol, 2002: Impact of climate on tourism demand. Climatic Change, 55(4), 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, X.P., J.Q., Zhang, D.W., Zhou, Z.S., Song, and X.T., Wuet, 2006: Study on grassland fire risk dynamic distribution characteristic and management policy. Chinese Journal of Grassland, 28(6), 77–83 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Loayza, N., O., Eduardo, R., Jamele, and L., Christiaensen, 2009: Natural Disasters and Growth – Going Beyond the Averages. Policy Research Working Paper Series 4980, World Bank, Washington, DC, 40 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lobell, D.B., M.B., Burke, C., Tebaldi, M.D., Mastrandrea, W.P., Falcon, and R.L., Naylor, 2008: Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs forfood security in 2030. Science, 319, 607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lobell, D.B., W., Schlenker, and J., Costa-Roberts, 2011: Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science,333(6042), 616–620, doi:10.1126/science.1204531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Love, G., A., Soares, and H., Püempel, 2010: Climate change, climate variability and transportation. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 1, 130–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loveridge, F.A., T.W., Spink, A.S., O'Brien, K.M., Briggs, and D., Butcher, 2010: The impact of climate and climate change on infrastructure slopes, with particular reference to southern England. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(4), 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lugeri, N., Z.W., Kundzewicz, E., Genovese, S., Hochrainer, and M., Radziejewski, 2010: River flood risk and adaptation in Europe – assessment of the present status. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15(7), 621–639, doi:10.1007/s11027-009-9211-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Q., M.A.J., Williams, W., Bellotti, and B., Bryan, 2003: Quantitative and visual assessments of climate change impacts on South Australian wheat production. Agricultural Systems, 77, 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyon, B., 2003: Enhanced seasonal rainfall in northern Venezuela and the extreme events of December 1999. Journal of Climate, 16, 2302–2306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maaskant, B., S.N., Jonkman, and L.M., Bouwer, 2009: Future risk of flooding: an analysis of changes in potential loss of life in South Holland (The Netherlands). Environmental Science and Policy, 12, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacDonald, A.M., R.C., Calow, D.M.J., MacDonald, W.G., Darling, and B.E.O., Dochortaigh, 2009: What impact will climate change have on rural groundwater supplies in Africa?Hydrological Sciences Journal, 54(4), 690–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacDonald, G.M., 2010: Climate change and water in Southwestern North America special feature: water, climate change, and sustainability in the southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 21256–21262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magrin, G., C. Gay, García, D. Cruz, Choque, J.C., Giménez, A.R., Moreno, G.J., Nagy, C., Nobre, and A., Villamizar, 2007: Latin America. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 581–615.Google Scholar
Maloney, S.K. and C.F., Forbes, 2011: What effect will a few degrees of climate change have on human heat balance? Implications for human activity. International Journal of Biometeorology, 55(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mark, B.G. and G.O., Seltzer, 2003: Tropical glacier meltwater contribution to stream discharge: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Journal of Glaciology, 49, 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markandya, A. and P., Watkiss, 2009: Potential Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Options: A Review of Existing Literature. Technical paper prepared for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC, Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
Marques, S.C., U.M., Azeiteiro, F., Martinhoa, and M.A., Pardala, 2007: Climate variability and planktonic communities: The effect of an extreme event (severe drought) in a southern European estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 73(3–4), 725–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClung, D.M. and Schaerer, P., 2006: The Avalanche Handbook. The Mountaineers Books, Seattle, WA, 342 pp.Google Scholar
McGranahan, G., D., Balk, and B., Anderson, 2007: The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGregor, G., M., Pelling, T., Wolf, and S., Gosling, 2007: The Social Impacts of Heat Waves. Science Report SC20061/SR6, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
McInnes, K.L., K.J.E., Walsh, G.D., Hubbert, and T., Beer, 2003: Impact of sea-level rise and storm surges on a coastal community. Natural Hazards, 30, 187–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKechnie, A.E. and B.O., Wolf, 2010: Climate change increases the likelihood of catastrophic avian mortality events during extreme heatwaves. Biology Letters, 6(2), 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKenzie, E., B., Prasad, and A., Kaloumaira, 2005: Economic Impact of Natural Disasters on Development in the Pacific. Volume I, South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission and University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.Google Scholar
McMaster, H.J., 1999: The potential impact of global warming on hail losses to winter cereal crops in New South Wales. Climatic Change, 43, 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMichael, A.J., D.H., Campbell-Lendrum, C.F., Corvalán, K.L., Ebi, A.K., Githeko, J.D., Scheraga, and A., Woodward (eds.), 2003a: Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 322 pp.
