Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-5sfl8 Total loading time: 5.301 Render date: 2022-12-02T07:37:11.516Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Section III - Hepatitis and Immune Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 January 2021

Frederick J. Suchy
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora
Ronald J. Sokol
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora
William F. Balistreri
Affiliation:
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
Jorge A. Bezerra
Affiliation:
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
Cara L. Mack
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora
Benjamin L. Shneider
Affiliation:
Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Rezende, G, Roque-Afonso, AM, Samuel, D, et al. Viral and clinical factors associated with the fulminant course of hepatitis A infection. Hepatology 2003;38:613–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, BH, Jansen, RW, Khanna, B, et al. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J Gen Virol 1992;73:1365–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujiwara, K, Yokosuka, O, Fukai, K, et al. Analysis of full-length hepatitis A virus genome in sera from patients with fulminant and self-limited acute type A hepatitis. J Hepatol 2001;35:112–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, GM, Goldin, RD, Karayiannis, P, et al. In situ hybridization studies in hepatitis A infection. Hepatology 1992;16:642–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ticehurst, JR, Racaniello, VR, Baroudy, BM, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of hepatitis A virus cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:5885–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koff, RS. Hepatitis, A. Lancet 1998;351:1643–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, AS, Schaffner, W. Prevention of hepatitis A with the hepatitis A vaccine. N Engl J Med 2004;350:476–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, N. Hepatitis, A outbreaks. Presented at: Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; October 25, 2017; Atlanta, GA. Available at: www.mdedge.com/familymedicine/article/155079/vaccines/cdc-provides-advice-recent-hepatitis-outbreaks [last accessed June 12, 2020].Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis Surveillance Report 59. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004:160.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant – Monaca, Pennsylvania, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:1155–7.Google Scholar
Wheeler, C, Vogt, TM, Armstrong, GL, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N Engl J Med 2005;353:890–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutin, YJF, Pool, V, Cramer, EH, et al. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N Engl J Med 1999;340:595602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinberg, M, Hopkins, J, Farrington, L, et al. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States– Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures. Pediatrics 2004;114:e6873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hadler, SC, Erben, JJ, Francis, DP, et al. Risk factors for hepatitis A in day-care centers. J Infect Dis 1982;145:255–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benenson, MW, Takafuji, ET, Bancroft, WH, et al. A military community outbreak of hepatitis type A related to transmission in a child care facility. Am J Epidemiol 1980;112:471–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernon, AA, Schable, C, Francis, D. A large outbreak of hepatitis A in a daycare center: association with non-toilet-trained children and persistence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus. Am J Epidemiol 1982;115:325–31.Google Scholar
Hadler, SC, Webster, HM, Erber, JJ, et al. Hepatitis A in day care centers: a community-wide assessment. N Engl J Med 1980;302:1222–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis outbreaks. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019. Available at: www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/outbreaks/hepatitisaoutbreaks.htm [last accessed June 12, 2020].Google Scholar
Balistreri, WF. Viral hepatitis. Emerg Clin North Am 1991;9:365–99.Google Scholar
Leach, C. Hepatitis A in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:551–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jung, YM, Park, SJ, Kim, JS, et al. Atypical manifestations of hepatitis A infection: a prospective, multicenter study in Korea. J Med Virol 2010;82:1318–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachima, CM, Cohen, E, Garty, M. Acute hepatitis A: combination of relapsing and the cholestatic forms, two rare variants. Am J Med Sci 2000;319: 417–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiff, ER. Atypical clinical manifestations of hepatitis A. Vaccine 1992;10(Suppl1):S18S20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozcay, F, Canan, O, Akcan, B, et al. Hepatitis A super infection as a cause of liver failure in a child with Wilson’s disease. Turk J Pediatr 2007;49:199202.Google Scholar
Ciocca, M, Moreira-Silva, SF, Alegria, S, et al. Hepatitis A as an etiologic agent of acute liver failure in Latin America. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:711–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:139.Google Scholar
Kim, HY, Eyheramonho, MB, Pichavant, M, et al. A polymorphism in TIM1 is associated with susceptibility to severe hepatitis A virus infection in humans. J Clin Invest 2011;121:1111–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arora, NK, Mathur, P, Ahuja, A, Oberoi, A. Acute liver failure. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:73–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amon, JJ, Darling, N, Fiore, AE, et al. Factors associated with hepatitis A vaccination among children 24 to 35 months of age: United States, 2003. Pediatrics 2006;117:30–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines and Immunizations. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019. Available at: www.cdc.gov/vaccines [last accessed June 12, 2020].Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Recommendations of the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019. Available at: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm [last accessed June 12, 2019].Google Scholar
Landry, P, Tremblay, S, Darioli, R, Genton, B. Inactivated hepatitis vaccine booster given 24 months after the primary doses. Vaccine 2000;19:399402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMahon, BJ, Williams, J, Bulkow, L, et al. Immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska native children and native and non-native adults. J Infect Dis 1995;17:676–9.Google Scholar
Horng, YC, Chang, MH, Lee, CY, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:359–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balcarek, KB, Bagley, MR, Pass, RF, Schiff, ER, Krause, DS. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in preschool children. J Infect Dis 1995;171(Suppl1): S70S72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ashur, Y, Adler, R, Rowe, M, Shouval, D. Comparison of immunogenicity of two hepatitis A vaccines – VAQTA and HAVRIX – in young adults. Vaccine 1999;17:2290–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Letson, GW, Shapiro, CN, Kuehn, D, et al. Effect of maternal antibody on immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in infants. J Pediatr 2004;144:327–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, A. An economic analysis of different strategies of immunization against hepatitis A virus in developed countries. Hepatology 1999;29:548–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werzberger, A, Mensch, B, Kuter, B, et al. A controlled trial of a formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children. N Engl J Med 1992;327:453–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Innis, BL, Snithhan, R, Kunasol, P, et al. Protection against hepatitis A by an inactivated vaccine. JAMA 1994;271:1328–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gouvea, AF, De Moraes-pinto, MI, Ono, E, et al. Immunogenicity and tolerability of hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected children. