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6 - And Further West: Across the Irish Sea, 800–1200

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 May 2023

Peter Trudgill
Affiliation:
Université de Fribourg, Switzerland
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Summary

In 1169, Anglo-Norman forces from South Wales landed on the south coast of Ireland. With the backing of King Henry II of England, they went on to take military control of the bilingual Norse-Irish city-kingdoms of Dublin, Waterford and Wexford. In 1170, the High King of All Ireland led an Irish counteroffensive against the Normans, but in 1171 King Henry landed an army in Ireland to establish English control. Settlers from England began to move into the Norman-occupied areas, and as more and more of them arrived, much of the eastern and southeastern coastal areas of Ireland gradually became English-speaking, under an Anglo-Norman-speaking aristocracy.

Type
Chapter
Information
The Long Journey of English
A Geographical History of the Language
, pp. 66 - 75
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

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References

Further Reading

Davies, Robert. 2000. The age of conquest: Wales 1063–1415. London: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar
Flechner, Roy. 2019. Patrick retold: the legend and history of Ireland’s patron saint. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kostick, Conor. 2013. Strongbow: the Norman invasion of Ireland. Dublin: O’Brien.Google Scholar
Mallory, James. 2013. The origins of the Irish. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
Walker, Alastair. 1990. Frisian. In Russ, C. (ed.) The dialects of modern German: a linguistic survey. London: Routledge, 130.Google Scholar

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