McMichael, A., R., Woodruff, P., Whetton, K., Hennessy, N., Nicholls, S., Hales, A., Woodward, and T., Kjellstrom, 2003b: Human Health and Climate Change in Oceania: A Risk Assessment 2002. Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, 128 pp.Google Scholar
McMichael, A.J., R.E., Woodruff, and S., Hales, 2006: Climate change and human health: present and future risks. The Lancet, 367, 859–869.Google Scholar
McMichael, A.J., P., Wilkinson, R.S., Kovats, S., Pattenden, B., Armstrong, N., Vajanapoom, E.M., Niciu, H., Mahomed, C., Kingkeow, M., Kosnik, M.S., O'Neill, I., Romieu, M., Ramirez-Aguilar, M.L., Barreto, N., Gouveia, and B., Nikiforov, 2008: International study of temperature, heat and urban mortality: the ‘ISOTHURM’ project. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37, 1121–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mechler, R., 2004: Natural Disaster Risk Management and Financing Disaster Losses in Developing Countries. Verlag Versicherungswirtsch, Karlsruhe, Germany, 235 pp.Google Scholar
Mechler, R., 2008: From Risk to Resilience. The Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology. Working Paper 1, Provention Consortium, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
Mechler, R. and Z.W., Kundzewicz, 2010: Assessing adaptation to extreme weather events in Europe. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15(7), 611–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meehl, G.A. and C., Tebaldi, 2004: More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century. Science, 305(5686), 994–997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meizhu, C., X., Guangji, W., Shaopeng, and Z., Shaoping, 2010: High-temperature hazards and prevention measurements for asphalt pavement. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), Wuhan, China, 26-28 June 2010. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 1341–1344, doi:10.1109/MACE.2010.5536275.Google Scholar
Mendelsohn, R., 2007: What causes crop failure?Climatic Change, 81(1), 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendelsohn, R., A., Dinar, A., Dafelt, 2000: Climate Change Impacts on African Agriculture. World Bank, Washington, DC, 25 pp., Scholar
Meyer, M.D., 2008: Design Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure. The Implications of Climate Change. Accession number 01104982, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 30 pp., Scholar
Micklin, P., 2007: The Aral Sea disaster. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 35, 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, S., R., Muir-Wood, and A., Boissonnade, 2008: An exploration of trends in normalised weather-related catastrophe losses. In: Climate Extremes and Society [Diaz, H.F. and R.J., Murnane (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 225–247.Google Scholar
Mills, E., 2005: Insurance in a climate of change. Science, 309, 1040–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mimura, N., L., Nurse, R.F., McLean, J., Agard, L., Briguglio, P., Lefale, R., Payet, and G., Sem, 2007: Small islands. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 687–716.Google Scholar
Ministry for the Environment, 2008: Coastal Hazards and Climate Change. A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand. 2nd ed. Revised by Ramsay, D. and R., Bell, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Government of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand, 129 pp.,
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2005: Finland's National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland, Helsinki, Finland, 281 pp.
Ministry of Environment and Forest, 2005: National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Final Report. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Mirvis, V.M., 1999: Regularities of a change in the air temperature regime in Russia. In: Investigations in the Main Geophysical Observatory. Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, Russia.Google Scholar
Mitchell, J.K., 1998: Introduction: Hazards in changing cities. Applied Geography, 18, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moench, M., R., Mechler, and S., Stapleton, 2007. Guidance note on the costs and benefits of disaster risk reduction. In: UNISDR High Level Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, 4-7 June 2007. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, 29 pp.Google Scholar
Mohammed, A.R. and L., Tarpley, 2009: High nighttime temperatures affect rice productivity through altered pollen germination and spikelet fertility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 999–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mokrech, M., R.J., Nicholls, J.A., Richards, C., Henriques, I.P., Holman, and S., Shackley, 2008: Regional impact assessment of flooding under future climate and socioeconomic scenarios for East Anglia and North West England. Climatic Change, 90, 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molesworth, A.M., L.E., Cuevas, S.J., Connor, A.P., Morse, and M.C., Thomson, 2003: Environmental risk and meningitis epidemics in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 1287–1293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moline, M.A., N.J., Karnovsky, Z., Brown, G.J., Divoky, T.K., Frazer, C.A., Jacoby, J.J., Torres, and W.R., Fraser, 2008: High latitude changes in ice dynamics and their impact on polar marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 267–319, doi:10.1196/annals.1439.010.Google Scholar
Molua, E.L. and C.M., Lambi, 2006: The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 17, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, 33 pp.Google Scholar
Morin, E., T., Grodek, O., Dahan, G., Benito, C., Kulls, Y., Jacoby, G., Van Langenhove, M., Seely, and Y., Enzel, 2009: Flood routing and alluvial aquifer recharge along the ephemeral arid Kuiseb River, Namibia. Journal of Hydrology, 368, 262–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrissey, S.A. and J.P., Reser, 2007: Natural disasters, climate change and mental health considerations for rural Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15, 120–125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morton, D.C., M.E., Roessing, A.E., Camp, and M.L., Tyrrell, 2003: Assessing the Environmental, Social, and Economic Impacts of Wildfire. Research Paper 001, Yale University Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry, New Haven, CT, 54 pp.Google Scholar
Mouillot, F., S., Rambal, and R., Joffre, 2002: Simulating climate change impacts on fire frequency and vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem. Global Change Biology, 8, 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moulin, C., C.E., Lambert, F., Dulac, and U., Dayan, 1997: Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature, 387, 691–694.Google Scholar