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:544–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siberry, GK, Coller, RJ, Henkle, E, et al. Antibody response to hepatitis A immunization among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008;27:465–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinberg, A, Gona, P, Nachman, SA, et al. Antibody-response to hepatitis A virus vaccine in HIV-infected children with evidence of immunologic reconstitution while receiving highly active retroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2006;193:302–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arslan, M, Wiesner, RH, Poterucha, JJ, Zein, NN. Safety and efficacy of hepatitis A vaccination in liver transplantation recipients. Transplantation 2001;72:272–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diana, A, Posfay-Barbe, KM, Belli, DC, Siegrist, CA. Vaccine-induced immunity in children after orthotopic liver transplantation: a 12-yr review of the Swiss national reference center. Pediatr Transplant 2007;11:31–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, SD, Chan, CY, Yu, MI, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in patients with chronic liver disease. J Med Virol 1997;52:215–18.3.0.CO;2-J>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keeffe, EB, Iwarson, S, McMahon, BJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1998;27:881–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferreira, CT, da Silviera, TR, Viera, SM, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis A vaccine in children with chronic liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2003;37:258–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El-Karaksy, HM, El-Hawary, MI, El- koofy, NM, et al. Safety and efficacy of hepatitis A vaccine in children with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:7337–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Majda-Stanislawska, E, Bednarek, M, Kuydowicz, J. Immunogenicity of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children with chronic liver disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:571–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troisi, CL, Hollinger, FB, Krause, DS, et al. Immunization of seronegative infants with hepatitis A vaccine (HAVRIX®; SKB): a comparative study of two dosing schedules. Vaccine 1997;15:1613–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piazza, M, Safary, A, Vegnente, A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in infants: a candidate for inclusion in the childhood vaccination programme. Vaccine 1999;17:585–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dagan, R, Amir, J, Mijalovsky, A, et al. Immunization against hepatitis A in the first year of life: priming despite the presence of maternal antibody. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:1045–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiore, AE, Shapiro, CN, Sabin, K, et al. Hepatitis A vaccination of infants: effect of maternal antibody status on antibody persistence and response to a booster dose. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:354–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hammitt, LL, Bulkow, L, Hennessy, TW, et al. Persistence of antibody to hepatitis A virus 10 years after vaccination among children and adults. J Infect Dis 2008;198:1776–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werzberger, A, Mensch, B, Nalin, DR, Kuter, BJ. Effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccine in a former frequently affected community: 9 years’ follow-up after the Monroe field trial of VAQTA. Vaccine 2002;20:16991701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, CY, Lee, SD, Yu, MI, et al. Long-term follow-up of hepatitis A vaccination in children. Vaccine 1999;17:369–72.Google Scholar
Van Damme, P, Banatvala, J, Fay, O, et al. Hepatitis A booster vaccination: is there a need? Lancet 2003;362:1065–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Herckk, K, Van Damme, P. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies: follow-up and estimates of long-term persistence. J Med Virol 2001;63:17.3.0.CO;2-U>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55(RR-7):123.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, P. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in children, adolescents, and adults. Hepatology 2003;37:4451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansari, IH, Nanda, SK, Durgapal, H, et al. Cloning sequencing, and expression of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) nonstructural open reading frame 1. J Med Virol 2000;60:275–83.3.0.CO;2-9>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krawczynski, K, Aggarwal, R, Kamili, S. Infections of the liver. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2000;14:118.Google Scholar
Worm, HC, van der Poel, WHM, Brandstatter, G. Hepatitis E: an overview. Microbes Infect 2002;4:657–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aggarwal, R, Krawczynski, K. Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in clinical and laboratory research. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;15:920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahn, J-M, Kang, S-G, Lee, D-Y, et al. Identification of novel human hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates and determination of the seroprevalence of HEV in Korea. J Clin Microbiol 2005;3042–8. Doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.7.3042-3048.2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tam, AW, Smith, MM, Guerra, ME, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 1991;185:120–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reyes, GR, Purdy, MA, Kim, JP, et al. Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 1990;247:1335–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shrestha, SM, Srestha, S, Tsuda, F, et al. Genetic changes in hepatitis E virus of subtype 1a in patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 1997 to 2002. J Gen Virol 2004;85:97104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mansuy, JM, Peron, JM, Abravanel, F, et al. Hepatitis E in the south west of France in individuals who have never visited an endemic area. J Med Virol 2004;74:419–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Redlinger, T, O’Rourke, K, Nickey, L, Martinez, G. Elevated hepatitis A and E seroprevalence rates in a Texas/Mexico border community. Tex Med 1998;94:6871.Google Scholar
Aggarwal, R, Naik, SR. Faecal excretion of hepatitis-E virus. Lancet 1992;340:787.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeCock, KM, Bradley, DW, Sandford, NL, et al. Epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis in patients from Pakistan. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:227–30.Google Scholar
Ray, R, Aggarwal, R, Salunke, PN, et al. Hepatitis E virus genome in stools of hepatitis patients during large epidemic in North India. Lancet 1991;338:783–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skidmore, SJ, Yarbough, PO, Gabor, KA, et al. Hepatitis E virus: the cause of waterborne hepatitis outbreak. J Med Virol 1992;37:5860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ticehurst, J, Popkin, TJ, Bryan, JP, et al. Association of hepatitis E virus with an outbreak of hepatitis in Pakistan: serologic responses and pattern of virus excretion. J Med Virol 1992;36:8492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chauhan, A, Dilawari, JB, Jameel, S, et al. Common etiological agent for epidemic and sporadic non-A non-B hepatitis. Lancet 1992;339:1509–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hau, CH, Hien, TT, Tien, NT, et al. Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong delta region of Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998;60:277–80.Google Scholar
Goto, K, Ito, K, Sugiura, T, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in Japanese children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2005;42:8992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emerson, SU, Purcell, RH. Running like water: the omnipresence of hepatitis E. N Engl J Med 2004;351: 2367–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bader, TF, Krawczynski, K, Polish, LB, et al. Hepatitis E in a US traveler to Mexico. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1659.Google Scholar
De Groen, PC. Hepatitis E in the United States: a case of “hog fever?Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72:1197–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldsmith, R, Yarbough, PO, Reyes, GR, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of acute sporadic hepatitis E in Egyptian children. Lancet 1992;339:328–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyams, KC, Purdy, MA, Kaur, M, et al. Acute sporadic hepatitis E in Sudanese children: analysis based on a new Western blot assay. J Infect Dis 1992;165:1001–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daniel, HDJ, Warier, A, Abraham, P, Sridharan, G. Age-wise exposure rates to hepatitis E virus in a southern Indian patient population without liver disease. Am J Top Med Hyg 2004;71:675–8.Google Scholar
Khuroo, MS, Kamili, S, Yattoo, GN. Hepatitis E virus infection may be transmitted through blood transfusions in an endemic area. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;19:778–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, S, Mohanty, A, Joshi, YK, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis E virus infection. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:37–9, 597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khuroo, MS, Kamili, S, Jameel, S. Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet 1995;345:1025–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, RM, Uduman, S, Rana, S, et al. Sero-prevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;100:915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arora, NK, Panda, SK, Nanda, SK, et al. Hepatitis E infection in children: study of an outbreak. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;14:572–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Worm, HC, van der Poel, WHM, Brandstatter, G. Hepatitis E: an overview. Microbes Infect 2002;4:657–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panda, SK, Jameel, S. Hepatitis E virus: from epidemiology to molecular biology. Viral Hepat 1997;3:227–51.Google Scholar
