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Chapter 18 - The Use of Estrogens and Progestogens in Menopausal Hormone Therapy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 June 2020

Nicholas Panay
Affiliation:
Queen Charlotte's & Chelsea Hospital, London
Paula Briggs
Affiliation:
Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust
Gabor T. Kovacs
Affiliation:
Monash University, Victoria
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Summary

In November 1929, clinicians first attempted to develop an ‘ovary stimulating hormone’ extracted from the human placenta for the treatment of symptoms resulting from the menopause. The team at Montreal General Hospital named it ‘Emmenin’ and it had to be purified from the urine of pregnant women to be administered orally. It was later discovered that pregnant mares’ urine could provide an abundant supply of a compound with high estrogenic activity. This conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) was commercially produced as Premarin and made available as an oral estrogenic agent in 1939.

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Managing the Menopause , pp. 177 - 186
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Menopause: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline [NG23]. November 2015.Google Scholar
International Menopause Society. IMS recommendations on women’s midlife health and menopause hormone therapy. 2016.Google Scholar
Hamoda, H, Panay, N, Arya, R, et al. British Menopause Society. The British Menopause Society and Women’s Health Concern 2016 recommendations on hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. Post Reprod Health 2016;22(4):165–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamoda, H. British Menopause Society and Women’s Health Concern recommendations on the management of women with premature ovarian insufficiency.Google Scholar
North American Menopause Society. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of he North American Menopause Society.Google Scholar

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