Mozumder, P., E., Flugman, and T., Randhir, 2011: Adaptation behavior in the face of global climate change: Survey responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys. Ocean & Coastal Management, 54(1), 37–44, doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller, C., W., Cramer, W.L., Hare, and H., Lotze-Campen, 2011: Climate change risks for African agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 4313–4315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munich, Re, 2011: TOPICS GEO, Natural catastrophes 2010, Analyses, assessments, positions. Munich Reinsurance Company, Munich, Germany, Scholar
Narita, D., R.S.J., Tol, and D., Anthoff, 2009: Damage costs of climate change through intensification of tropical cyclone activities: an application of FUND. Climate Research, 39, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Narita, D., R.S.J., Tol, and D., Anthoff, 2010: Economic costs of extratropical storms under climate change: an application of FUND. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53, 371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NCDC, 2005: State of the Climate: Hurricanes & Tropical Storms for Annual 2005. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Washington, DC, 7 pp.,
NCDC, 2011: State of the Climate: Global Hazards for December 2010. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Washington, DC,
Neria, Y., A., Nandi, and S., Galea, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467–480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neumayer, E. and F., Barthel, 2011: Normalizing economic loss from natural disasters: a global analysis. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 13–24.Google Scholar
Neumayer, E. and T., Plümper, 2007: The gendered nature of natural disasters: The impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in life expectancy, 1981-2002. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(3), 551–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
New, M., 2002: Climate change and water resources in the southwestern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 98, 369–373.Google Scholar
Niall, S. and K., Walsh, 2005: The impact of climate change on hailstorms in southeastern Australia. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1933–1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholls, R.J., P.P., Wong, V.R., Burkett, J.O., Codignotto, J.E., Hay, R.F., McLean, S., Ragoonaden, and C.D., Woodroffe, 2007: Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., van der Linden, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 315–356.Google Scholar
Nicholls, R.J., S., Hanson, C., Herweijer, N., Patmore, S., Hallegatte, J., Corfee-Morlot, J., Château, and R., Muir-Wood, 2008: Ranking Port Cities With High Exposure And Vulnerability to Climate Extremes: Exposure Estimates. OECD ENV/WKP 2007-1, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, 62 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholson, S.E., X., Yin, and M.B., Ba, 2000: On the feasibility of using a lake water balance model to infer rainfall: An example from Lake Victoria. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 45, 75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson, C., I., Stjerquist, L., Bärring, P., Schlyter, A.M., Jönsson, and H., Samuelson, 2004: Recorded storm damage in Swedish forests 1901-2000. Forest Ecology and Management, 199, 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nkomo, J.C. and G., Bernard, 2006: Estimating and Comparing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Projects: Case Studies in South Africa and The Gambia. AIACC Project No. AF 47, Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change, International START Secretariat, Washington, DC, 137 pp.Google Scholar
Nordhaus, W.D., 2010: The economics of hurricanes and implications of global warming. Climate Change Economics, 1, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nordhaus, W.D. and J., Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 232 pp.Google Scholar
Nöthiger, C. and H., Elsasser, 2004: Natural hazards and tourism: new findings on the European Alps. Mountain Research and Development, 24(1), 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noy, I., 2009: The macroeconomic consequences of disasters. Journal of Development Economics, 88(2), 221–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NRC, 2008: Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board Special Report 290, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
NWS, 2011: National Weather Service Natural Hazard Statistics. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services, Silver Spring, MD,
OCDESC, 2007: National Hazardscape Report. Officials Committee for Domestic and External Security Coordination, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Wellington, New Zealand, 139 pp.
OECD-FAO, 2008: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2008–2017, Highlights. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Food and Agriculture Organization, Paris, France, 72 pp.,
Oh, C.H. and R., Reuveny, 2010: Climatic natural disasters, political risk, and international trade. Global Environmental Change, 20, 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ojeda, J. and L., Donnelly, 2006: Landslides in Colombia and their Impact on Towns and Cities. IAEG2006 Paper 112, Geological Society of London, London, UK, 13 pp., Scholar
Okuyama, Y. and S., Sahin, 2009: Impact Estimation of Disasters: A Global Aggregate for 1960 to 2007. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4963, World Bank, Washington, DC, 40 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Opdam, P. and D., Wascher, 2004: Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biological Conservation, 117, 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osman-Elasha, B., M., Medany, I., Niang-Diop, T., Nyong, R., Tabo, and C., Vogel, 2006: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Background paper for the African Workshop on Adaptation, Implementation of Decision 1/CP.10 of the UNFCCC Convention, Accra, Ghana, 21-23 September 2006, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn, Germany, 54 pp.Google Scholar
Otero, R.C. and R.Z., Marti, 1995. The impacts of natural disasters on developing economies: Implications for the international development and disaster community. In: Disaster Prevention for Sustainable Development: Economic and Policy Issues [Munasinghe, M. and C., Clarke (eds.)]. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 11–40.Google Scholar
Oxfam, , 2007: Adapting to Climate Change. What is Needed in Poor Countries and Who Should Pay? Oxfam Briefing Paper 104, Oxfam International, Oxford, UK, 47 pp.Google Scholar
PACJA, 2009: The Economic Cost of Climate Change in Africa. The Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, Nairobi, Kenya, 49 pp.