Kamar, N, Mansuy, JM, Cointault, O, et al. Hepatitis E virus-related cirrhosis in kidney- and kidney-pancreas-transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2008;8:1744–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamar, N, Garrouste, C, Haagsma, EB, et al. Factors associated with chronic hepatitis in patients with hepatitis E virus infection who have received solid organ transplants. Gastroenterology 2011;140:1481–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Legrand-Abravanel, F, Kamar, N, Sandres-Saune, K, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection without reactivation in solid-organ transplant recipients, France. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamid, SS, Atiq, M, Shehzad, F, et al. Hepatitis E virus superinfection in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 2002;36:474–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, A, Aggarwal, R, Naik, SR, et al. Hepatitis E virus is responsible for decompensation of chronic liver disease in an endemic region. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004;23:5962.Google Scholar
Ramachandran, J, Eapen, CE, Kang, G, et al. Hepatitis E superinfection produces severe decompensation in patients with chronic liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;19:134–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davern, TJ, Chalasani, N, Fontana, RJ, et al. Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury. Gastroenterology 2011;14:1665–72.Google Scholar
Bryan, JP, Tsarev, SA, Iqbal, M, et al. Epidemic hepatitis E in Pakistan: patterns of serologic response and evidence that antibody to hepatitis E virus protects against disease. J Infect Dis 1994;170:517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bile, K, Isse, A, Mohamud, O, et al. Contrasting roles of rivers and wells as sources of drinking water on attack and fatality rates in a hepatitis E epidemic in Somalia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1994;51:466–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corwin, AL, Khiem, HB, Clayson, ET, et al. A waterborne outbreak of hepatitis E virus transmission in southwestern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996;54:559–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khuroo, MS, Dar, MY. Hepatitis E: evidence for person-to-person transmission and inability of low dose immune serum globulin from an Indian source to prevent it. Indian J Gastroenterol 1992;3:113–16.Google Scholar
Tsarev, SA, Tsareva, TS, Emerson, SU, et al. Successful passive and active immunization of cynomolgus monkeys against hepatitis E. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:10198–202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsarev, SA, Tsareva, TS, Emerson, SU, et al. Recombinant vaccine against hepatitis E: dose response and protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccine 1997;15:1834–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamili, S. Toward the development of a hepatitis E vaccine. Virus Res 2011;161:93100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alric, L, Bonnet, D, Laurent, G, et al. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection: successful virologic response to pegylated interferon-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:135–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamar, N, Rostaing, L, Abravanel, F, et al. Ribavirin therapy inhibits viral replication in patients with chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology 2010;139:1612–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis surveillance, United States, 2016. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2016. Available at: www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2016surveillance/pdfs/2016HepSurveillanceRpt.pdf [last accessed June 12, 2020].Google Scholar

References

Ganem, D, Prince, AM. Hepatitis B virus infection natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1118–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization Hepatitis B fact-sheets. www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b [last accessed June 15, 2020].Google Scholar
Tiollais, P, Pourcel, C, Dejean, A. The hepatitis B virus. Nature 1985;317:489–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nassal, M. Hepatitis B viruses: reverse transcription a different way. Virus Research 2008;134:235–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, HC, Chen, CC, Chang, WC, et al. Entry of hepatitis B virus into immortalized human primary hepatocytes by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. J Virol 2012;86(17):9443–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, JM, Purcell, R, Wieland, SF. The half-life of hepatitis B virons. Hepatology 2006;44:1117–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balistreri, WF. Viral hepatitis. Emerg Clin North Am 1991;9:365–99.Google Scholar
Hoofnagle, JH, DiBisceglie, AM. Serologic diagnosis of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis 1991;11:7383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andersson, KL, Raymond, T, Chung, RT. Monitoring during and after antiviral therapy for hepatitis B. Hepatology 2009;49:S166S173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McQuillan, GM, Coleman, PJ, Kruszon-Moran, D, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1976 through 1994. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89:48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, H, Kruszon-Moran, D, Ly, KN, et al. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in US households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–2012. Hepatology 2016;63(2):388–97.Google Scholar
Kim, HS, Rotundo, L, Yang, JD, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B virus infection and immunity in the United States. J Viral Hepat 2017;24:1052–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization Hepatitis B fact-sheets. www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b [last accessed June 15, 2020].Google Scholar
Hsu, HY Chang, MH, Chen, DS, et al. Baseline seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in children in Taipei, 1984: a study just before mass hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan. J Med Virol 1986;18:301–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemoine, M, Thursz, MR. Battle field against hepatitis B infection and HCC in Africa. J Hepatol 2017;66:645–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beasley, RP. Rocks along the road to the control of HBV and HCC. Ann Epidemiol 2009;19:231–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HY, Chang, MH, Hsieh, KH, et al. Cellular immune response to hepatitis B core antigen in maternal infant transmission of hepatitis B virus. Hepatology 1992;15:770–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, SD, Lo, KJ, Tsai, YT, et al. Role of caesarean section in prevention of mother-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1988;2:833–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Tang, JR, Hsu, HY, Lin, HH, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigenemia at birth: a long-term follow-up study. J Pediatr 1998;133:374–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mavilia, MG, Wu, GY. Mechanisms and prevention of vertical transmission in chronic viral hepatitis. J Clin Transl Hepatol 2017;5:119–29.Google ScholarPubMed
Beasley, RP, Stevens, CE, Shiao, IS, et al. Evidence against breast-feeding as a mechanism for vertical transmission of hepatitis B. Lancet 1975;2:740–1.Google ScholarPubMed
Gartner, LM, Morton, J, Lawrence, RA, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 2005;115:496506.Google ScholarPubMed
Bhaduri, BR, Mieli-Vergani, G.. Fulminant hepatic failure: pediatric aspects. Semin Liver Dis 1996;16:349–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, Lee, CY, Chen, DS, et al. Fulminant hepatitis in children in Taiwan: the important role of hepatitis B virus. J Pediatr 1987;111:34–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HY, Chang, MH, Lee, CY, et al. Pre-core mutant of hepatitis B virus in childhood fulminant hepatitis B: an infrequent association. J Infect Dis 1995;171:776–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, MH, Hsu, HY, Hsu, HC, et al. The significance of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in childhood: with special emphasis on the clearance of HBeAg before three years of age. Hepatology 1995;22:1387–92.Google Scholar
Chu, CM, Karayiannis, P, Fowler, MJ, et al. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan: studies of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum. Hepatology 1985;5:431–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, Hwang, LY, Hsu, HC, et al. Prospective study of asymptomatic HBsAg carrier children infected in the perinatal period: clinical and liver histologic studies. Hepatology 1988;8:374–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Cadrobbi, M, Crivellaro, C, et al. Long-term outcome of chronic type B hepatitis in patients who acquire hepatitis B virus in infection in childhood. Gastroenterology 1990;99:805–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, Sung, JL, Lee, CY, et al. Factors affecting the clearance of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B surface antigen carrier children. J Pediatr 1989;115:385–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, JF, Su, YR, Chen, CH, et al. Predictive effect of serial serum alanine aminotransferase levels on spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in chronic genotype B and C HBV-infected children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2012;54:97100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ni, YH, Chang, MH, Chen, PJ, et al. Viremia profiles in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and spontaneous e antigen seroconversion. Gastroenterology 2007;132:2340–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Guido, M, Bartolacci, S, et al. Chronic hepatitis B in children after e antigen seroclearance: final report of a 29-year longitudinal study. Hepatology 2006;43:556–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Wirth, S, Crivellaro, C, et al. Long-term persistence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the serum of children with chronic hepatitis B after hepatitis B e antigen to antibody seroconversion. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1996;22:270–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, JF, Chiu, YC, Chang, KC, et al. Predictors of hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis in chronic hepatitis B infected patients from childhood to adulthood. Hepatology 2016;63:7482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liaw, YF. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and long-term outcome under treatment. Liver International 2009;29(S1):100–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiu, YC, Liao, SF, Wu, JF, et al. Factors affecting the natural decay of hepatitis B surface antigen in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection during long-term follow-up. J Pediatr 2014;165:767–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chu, CM, Liaw, YF. HBsAg seroclearance in asymptomatic carriers of high endemic areas: appreciably high rates during a long-term follow-up. Hepatology 2007;45:1187–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, WL, Wu, JF, Ni, YH, et al. Occult hepatitis B virus and surface antigen mutant infection in healthy vaccinated cohorts and children with various forms of hepatitis and multiple transfusions. Liver Int 2019;39:1052–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HC, Lin, YH, Chang, MH, et al. Pathology of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children: with special reference to the intrahepatic expression of hepatitis B virus antigens. Hepatology 1988;8:378–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tseng, YR, Wu, JF, Ni, YH, et al. Long-term effect of maternal HBeAg on delayed HBeAg seroconversion in offspring with chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver Int 2011;31:1373–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, JF, Wu, TC, Chen, CH, et al. Serum levels of interleukin-12 predict early, spontaneous hepatitis B virus e antigen seroconversiston. Gastroenterology 2010;138:165–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, CL, Kao, JH. The clinical implications of hepatitis B virus genotype: recent advances. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;26(Suppl. 1):123–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ni, YH, Chang, MH, Wang, KJ, et al. Clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus genotype in children with chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;127:1733–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, CJ, Yang, HI, Iloeje, UH; REVEAL-HBV Study Group Hepatitis B virus DNA levels and outcomes in chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2009;49(Suppl. 5):S7284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, MH, Hsu, HY, Ni, YH, et al. Precore stop codon mutant in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children: its relation to hepatitis B e seroconversion and natural hepatitis B surface antigen. J Hepatol 1998;28:915–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ni, YH, Chang, MH, Hsu, HY, Tsuei, DJ. Longitudinal study on mutation profiles of core promoter and precore regions of the hepatitis B virus genome in children. Pediatr Res 2004;56:396–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ni, YH, Chang, MH, Hsu, HY, Tsuei, DJ. Different hepatitis B virus core gene mutations in children with chronic infection versus hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut 2003; 52:122–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonas, MM, Block, JM, Haber, BA, et al. Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options. Hepatology 2010;52:2192–205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Terrault, NA, Lok, ASF, McMahon, BJ, et al. Update of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology 2018;67:1560–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sokal, EM, Paganelli, M, Wirth, S, et al. Management of chronic hepatitis B in childhood: ESPGHAN clinical practice guidelines: consensus of an expert panel on behalf of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Hepatol 2013;59:814–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bisceglie, AM, Lok, AS, Martin, P, et al. Recent US Food and Drug Administration warnings on hepatitis B reactivation with immune-suppressing and anti-cancer drugs: just the tip of the iceberg? Hepatology 2015;61:703–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torre, D, Tambini, R. Interferon-a therapy for chronic hepatitis B in children: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:131–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sokal, EM, Conjeevaram, HS, Roberts, EA, et al. Interferon alfa therapy for chronic hepatitis B in children: a multinational randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1998;114:988–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Jara, P, Barbera, C, et al. Long term effect of alpha interferon in children with chronic hepatitis B. Gut 2000;46:715–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HY, Tsai, HY, Wu, TC, et al. Interferon-alpha treatment in children and young adults with chronic hepatitis B: a long-term follow-up study in Taiwan. Liver Int 2008;28:1288–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sokal, EM, Pagnelli, M, Wirth, S, et al. Management of chronic hepatitis B in childhood: ESPGHAN clinical practice guidelines. J Hepatol 2013;59:814–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wirth, S, Zhang, H, Hardikar, W, et al. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 KD) in children with chronic hepatitis B: the PEG-B-ACTIVE Study. Hepatology 2018;68:1681–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonas, M, Kelly, DA, Mizerski, J, et al. Clinical trial of lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1706–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sokal, EM, Kelly, DA, Badia, IB, et al. Long-term lamivudine therapy for children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006;43:225–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol 2012;57:167–85.Google Scholar
Jonas, MM, Kelly, D, Pollack, H, Mizerski, J, Sorbel, J, Frederick, D, Mondou, E, Rousseau, F, Sokal, E. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in children and adolescents (age 2 to <8 years) with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2008;47:1863–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonas, MM, Kelly, D, Pollack, H, et al. Efficacy and safety of long-term adfovir dipivoxil therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012;31:578–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, TT, Gish, RG, de Man, R, et al. A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-posiitve chronic hepatitis B.N Engl J Med 2006;354:1001–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lai, CL, Shouval, D, Lok, AS, et al. Entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBeAg-negative chronic Hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1011–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tenney, DJ, Rose, RE, Baldick, CJ, et al. Long-term monitoring shows hepatitis B virus resistance to entecavir in nucleoside-naïve patients is rare through 5 years of therapy. Hepatology 2009;49:1503–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jonas, MM, Chang, MH, Sokal, E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of entecavir vs placebo in children with hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2016;63:377–89.Google Scholar