Pagiola, S., K., von Ritter, and J., Bishop, 2004: Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation. World Bank Environment Department Paper No.101, World Bank, Washington, DC, 58 pp.Google Scholar
Palecki, M.A., S.A., Changnon, and K.E., Kunkel, 2001: The nature and impacts of the July 1999 heatwave in the midwestern United States: Learning from the lessons of 1995. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82(7), 1353–1368.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, S., D.D., Behura, R., Villano, and D., Naik, 2000: Economic Costs of Drought and Farmers' Coping Mechanisms: A Study of Rainfed Rice Systems in Eastern India. IRRI Discussion Paper Series 39, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 35 pp.Google Scholar
Park, J.H., L., Duan, B., Kim, M.J., Mitchell, and H., Shibata, 2010: Potential effects of climate change and variability on watershed biogeochemical processes and water quality in Northeast Asia. Environment International, 36(2), 212–225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parmenter, R., E., Yadav, C., Parmenter, P., Ettestad, and K., Gage, 1999: Incidence of plague associated with increased winter-spring precipitation in New Mexico. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 61(5), 814–821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parmesan, C., T.L., Root, and M.R., Willig, 2000: Impacts of extreme weather and climate on terrestrial biota. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81, 443–450.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof and co-authors, 2007. Technical summary. Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 23–78.Google Scholar
Parry, M., N., Arnell, P., Berry, D., Dodman, S., Fankhauser, C., Hope, S., Kovats, R., Nichollas, D., Satterthwaite, R., Tiffin, and R., Wheeler, 2009: Assessing the Costs of Adaptation to Climate Change: A review of the UNFCCC and other recent estimates. International Institute for Environment and Development and Grantham Institute for Climate Change, London, UK, 111 pp.Google Scholar
Pascal, M., K., Laaidi, M., Ledrans, E., Baffert, C., Caserio-Schönemann, A., Le Tertre, J., Manach, S., Medina, J., Rudant, and P., Empereur-Bissonnet, 2006: France's heat health watch warning system. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50, 144–153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patt, A.G., M., Tadross, P., Nussbaumer, K., Asante, M., Metzger, J., Rafael, A., Goujon, and G., Brundrit, 2010: Estimating least-developed countries' vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(4), 1333–1337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearce, D.W., W.R., Cline, A.N., Achanta, S.R., Fankhauser, R.K., Pachauri, R.S.J., Tol, and P., Vellinga, 1996: The social costs of climate change: Greenhouse damage and the benefits of control. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group III. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change [Bruce, J.P., H., Yi, and E.F., Haites (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 179–224.Google Scholar
Pearce, G., A.B., Mullan, M.J., Salinger, T.W., Opperman, D., Woods, and J.R., Moore, 2005: Impact of Climate Change on Long-Term Fire Danger. Research Report Number 50, New Zealand Fire Service Commission, Wellington, New Zealand, 75 pp.Google Scholar
Peduzzi, P., H., Dao, C., Herold, and F., Mouton, 2009: Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1149–1159.Google Scholar
Peduzzi, P., B., Chatenoux, H., Dao, C., Herold, and G., Giuliani, 2011: Preview Global Risk Data Platform. UNEP/GRID and UNISDR, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
Pelling, M. and J.I., Uitto, 2001: Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 3(2), 49–62.Google Scholar
Pelling, M., A., Özerdem, and S., Barakat, 2002: The macro-economic impact of disasters. Progress in Development Studies, 2(4), 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, A., 2003: Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean. In: Climate Change in the Mediterranean: socio-economic perspectives of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation [Gioponi, C., M., Schechter, and E., Elgar (eds.)]. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 279–289.Google Scholar
Petley, D.N., G.J., Hearn, A., Hart, N.J., Rosser, S.A., Dunning, K., Oven, and W.A., Mitchell, 2007: Trends in landslide occurrence in Nepal. Natural Hazards, 43(1), 23–44, doi:10.1007/s11069-006-9100-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, O.L., L., Aragao, S.L., Lewis, J.B., Fisher, J., Lloyd, G., Lopez-Gonzalez, Y., Malhi, A. Monteagudo, J. Peacock, and C.A. Quesada, 2009: Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science, 323, 1344–1347.
Pielke, R.A. Jr. 2007: Future economic damage from tropical cyclones: sensitivities to societal and climate changes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal SocietyA, 365, 2717–2729.Google Scholar
Pielke, R.A. Jr. and Downton, M.W., 2000: Precipitation and damaging floods: trends in the United States, 1932-1997. Journal of Climate, 13(20), 3625–3637.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pielke, R.A. Jr., J., Rubiera, C., Landsea, M.L., Fernandez, and R., Klein, 2003: Hurricane vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean: normalized damage and loss potentials. Natural Hazards Review, 4, 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pielke, R.A. Jr., S., Agrawala, L.M., Bouwer, I., Burton, S., Changnon, M.H., Glantz, W.H., Hooke, R.J.T., Klein, K., Kunkel, D., Mileti, D., Sarewitz, E.L., Thompkins, N., Stehr, and H., von Storch, 2005: Clarifying the attribution of recent disaster losses: a response to Epstein and McCarthy. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 86, 1481–1483.Google Scholar
Pielke, R.A. Jr., J., Gratz, C.W., Landsea, D., Collins, M., Saunders, and R., Musulin, 2008: Normalized hurricane damages in the United States: 1900-2005. Natural Hazards Review, 9, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomeranets, K.S., 2005: Three Centuries of Floods in St-Petersburg. Iskusstvo, St. Petersburg, Russia, 214 pp.Google Scholar
Pompe, J.J. and J.R., Rinehart, 2008: Mitigating damage costs from hurricane strikes along the southeastern U.S. Coast: A role for insurance markets. Ocean & Coastal Management, 51(12), 782–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, S.A., 1994: Temporal trends in twig growth of Fagus sylvatica L and their relationships with environmental factors. Forestry, 67(1), 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasad, P.V.V., K.J., Boote, L.H., Allen Jr., J.E., Sheehy, and J.M.G., Thomas, 2006: Species, ecotype and cultivar differences in spikelet fertility and harvest index of rice in response to high temperature stress. Field Crops Research, 95, 398–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pulhin, J., M., Tapia, and R., Perez, 2010: Integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: Initiatives and challenges in the Philippines. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, 5, 217–235.Google Scholar
Quarantelli, E.L. (ed.), 1998: What is a Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. Routledge, London, UK, 312 pp.