Lai, CL, Gane, E, Liaw, YF, et al. Telbivudine versus lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2576–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seto, WK, Lai, CL, Fung, J, Wong, DK, Yuen, JC, Hung, IF, Yuen, MF. Significance of HBV DNA levels at 12 weeks of telbivudine treatment and the 3 years treatment outcome. J Hepatol 2011;55:522–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Han, GR, Cao, MK, Zhao, W, et al. A prospective and open-label study for the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in pregnancy for prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol 2011;55:1215–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcellin, P, Heathcote, EJ, Buti, M, et al. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus adefovir dipivoxil for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2442–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, Y, Corsa, AC, Buti, M, et al. No detectable resistance to tenofivir disoproxil fumarate in HBeAg+ and HBeAg- patients with chronic hepatitis B after 8 years of treatment. J Viral Hepat 2017;24:6874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, KF, Szenborn, L, Wysocki, J, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2012;56:2018–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D’Antiga, L, Aw, M, Atkins, M, et al. Combined lamivudine/interferon-alpha treatment in “immunotolerant” children perinatally infected with hepatitis B: a pilot study. J Pediatr 2006;148:228–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhu, S, Zhang, H, Dong, Y, et al. Antiviral therapy in hepatitis B virus-infected children with immune-tolerant characteristics: a pilot open-label randomized study. J Hepatol 2018;68:1123–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, P, Ling, SC, Belle, SH, et al. Combination of entecavir/peginterferon alfa-2a in children with HBeAg-positive immune tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 2019;69:2326–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertoletti, A, Bert, NL. Immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gut Liver 2018;12:497507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boni, C, Vecchi, A, Rossi, M, et al. TLR7 agonist increases responses of hepatitis B virus-specific T cells and natural killer cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues. Gastroenterology 2018;154:1764–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, C, Sastry, KS, Tiefenthaler, G, et al. Targeted delivery of interferon-alpha to hepatitis B virus-infected cells using T-cell receptor-like antibodies. Hepatology 2012;56:2027–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisicaro, P, Valdatta, C, Massari, M, et al. Antiviral intrahepatic T-cell responses can be restored by blocking programmed death-1 pathway in chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2010;138:682–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Serigado, JM, Izzy, M, Kalia, H. Novel therapies and potential therapeutic targets in the management of chronic hepatitis B. Europ J Gastro Hepatol 2017;29:987–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, HL, Lin, LH, Hu, FC, et al. Effects of maternal screening and universal immunization to prevent mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Gastroenterology 2012;142:773–81.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, DS, Hsu, NH, Sung, JL, et al. A mass vaccination program in Taiwan against hepatitis B virus infection in infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers. JAMA 1987;257:2597–603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacGregor, A. WHO: World Health Assembly. Lancet 1992;339(8804):1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization Hepatitis B fact-sheets. www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b [last accessed June 15, 2020].Google Scholar
Sagnelli, E, Sagnelli, C, Pisaturo, M, et al. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B and delta over the last 5 decades in Italy. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20(24):7635–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schillie, S, Vellozzi, C, Reingold, A, et al. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 2018;67(1):131.Google ScholarPubMed
Ni, YH, Chang, MH, Jan, CF, et al. Continuing decrease in hepatitis B virus infection 30 years after initiation of infant vaccination program in Taiwan. Clin Gastro Hepatol 2016;14:1324–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HY, Chang, MH, Ni, YH, et al. Universal infant immunization and occult hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents: a population-based study. Hepatology 2015;61:1183–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peto, TJ, Mendy, ME, Lowe, Y, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of infant vaccination against chronic hepatitis B in the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (1986–90) and in the nationwide immunization program. BMC Infect Dis 2014;14:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, HL, Chang, CJ, Kong, MS, et al. Fulminant hepatitis failure in children in endemic areas of hepatitis B virus infection: 15 years after universal hepatitis B vaccination. Hepatology 2004;39:5863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, Chen, CJ, Lai, MS, et al. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1855–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, You, SL, Chen, CJ, et al. Decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B vaccines: a 20-year follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:1348–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, MH, You, SL, Chen, CJ, et al. Long-term effect of hepatitis B vaccination of infants in preventing liver cancer. Gastroenterology 2016;151:472–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Su, WJ, Ho, MC, Ni, YH, et al. High-titer antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen before liver transplantation can prevent de novo hepatitis B infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009;48:203–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wen, WH, Chang, MH, Zhao, LL, et al. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: significance of maternal viral load and strategies for investigation. J Hepatol 2013;59:2430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, HL, Lee, CN, Chang, CH, et al. Efficacy of maternal tenofivir disoproxil fumarate in interrupting mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus. Hepatology 2015;62:375–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, CQ, Duan, Z, Dai, E, et al. Tenofovir to prevent hepatitis B virus transmission in mothers with high viral load. N Eng J Med 2016;374:2324–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, HY, Chang, MH, Ni, YH, et al. Chronologic changes in serum hepatitis virus DNA, genotypes, surface antigen mutants and transcriptase mutants during 25-year nationwide immunization in Taiwan. J Viral Hepat 2017;24:645–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thio, CL, Guo, N, Xie, C, et al. Global elimination of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B: revisiting the current strategies. Lancet Infect Dis 2015;15:981–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feret, E, Larouze, B, Diop, B, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in the rural community of Tip, Senegal. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125:140–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schweitzer, A, Horn, J, Mikolajczyk, RT, Krause, G, and Ott, JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet 2015;386:1546–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Mack, CL, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Gupta, N, Leung, D, Narkewicz, MR, Roberts, EA, Rosenthal, P, et al. NASPGHAN practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of hepatitis C infection in infants, children, and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2012;54:838–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bukh, J. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV): basic research reveals unique features in phylogeny, evolution and the viral life cycle with new perspectives for epidemic control. J Hepatol 2016;65:S2S21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartlett, C, Curd, A, Peckham, M, Harris, M. Visualisation and analysis of hepatitis C virus non-structural proteins using super-resolution microscopy. Sci Rep 2018;8:13604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pileri, P, Uematsu, Y, Campagnoli, S, Galli, G, Falugi, F, Petracca, R, Weiner, AJ, et al. Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81. Science 1998;282:938–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Urbanowicz, A, Zagozdzon, R, Ciszek, M. Modulation of the immune system in chronic hepatitis C and during antiviral interferon-free therapy. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2019;67(2):7988.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patra, T, Ray, RB, Ray, R. Strategies to circumvent host innate immune response by hepatitis C virus. Cells 2019;8(3):274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ciuffreda, D, Kim, AY. Update on hepatitis C virus-specific immunity. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2011;6:559–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heim, MH. Innate immunity and HCV. J Hepatol 2013;58:564–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolganiuc, A, Chang, S, Kodys, K, Mandrekar, P, Bakis, G, Cormier, M, Szabo, G. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein-induced, monocyte-mediated mechanisms of reduced IFN-alpha and plasmacytoid dendritic cell loss in chronic HCV infection. J Immunol 2006;177:6758–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiina, M, Rehermann, B. Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus impairs plasmacytoid dendritic cell function. Hepatology 2008;47:385–95.Google ScholarPubMed
Tseng, CT, Klimpel, GR. Binding of the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 to CD81 inhibits natural killer cell functions. J Exp Med 2002;195:43–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ali, OS, Abo-Shadi, MA, Hammad, LN. The biological significance of serum complements C3 and C4 in HCV-related chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Egypt J Immunol 2005;12:91–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Dumestre-Perard, C, Ponard, D, Drouet, C, Leroy, V, Zarski, JP, Dutertre, N, Colomb, MG. Complement C4 monitoring in the follow-up of chronic hepatitis C treatment. Clin Exp Immunol 2002;127:131–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazumdar, B, Kim, H, Meyer, K, Bose, SK, Di Bisceglie, AM, Ray, RB, Diamond, MS, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection upregulates CD55 expression on the hepatocyte surface and promotes association with virus particles. J Virol 2013;87:7902–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gower, E, Estes, C, Blach, S, Razavi-Shearer, K, Razavi, H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 2014;61:S4557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El-Shabrawi, MH, Kamal, NM. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:7880–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado-Borrego, A, Smith, L, Jonas, MM, Hall, CA, Negre, B, Jordan, SH, Ogrodowicz, M, et al. Expected and actual case ascertainment and treatment rates for children infected with hepatitis C in Florida and the United States: epidemiologic evidence from statewide and nationwide surveys. J Pediatr 2012;161:915–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raynes-Greenow, C, Polis, S, Elliott, E, Hardikar, W, Kesson, A, Kaldor, J, Jones, CA. Childhood hepatitis C virus infection: an Australian national surveillance study of incident cases over five years. J Paediatr Child Health 2015;51:1115–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Razavi, H, Elkhoury, AC, Elbasha, E, Estes, C, Pasini, K, Poynard, T, Kumar, R. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden and cost in the United States. Hepatology 2013;57:2164–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuiken, C, Simmonds, P. Nomenclature and numbering of the hepatitis C virus. Methods Mol Biol 2009;510:3353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liakina, V, Hamid, S, Tanaka, J, Olafsson, S, Sharara, AI, Alavian, SM, Gheorghe, L, et al. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries – volume 3. J Viral Hepat 2015;22( Suppl 4):420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowe, NJ, Rizk, D, Grimes, P, Billips, M, Pincus, S. Azelaic acid 20% cream in the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients. Clin Ther 1998;20:945–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwarz, KB, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Murray, KF, Molleston, JP, Haber, BA, Jonas, MM, Rosenthal, P, et al. The combination of ribavirin and peginterferon is superior to peginterferon and placebo for children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2011;140:450–8 e451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prevention CfDCa. Viral hepatitis statistics and surveillance. 2013.Google Scholar
Lalloum, F, Souied, EH, Bastuji-Garin, S, Puche, N, Querques, G, Glacet-Bernard, A, Coscas, G, et al. Intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization complicating pathologic myopia. Retina 2010;30:399406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benova, L, Mohamoud, YA, Calvert, C, Abu-Raddad, LJ. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:765–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dal Molin, G, D’Agaro, P, Ansaldi, F, Ciana, G, Fertz, C, Alberico, S, Campello, C. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: rate of infection and assessment of viral load and IgM anti-HCV as risk factors. J Med Virol 2002;67:137–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
European Paediatric Hepatitis CVN. A significant sex–but not elective cesarean section–effect on mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection.J Infect Dis 2005;192:1872–9.Google Scholar
Mast, EE, Hwang, LY, Seto, DS, Nolte, FS, Nainan, OV, Wurtzel, H, Alter, MJ. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the natural history of HCV infection acquired in infancy. J Infect Dis 2005;192:1880–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wen, JW, Haber, BA. Maternal-fetal transmission of hepatitis C infection: what is so special about babies? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58:278–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcia-Tejedor, A, Maiques-Montesinos, V, Diago-Almela, VJ, Pereda-Perez, A, Alberola-Cunat, V, Lopez-Hontangas, JL, Perales-Puchalt, A, et al. Risk factors for vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: a single center experience with 710 HCV-infected mothers. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2015;194:173–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conte, D, Fraquelli, M, Prati, D, Colucci, A, Minola, E. Prevalence and clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and rate of HCV vertical transmission in a cohort of 15,250 pregnant women. Hepatology 2000;31:751–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Resti, M, Azzari, C, Mannelli, F, Moriondo, M, Novembre, E, de Martino, M, Vierucci, A. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: prospective study of risk factors and timing of infection in children born to women seronegative for HIV-1. Tuscany Study Group on Hepatitis C Virus Infection. BMJ 1998;317:437–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fauteux-Daniel, S, Larouche, A, Calderon, V, Boulais, J, Beland, C, Ransy, DG, Boucher, M, et al. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: variable transmission bottleneck and evidence of midgestation in utero infection. J Virol 2017;91(23):e01372–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suryaprasad, AG, White, JZ, Xu, F, Eichler, BA, Hamilton, J, Patel, A, Hamdounia, SB, et al. Emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infections among young nonurban persons who inject drugs in the United States, 2006–2012. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:1411–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuncio, DE, Newbern, EC, Johnson, CC, Viner, KM. Failure to test and identify perinatally infected children born to hepatitis C virus-infected women. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:980–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chappell, CA, Hillier, SL, Crowe, D, Meyn, LA, Bogen, DL, Krans, EE. Hepatitis C virus screening among children exposed during pregnancy. Pediatrics 2018;141(6):e20173273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 86: Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:941–56.Google Scholar
Kanninen, TT, Dieterich, D, Asciutti, S. HCV vertical transmission in pregnancy: new horizons in the era of DAAs. Hepatology 2015;62:1656–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Selvapatt, N, Ward, T, Bailey, H, Bennett, H, Thorne, C, See, LM, Tudor-Williams, G, et al. Is antenatal screening for hepatitis C virus cost-effective? A decade’s experience at a London centre. J Hepatol 2015;63:797804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tasillo, A, Eftekhari Yazdi, G, Nolen, S, Schillie, S, Vellozzi, C, Epstein, R, Randall, L, et al. Short-term effects and long-term cost-effectiveness of universal hepatitis C testing in prenatal care. Obstet Gynecol 2019;133:289300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C virus infection among adolescents and young adults: Massachusetts, 2002–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60:537–41.Google Scholar
Zibbell, JE, Iqbal, K, Patel, RC, Suryaprasad, A, Sanders, KJ, Moore-Moravian, L, Serrecchia, J, et al. Increases in hepatitis C virus infection related to injection drug use among persons aged <30 years – Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, 2006–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:453–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Barritt, ASt, Lee, B, Runge, T, Schmidt, M, Jhaveri, R. Increasing prevalence of hepatitis C among hospitalized children is associated with an increase in substance abuse. J Pediatr 2018;192:159–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abutaleb, A, Sherman, KE. A changing paradigm: management and treatment of the HCV/HIV-co-infected patient. Hepatol Int 2018;12:500–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mallet, V, Vallet-Pichard, A, Pol, S. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on viral hepatitis. Liver Int 2011;31(Suppl 1):135–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Bartolini, E, Serranti, D, Azzari, C, Resti, M. Hepatitis C in children co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015;61:393–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ciotti, M, D’Agostini, C, Marrone, A. Advances in the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology Res 2013;6:161–70.Google ScholarPubMed