Quinn, W.H., D.O., Zopf, K.S., Short, R.T.W., Kuo Yang, 1978: Historical trends and statistics of the Southern Oscillation, El Niño, and Indonesian droughts. Fishery Bulletin, 76, 663–678.Google Scholar
Rachold, V., H., Lantuit, N., Couture, and W., Pollard (eds.), 2005: Arctic Coastal Dynamics. Report of the 5th International Workshop, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 13-16 October 2004. Reports on Polar and Marine Research 506, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany, 131 pp.
Raddatz, C., 2009: The Wrath of God: Macroeconomic Costs of Natural Disasters. Policy Research Working Paper 5039, Development Research Group, Macroeconomics and Growth Team, World Bank, Washington, DC, 35 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radeloff, V.C., R.B., Hammer, S.I., Stewart, J.S., Fried, S.S., Holcomb, and J.F., Mckeefry, 2005: The wildland–urban interface in the United States. Ecological Applications, 15(3), 799–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raghavan, S. and S., Rajesh, 2003: Trends in tropical cyclone impact: a study in Andhra Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84, 635–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ranger, N., S., Hallegatte, S., Bhattacharya, M., Bachu, S., Priya, K., Dhore, F., Rafique, P., Mathur, N., Naville, F., Henriet, C., Herweijer, S., Pohit, and J., Corfee-Morlot, 2011: An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on flood risk in Mumbai. Climatic Change, 104, 139–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raschky, P.A. 2008: Institutions and the losses from natural disasters. Natural Hazards Earth Systems Science, 8, 627–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasmussen, T.N., 2004: Macroeconomic Implications of Natural Disasters in the Caribbean. IMF Working Papers WP/04/224, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Ready, R. and S., Navrud, 2006: International benefit transfer methods and validity tests. Ecological Economics, 60, 429–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reason, C.J.C. and A., Keibel, 2004: Tropical cyclone Eline and its unusual penetration and impacts over the Southern African mainland. Weather Forecast, 19, 789–805.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reason, C.J.C., S., Hachigonta, and R.F., Phaladi, 2005: Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1835–1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rebetez, M. and M., Dobbertin, 2004: Climate change may already threaten Scots pine stands in the Swiss Alps. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 79, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rehfeldt, G.E., N.L., Crookston, M.V., Warwell, and J.S., Evans, 2006: Empirical analyses of plant-climate relationships for the western United States. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167(6), 1123–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, H., L., Sahlén, J., MacGregor, and J., Stage, 2007: The economic impact of climate change in Namibia: How climate change will affect the contribution of Namibia's natural resources to its economy. Environmental Economics Programme Discussion Paper 07-02, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, 46 pp.Google Scholar
Reid, W.V., H.A., Mooney, A., Cropper, D., Capistrano, S.R., Carpenter, K., Chopra, P., Dasgupta, T., Dietz, A.K., Duraiappah, R., Hassan, R., Kasperson, R., Leemans, R.M., May, A.J., McMichael, P., Pingali, C., Samper, R., Scholes, R.T., Watson, A.H., Zakri, Z., Shidong, N.J., Ash, E., Bennett, P., Kumar, M.J., Lee, C., Raudsepp-Hearne, H., Simons, J., Thonell, and M.B., Zurek (eds.), 2005: Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 155 pp.
Reilly, J. and D., Schimmelpfennig, 2000: Irreversibility, uncertainty, and learning: portraits of adaptation to long term climate change. Climatic Change, 45(1), 253–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revi, A., 2008: Climate change risk: an adaptation and mitigation agenda for Indian cities. Environment and Urbanization, 20(1), 207–229, doi:10.1177/0956247808089157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revich, B., 2008: Climate Change Impact on Public Health in the Russian Arctic. United Nations in the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, 24 pp.Google Scholar
Rey, G., A., Fouillet, É., Jougla, and D., Hémon, 2007: Heat waves, ordinary temperature fluctuations and mortality in France since 1971. Population (English Edition), 62, 457–485, doi:10.3917/pope.703.0457, Scholar
Rich, P.M., D.D., Breshears, and A.B., White, 2008: Phenology of mixed woodyherbaceous ecosystems following extreme events: net and differential responses. Ecology, 89(2), 342–352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richard, Y., N., Fauchereau, I., Poccard, M., Rouault, and S., Trzaska, 2001: 20th century droughts in Southern Africa: spatial and temporal variability, teleconnections with oceanic and atmospheric conditions. International Journal of Climatology, 21, 873–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rico, M., G., Benito, A.R., Salgueiro, A., Díez-Herrero, and H., Pereira, 2008: Reported tailings dam failures. A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846–852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rignot, E., M., Koppes, and I., Velicogna, 2010: Rapid submarine melting of the calving faces of West Greenland glaciers. Nature Geoscience, 3, 187–191, doi:10.1038/ngeo765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rittmaster, R., W., Adamowicz, B., Amiro, and R.T., Pelletier, 2006: Economic analysis of health effects from forest fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36(4), 868–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizwan, A.M., L., Dennis, and C., Liu, 2008: A review on the generation, determination, and mitigation of urban heat island. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20(1), 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodell, M., I., Velicogna, and J., Famiglietti, 2009: Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature, 460, 999–1002.Google Scholar
Rodriguez-Oreggia, E., A., de la Fuente, R., de la Torre, H., Moreno, and C., Rodriguez, 2010: The Impact of Natural Disasters on Human Development and Poverty at the Municipal Level in Mexico. CID Working Paper No. 43, Center for International Development at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, 34 pp.Google Scholar
Rogers, K. and T., Ralph (eds.), 2010: Floodplain Wetland Biota in the Murry-Darling Basin: Water and Habitat Requirements. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, 348 pp.