de Leuw, P, Sarrazin, C, Zeuzem, S. How to use virological tools for the optimal management of chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int 2011;31(Suppl 1):312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polywka, S, Pembrey, L, Tovo, PA, Newell, ML. Accuracy of HCV-RNA PCR tests for diagnosis or exclusion of vertically acquired HCV infection. J Med Virol 2006;78:305–10.Google ScholarPubMed
Easterbrook, PJ, Group WHOGD. Who to test and how to test for chronic hepatitis C infection – 2016 WHO testing guidance for low- and middle-income countries. J Hepatol 2016;65:S4666.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jonas, MM, Baron, MJ, Bresee, JS, Schneider, LC. Clinical and virologic features of hepatitis C virus infection associated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pediatrics 1996;98:211–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Squires, RH Jr., Shneider, BL, Bucuvalas, J, Alonso, E, Sokol, RJ, Narkewicz, MR, Dhawan, A, et al. Acute liver failure in children: the first 348 patients in the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group. J Pediatr 2006;148:652–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El-Guindi, MA. Hepatitis C viral infection in children: updated review. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2016;19:8395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santantonio, T, Sinisi, E, Guastadisegni, A, Casalino, C, Mazzola, M, Gentile, A, Leandro, G, et al. Natural course of acute hepatitis C: a long-term prospective study. Dig Liver Dis 2003;35:104–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santantonio, T, Wiegand, J, Gerlach, JT. Acute hepatitis C: current status and remaining challenges. J Hepatol 2008;49:625–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narkewicz, MR, Horslen, S, Hardison, RM, Shneider, BL, Rodriguez-Baez, N, Alonso, EM, Ng, VL, et al. A learning collaborative approach increases specificity of diagnosis of acute liver failure in pediatric patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018;16:1801–10 e1803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davison, SM, Mieli-Vergani, G, Sira, J, Kelly, DA. Perinatal hepatitis C virus infection: diagnosis and management. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:781–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mohan, N, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Fujisawa, T, Chang, MH, Heller, S, Jara, P, Kelly, D, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2010;50:123–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
European Paediatric Hepatitis CVN. Three broad modalities in the natural history of vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:4551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, ZD, Makhlouf, HR, Liu, L, Balistreri, W, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Haber, B, Jonas, MM, et al. Pathology of chronic hepatitis C in children: liver biopsy findings in the Peds-C Trial. Hepatology 2008;47:836–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turkova, A, Volynets, GV, Crichton, S, Skvortsova, TA, Panfilova, VN, Rogozina, NV, Khavkin, AI, et al. Advanced liver disease in Russian children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 2019;26(7):881–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mizuochi, T, Takano, T, Yanagi, T, Ushijima, K, Suzuki, M, Miyoshi, Y, Ito, Y, et al. Epidemiologic features of 348 children with hepatitis C virus infection over a 30-year period: a nationwide survey in Japan. J Gastroenterol 2018;53:419–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squires, JE, Balistreri, WF. Hepatitis C virus infection in children and adolescents. Hepatol Commun 2017;1:8798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bunchorntavakul, C, Jones, LM, Kikuchi, M, Valiga, ME, Kaplan, DE, Nunes, FA, Aytaman, A, et al. Distinct features in natural history and outcomes of acute hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol 2015;49:e3140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeung, LT, To, T, King, SM, Roberts, EA. Spontaneous clearance of childhood hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat 2007;14:797805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loomba, R, Rivera, MM, McBurney, R, Park, Y, Haynes-Williams, V, Rehermann, B, Alter, HJ, et al. The natural history of acute hepatitis C: clinical presentation, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011;33:559–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maheshwari, A, Ray, S, Thuluvath, PJ. Acute hepatitis C. Lancet 2008;372:321–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Resti, M, Bortolotti, F, Vajro, P, Maggiore, G. The Committee of Hepatology of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Guidelines for the screening and follow-up of infants born to anti-HCV positive mothers. Dig Liver Dis 2003;35:453–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, DL, Astemborski, J, Rai, RM, Anania, FA, Schaeffer, M, Galai, N, Nolt, K, et al. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 2000;284:450–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Villano, SA, Vlahov, D, Nelson, KE, Cohn, S, Thomas, DL. Persistence of viremia and the importance of long-term follow-up after acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 1999;29:908–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, CC, Krantz, E, Klarquist, J, Krows, M, McBride, L, Scott, EP, Shaw-Stiffel, T, et al. Acute hepatitis C in a contemporary US cohort: modes of acquisition and factors influencing viral clearance. J Infect Dis 2007;196:1474–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Indolfi, G, Mangone, G, Bartolini, E, Moriondo, M, Azzari, C, Resti, M. Hepatitis C viraemia after apparent spontaneous clearance in a vertically infected child. Lancet 2016;387:1967–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iorio, R, Giannattasio, A, Sepe, A, Terracciano, LM, Vecchione, R, Vegnente, A. Chronic hepatitis C in childhood: an 18-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1431–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheiko, MA, Golden-Mason, L, Giugliano, S, Hurtado, CW, Mack, CL, Narkewicz, MR, Rosen, HR. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation in children with hepatitis C. J Pediatr 2016;170:142–8 e141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garazzino, S, Calitri, C, Versace, A, Alfarano, A, Scolfaro, C, Bertaina, C, Vatrano, S, et al. Natural history of vertically acquired HCV infection and associated autoimmune phenomena. Eur J Pediatr 2014;173:1025–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tovo, PA, Calitri, C, Scolfaro, C, Gabiano, C, Garazzino, S. Vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection: correlates of transmission and disease progression. World J Gastroenterol 2016;22:1382–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arafa, N, El Hoseiny, M, Rekacewicz, C, Bakr, I, El-Kafrawy, S, El Daly, M, Aoun, S, et al. Changing pattern of hepatitis C virus spread in rural areas of Egypt. J Hepatol 2005;43:418–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farmand, S, Wirth, S, Loffler, H, Woltering, T, Kenzel, S, Lainka, E, Henneke, P. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in vertically infected children. Eur J Pediatr 2012;171:253–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Serra, MA, Escudero, A, Rodriguez, F, del Olmo, JA, Rodrigo, JM. Effect of hepatitis C virus infection and abstinence from alcohol on survival in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003;36:170–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearlman, BL, Traub, N. Sustained virologic response to antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a cure and so much more. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:889900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Mangone, G, Bartolini, E, Nebbia, G, Calvo, PL, Moriondo, M, Tovo, PA, et al. Comparative analysis of rs12979860 SNP of the IFNL3 gene in children with hepatitis C and ethnic matched controls using 1000 Genomes Project data. PLoS One 2014;9:e85899.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Mangone, G, Calvo, PL, Bartolini, E, Regoli, M, Serranti, D, Calitri, C, et al. Interleukin 28B rs12979860 single-nucleotide polymorphism predicts spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58:666–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruiz-Extremera, A, Pavon-Castillero, EJ, Florido, M, Munoz de Rueda, P, Munoz-Gamez, JA, Casado, J, Carazo, A, et al. Influence of HLA class I, HLA class II and KIRs on vertical transmission and chronicity of hepatitis C virus in children. PLoS One 2017;12:e0172527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nafady, A, Nafady-Hego, H, Abdelwahab, NM, Eltellawy, RHN, Abu Faddan, NH. Peripheral lymphocytes analyses in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Eur J Clin Invest 2018;48:e13004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Verucchi, G, Camma, C, Cabibbo, G, Zancan, L, Indolfi, G, Giacchino, R, et al. Long-term course of chronic hepatitis C in children: from viral clearance to end-stage liver disease. Gastroenterology 2008;134:1900–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jonas, MM. Children with hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S173–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Lee, CK, Jonas, MM. Hepatitis C: issues in children. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2015;44:901–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zein, NN. Hepatitis C in children: recent advances. Curr Opin Pediatr 2007;19:570–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Casiraghi, MA, De Paschale, M, Romano, L, Biffi, R, Assi, A, Binelli, G, Zanetti, AR. Long-term outcome (35 years) of hepatitis C after acquisition of infection through mini transfusions of blood given at birth. Hepatology 2004;39:90–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Modin, L, Arshad, A, Wilkes, B, Benselin, J, Lloyd, C, Irving, WL, Kelly, DA. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection among children and young people. J Hepatol 2019;70:371–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birnbaum, AH, Shneider, BL, Moy, L. Hepatitis C in children. N Engl J Med 2000;342:290–1.Google ScholarPubMed