Rose, A., 2007: Economic resilience to natural and man-made disasters: Multidisciplinary origins and contextual dimensions. Environmental Hazards, 7(4), 383–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenzweig, C. and M.L., Parry, 1994: Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature, 367, 133–138.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., F.N., Tubiello, R., Goldberg, E., Mills, and J., Bloomfield, 2002: Increased crop damage in the US from excess precipitation under climate change. Global Environmental Change, 12, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., G., Casassa, D.J., Karoly, A., Imeson, C., Liu, A., Menzel, S., Rawlins, T.L., Root, B., Seguin, and P., Tryjanowski, 2007: Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 79–131.Google Scholar
Roshydromet, , 2005: Strategic Prediction for the Period of up to 2010–2015 of Climate Change Expected in Russia and Its Impact on Sectors of the Russian National Economy. Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet), Moscow, Russia, 24pp.Google Scholar
Roshydromet, , 2008: Assessment Report on Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Territory of the Russian Federation. Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet), Vol.II, Climate Change Impacts, RIHMI-WDC, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, Russia, 288pp.Google Scholar
Rübbelke, D. and S., Vogele, 2011: Impacts of climate change on European critical infrastructures: The case of the power sector. Environmental Science & Policy, 14, 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saenz, R., R.A., Bissell, and F., Paniagua, 1995: Post-disaster malaria in Costa Rica. Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 10(3), 154–160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanderson, M.G., C.D., Jones, W.J., Collins, C.E., Johnson, and R.G., Derwent, 2003: Effect of climate change on isoprene emissions and surface ozone levels. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(18), 1936, doi:10.1029/2003GL017642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Satterthwaite, D., 2008: Climate Change and Urbanization: Effects and Implications for Urban Governance. Paper presented at the United Nations Expert Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, NY, 21-23 January 2008, United Nations Population Division, New York, NY, 29 pp., Scholar
Satterthwaite, D., S., Huq, M., Pelling, H., Reid, and P., Romero-Lankao, 2007: Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-income Nations. Human Settlements Working Paper Series, Climate Change and Cities No.1, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, 107 pp., Scholar
Savelieva, N.I., I.P., Semiletov, G.E., Weller, and L.N., Vasilevskaya, 2004: Climate change in the northern Asia in the second half of the 20th century. Pacific Oceanography, 2(1–2), 74–84.Google Scholar
Schär, C. and G., Jendritzky, 2004: Climate change: Hot news from summer 2003. Nature, 432, 559–560.Google Scholar
Schär, C., P.L., Vidale, D., Luthi, C., Frei, C., Haberli, M.A., Liniger, and C., Appenzeller, 2004: The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature, 427, 332–336.Google Scholar
Scheffer, M., S., Carpenter, J.A., Foley, C., Folke, and B., Walker, 2001: Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature, 413, 591–596.Google Scholar
Schelhaas, M.J., G.J., Nabuurs, and A., Schuck, 2003: Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Global Change Biology, 9(11), 1620–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlenker, W. and D., Lobell, 2010: Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 5(1), doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlenker, W. and M.J., Roberts, 2009: Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15594–15598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmid, D., I., Lederer, P., Much, A., Pichler, and F., Allerberger, 2005: Outbreak of norovirus infection associated with contaminated flood water, Salzburg, 2005. Eurosurveillance, 10(24), E050616.Google ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, S., C., Kemfert, and E., Faust, 2009: Simulation of Economic Losses from Tropical Cyclones in the Years 2015 and 2050: The Effects of Anthropogenic Climate Change and Growing Wealth. Discussion paper 914, German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin, Germany, 29 pp.Google Scholar
Schneebeli, M., M., Laternser and W., Ammann, 1997: Destructive snow avalanches and climate change in the Swiss Alps. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 90, 457–461.Google Scholar
Schneider, F., A., Buehn, and C.E., Montenegro, 2010. Shadow Economies All over the World: New Estimates for 162 Countries from 1999 to 2007. Policy Research Working Paper 5356, World Bank Development Research Group, Poverty and Inequality Team and Europe and Central Asia Region, Human Development Economics Unit, Washington, DC, 52 pp. Scholar
Schneider, S.H., W.E., Easterling, and L.O., Mearns, 2000: Adaptation: Sensitivity to natural variability, agent assumptions and dynamic climate changes. Climatic Change, 45, 203–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scholes, R.J. and R., Biggs (eds.), 2004: Ecosystem Services in Southern Africa: A Regional Assessment. A contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa, 76 pp.,
Schreider, S.Y., D.I., Smith, and A.J., Jakeman, 2000: Climate change impacts on urban flooding. Climatic Change, 47, 91–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulze, R., J., Meigh, and M., Horan, 2001: Present and potential future vulnerability of eastern and southern Africa's hydrology and water resources. South African Journal of Science, 97, 150–160.Google Scholar
Schwierz, C., P., Köllner-Heck, E. Zenklusen, Mutter, D.N., Bresch, P.L., Vidale, M., Wild, and C., Schär, 2010: Modelling European winter wind storm losses in current and future climate. Climatic Change, 101, 485–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, D., G., McBoyle, B., Mills, and A., Minogue, 2006: Climate change and the sustainability of ski-based tourism in eastern North America. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(4), 367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, D., B., Amelung, S., Becken, J.P., Ceron, G., Dubois, S., Gossling, P., Peeters, and M.C., Simpson, 2008: Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges. United Nations World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain, 256 pp.Google Scholar
Semyonov, V.A. and A.A., Korshunov, 2006: Floods on the Russian rivers in the late 20th century and the early 21st century. Issues of Geography and Geo-ecology, 5, 6–12.Google Scholar
Sénat, . 2004. France and the French face the canicule: The lessons of a crisis. Information Report no. 195, Sénat, Paris, France, pp. 59–62 (in French), Scholar
Seo, N. and R., Mendelsohn, 2008: An analysis of crop choice: Adapting to climate change in Latin American farms. Ecological Economics, 67, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shankman, D., B. D., Keim, and J., Song, 2006: Flood frequency in China's Poyang Lake Region: trends and teleconnections. International Journal of Climatology, 26, 1255–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, C., W.-C., Wang, Z., Hao, and W., Gong, 2008: Characteristics of anomalous precipitation events over eastern China during the past five centuries. Climate Dynamics, 31(4), 463–476, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0323-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherstyukov, A.B., 2009: Climate Change and Its Impact in the Russian Permafrost Zone. RIHMI-WDC, Obninsk, Russia, 127 pp.Google Scholar
Skidmore, M. and H., Toya, 2002: Do natural disasters promote long-run growth?Economic Inquiry, 40(4), 664–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skylas, D.J., S.J., Cordwell, P.G., Hains, M.R., Larsen, D.J., Basseal, B.J., Walsh, C., Blumenthal, W., Rathmell, L., Copeland, and C.W., Wrigley, 2002: Heat shock of wheat during grain filling: proteins associated with heat-intolerance. Journal of Cereal Science, 35, 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smit, B., O., Pilifosova, I., Burton, B., Challenger, S., Huq, R., Klein, and G., Yohe, 2001: Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [McCarthy, J.J., O.F., Canziani, N.A., Leary, D.J., Dokken, and K.S., White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 879–906.Google Scholar
Smith, D.E, S.B., Raper, S., Zerbini, and A., Sánchez-Arcilla (eds.), 2000: Sea Level Change and Coastal Processes: Implications for Europe. Proceedings of the Climate change and Sea level research in Europe: State of the art and future research needs Conference, Mataro, Spain, April 1997. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 247 pp.
Smith, O., 2006: Trends in Transportation Maintenance Related to Climate Change. Paper presented to the Climate Change Workshop, Center for Transportation and Environment, Washington, DC, 29 March, 2006.Google Scholar
Smyth, A.W., G., Altay, G., Deodatis, M., Erdik, G., Franco, P., Gulkan, H., Kunreuther, H., Lus, E., Mete, N., Seeber, and O., Yuzugullu, 2004: Probabilistic benefit-cost analysis for earthquake damage mitigation: Evaluating measures for apartment houses in Turkey. Earthquake Spectra, 20(1), 171–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spranger, M., 2008: Special nature of disaster risk in megacities. In: Natural Catastrophe Risk Insurance Mechanisms for Asia and the Pacific, Tokyo, Japan, 4-5 November 2008. Munich Reinsurance Company, Munich, Germany, 11 pp.Google Scholar
Stedman, J.R., 2004: The predicted number of air pollution related deaths in the UK during the August 2003 heatwave. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1083–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steffen, W., G., Love, and P.H., Whetton, 2006: Approaches to defining dangerous climate change: an Australian perspective. In: Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change [Schellnhuber, H.J., W., Cramer, N., Nakicenovic, T., Wigley, and G., Yohe (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 392 pp.Google Scholar
Steiger, R., 2010: The impact of climate change on ski season length and snowmaking requirements in Tyrol, Austria. Climate Research, 43, 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stewart, I.D., 2011. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. International Journal of Climatology, 31(2), 200–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stirling, I. and C.L., Parkinson, 2006: Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic, 59(3), 261–275.Google Scholar
Stone, D.A. and M.R., Allen, 2005: The end-to-end attribution problem: from emissions to impacts. Climatic Change, 71, 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stott, P.A., D.A., Stone, and M.R., Allen, 2004: Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature, 432, 610–614.Google Scholar
Straneo, F., G.S., Hamilton, D.A., Sutherland, L.A., Stearns, F., Davidson, M.O., Hammill, G.B., Stenson and A., Rosing-Asvid, 2010: Rapid circulation of warm subtropical waters in a major glacial fjord in East Greenland. Nature Geoscience, 3, 182–186, doi:10.1038/ngeo764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stribley, G.H. and M.R., Ashmore, 2002: Quantitative changes in twig growth pattern of young woodland beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relation to climate and ozone pollution over 10 years. Forest Ecology and Management, 157(1–3), 191–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturm, M., C., Racine, and K., Tape, 2001: Climate change: Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature, 411, 546–547.Google Scholar
Su, H. and G.X., Liu, 2004: Elementary analyses on the progress of grassland fire disaster information management technique. Grassland of China, 26(3), 69–71 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Suzuki, T., 2009: Estimation of inundation damage caused by global warming in three major bays and western parts of Japan. Global Environmental Research, 14(2), 237–246 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
Swenson, S. and J., Wahr, 2009: Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space. Journal of Hydrology, 370, 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SWIPA, 2011: SWIPA 2011 Assessment Executive Summary: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA), Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme Secretariat, Oslo, Norway, 15pp,
Swiss, Re, 2009: The Effects of Climate Change: An Increase in Coastal Flood Damage in Northern Europe. Focus Report, Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich, Switzerland, 4 pp., Scholar
Swiss, Re, 2010: Natural Catastrophes and Man-Made Disasters in 2009: Catastrophe Claims Few Victims, Insured Losses Fall. Sigma, No 1/2010, Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich, Switzerland, 36 pp.Google Scholar
Swiss, Re, 2011: Natural Catastrophes and Man-Made Disasters in 2010: A Year of Devastating and Costly Events. Sigma, No 1/2011, Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich, Switzerland, 36 pp.Google Scholar
Takahashi, T., H., Nakagawa, Y., Satofuka, and K., Kawaike, 2001: Flood and sediment disasters triggered by 1999 rainfall in Venezuela; a river restoration plan for an alluvial fan. Journal of Natural Disaster Science, 23(2), 65–82.Google Scholar
Takara, K., S., Kim, Y., Tachikawa, and E., Nakita, 2009: Assessing climate change impact on water resources in the Tone River Basin, Japan, using super-high-resolution atmospheric model output. Journal of Disaster Research, 4(1), 12–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tallis, H.M. and P., Kareiva, 2006: Shaping global environmental decisions using socio-ecological models. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21(10), 562–568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tan, J., Y., Zheng, X., Tang, C., Gup, L., Li, G., Song, X., Zhen, D., Yuan, A., Kalkstein, and F., Li, 2010: The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai. Journal of Biometeorology, 54(1),Google ScholarPubMed
Tape, K., M., Sturm, and C., Racine, 2006: The evidence for shrub expansion in Northern Alaska and the Pan-Arctic. Global Change Biology, 12, 686–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
TEEB, 2009: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers – Summary: responding to the value of nature. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland, 39 pp.
Thibault, K.M. and J.H., Brown, 2008: Impact of an extreme climatic event on community assembly. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(9), 3410–3415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, M.F. and M.B., Thorp, 2003: Palaeohydrological reconstructions for tropical Africa – evidence and problems. In: Palaeohydrology: Understanding Global Change [Benito, G. and K.J., Gregory (eds.)]. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 167–192.Google Scholar
Thonicke, K. and W., Cramer, 2006: Long-term trends in vegetation dynamics and forest fires in Brandenburg (Germany) under a changing climate. Natural Hazards, 38, 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornton, P.K., P.G., Jones, T., Owiyo, R.L., Kruska, M., Herrero, P., Kristjanson, A., Notenbaert, N., Bekele, and A., Omolo, with contributions from V., Orindi, B., Otiende, A., Ochieng, S., Bhadwal, K., Anantram, S., Nair, V., Kumar, and U., Kulkar, 2006: Mapping Climate Vulnerability and Poverty in Africa. ILRI Report to the Department for International Development, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, 171 pp.Google Scholar
Tian, X, T., Matsui, S., Li, M., Yoshimoto, K., Kobaysai, and T., Hasegawa. 2010: Heat-induced floret sterility of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under humid and low wind conditions in the field of Jainghan basin, China. Plant Production Science, 13(3), 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tol, R.S.J., 1995: The damage costs of climate change: Toward more comprehensive calculations. Environmental and Resource Economics, 5, 353–374.Google Scholar
Tol, R.S.J., 2001: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change. Environmental and Resource Economics, 21, 47–73.Google Scholar
Tol, R.S.J. and F.P.M., Leek, 1999: Economic analysis of natural disasters. In: Climate, Change and Risk. [Downing, T.E., A.A., Olsthoorn, and R.S.J., Tol (eds.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 308–327.Google Scholar
Toole, M.J., 1997: Communicable diseases and disease control. In: The Public Health Consequences of Disasters. [Noji, E.K. (ed.)]. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 79–100.Google Scholar
Toya, H. and M., Skidmore, 2007: Economic development and the impacts of natural disasters. Economics Letters, 94, 20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trenberth, K.E., P.D., Jones, P., Ambenje, R., Bojariu, D., Easterling, A. Klein, Tank, D., Parker, F., Rahimzadeh, J.A., Renwick, M., Rusticucci, B., Soden and P., Zhai, 2007: Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor, and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 237–336.Google Scholar
Trewin, B. and H., Vermont, 2010. Changes in the frequency of record temperatures in Australia, 1957-2009. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 60, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Truong, G., A.E., Palm, and F., Felber, 2006: Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20(1), 369–380.Google Scholar
Tsubo, M., S., Fukai, J., Basnayake, M., Ouk, 2009: Frequency of occurrence of various drought types and its impact on performance of photoperiod-sensitive and insensitive rice genotypes in rainfed lowland conditions in Cambodia. Field Crops Research, 113, 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010: Coastline Population Trends in the United States: 1960 to 2008. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 27 pp., prod/2010pubs/p25-1139.pdf.
UN-HABITAT, 2008: State of the World's Cities 2008/2009: Harmonious Cities. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Earthscan, London, UK, 259 pp.
UNCTAD, 2009: Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport and Trade Facilitation: Maritime Transport and the Climate Change Challenge, 16-18 February 2009. Summary of Proceedings,