Guido, M, Bortolotti, F, Leandro, G, Jara, P, Hierro, L, Larrauri, J, Barbera, C, et al. Fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C acquired in infancy: is it only a matter of time? Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:660–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsuoka, S, Tatara, K, Hayabuchi, Y, Taguchi, Y, Mori, K, Honda, H, Itou, S, et al. Serologic, virologic, and histologic characteristics of chronic phase hepatitis C virus disease in children infected by transfusion. Pediatrics 1994;94:919–22.Google ScholarPubMed
Minola, E, Prati, D, Suter, F, Maggiolo, F, Caprioli, F, Sonzogni, A, Fraquelli, M, et al. Age at infection affects the long-term outcome of transfusion-associated chronic hepatitis C. Blood 2002;99:4588–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stallings-Smith, S, Krull, KR, Brinkman, TM, Hudson, MM, Ojha, RP. Long-term follow-up for incident cirrhosis among pediatric cancer survivors with hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Virol 2015;71:1821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maasoumy, B, Wiegand, SB, Jaroszewicz, J, Bremer, B, Lehmann, P, Deterding, K, Taranta, A, et al. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D. Clin Microbiol Infect 2015;21:606 e601610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cesaro, S, Bortolotti, F, Petris, MG, Brugiolo, A, Guido, M, Carli, M. An updated follow-up of chronic hepatitis C after three decades of observation in pediatric patients cured of malignancy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55:108–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dyal, HK, Aguilar, M, Bhuket, T, Liu, B, Holt, EW, Torres, S, Cheung, R, et al. Concurrent obesity, diabetes, and steatosis increase risk of advanced fibrosis among HCV patients: a systematic review. Dig Dis Sci 2015;60:2813–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beech, BM, Myers, L, Beech, DJ. Hepatitis B and C infections among homeless adolescents. Fam Community Health 2002;25:2836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, KF, Richardson, LP, Morishima, C, Owens, JW, Gretch, DR. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and risk factors in an incarcerated juvenile population: a pilot study. Pediatrics 2003;111:153–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Page, K, Hahn, JA, Evans, J, Shiboski, S, Lum, P, Delwart, E, Tobler, L, et al. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injection drug users: a prospective study of incident infection, resolution, and reinfection. J Infect Dis 2009;200:1216–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wise, M, Finelli, L, Sorvillo, F. Prognostic factors associated with hepatitis C disease: a case-control study utilizing U.S. multiple-cause-of-death data. Public Health Rep 2010;125:414–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anon. Hepatitis C: global ambition, national realities. Lancet 2016;387:1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Langham, MR Jr., Andres, JM, Mohan, P, Colombani, PM, Alford, MK, Schwarz, KB. Hepatocellular carcinoma in 2 young adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009;48:630–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jara, P, Resti, M, Hierro, L, Giacchino, R, Barbera, C, Zancan, L, Crivellaro, C, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in childhood: clinical patterns and evolution in 224 white children. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:275–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rumbo, C, Fawaz, RL, Emre, SH, Suchy, FJ, Kerkar, N, Morotti, RA, Shneider, BL. Hepatitis C in children: a quaternary referral center perspective. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006;43:209–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badizadegan, K, Jonas, MM, Ott, MJ, Nelson, SP, Perez-Atayde, AR. Histopathology of the liver in children with chronic hepatitis C viral infection. Hepatology 1998;28:1416–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cacoub, P, Buggisch, P, Carrion, JA, Cooke, GS, Zignego, AL, Beckerman, R, Younossi, Z. Direct medical costs associated with the extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection in Europe. J Viral Hepat 2018;25:811–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Younossi, Z, Park, H, Henry, L, Adeyemi, A, Stepanova, M. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C: a meta-analysis of prevalence, quality of life, and economic burden. Gastroenterology 2016;150:15991608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zignego, AL, Ferri, C, Pileri, SA, Caini, P, Bianchi, FB. Italian Association of the Study of Liver Commission on Extrahepatic Manifestations of HCVi. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection: a general overview and guidelines for a clinical approach. Dig Liver Dis 2007;39:217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsumoto, S, Nakajima, S, Nakamura, K, Etani, Y, Hirai, H, Shimizu, N, Yokoyama, H, et al. Interferon treatment on glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus. Pediatr Nephrol 2000;15:271–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romas, E, Power, DA, Machet, D, Powell, H, d’Apice, AJ. Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection in an adolescent. Pathology 1994;26:399402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugiura, T, Yamada, T, Kimpara, Y, Fujita, N, Goto, K, Koyama, N. Effects of pegylated interferon alpha-2a on hepatitis-C-virus-associated glomerulonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 2009;24:199202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gehring, S, Kullmer, U, Koeppelmann, S, Gerner, P, Wintermeyer, P, Wirth, S. Prevalence of autoantibodies and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with interferon-alpha. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:5787–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Bartolini, E, Olivito, B, Azzari, C, Resti, M. Autoimmunity and extrahepatic manifestations in treatment-naive children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Dev Immunol 2012;2012:785627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Stagi, S, Bartolini, E, Salti, R, de Martino, M, Azzari, C, Resti, M. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid autoantibodies in untreated children with vertically acquired chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;68:117–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolotti, F, Vajro, P, Balli, F, Giacchino, R, Crivellaro, C, Barbera, C, Cataleta, M, et al. Non-organ specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1996;25:614–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregorio, GV, Pensati, P, Iorio, R, Vegnente, A, Mieli-Vergani, G, Vergani, D. Autoantibody prevalence in children with liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Clin Exp Immunol 1998;112:471–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muratori, P, Muratori, L, Verucchi, G, Attard, L, Bianchi, FB, Lenzi, M. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C: clinical significance and impact on interferon treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:1320–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Bogdanos, DP, Mieli-Vergani, G, Vergani, D. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in hepatitis C virus infection: do they matter? Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:508–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado-Borrego, A, Jordan, SH, Negre, B, Healey, D, Lin, W, Kamegaya, Y, Christofi, M, et al. Reduction of insulin resistance with effective clearance of hepatitis C infection: results from the HALT-C trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;8:458–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akhter, A, Said, A. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2015;17:452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nydegger, A, Srivastava, A, Wake, M, Smith, AL, Hardikar, W. Health-related quality of life in children with hepatitis C acquired in the first year of life. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:226–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodrigue, JR, Balistreri, W, Haber, B, Jonas, MM, Mohan, P, Molleston, JP, Murray, KF, et al. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on children and their caregivers: quality of life, cognitive, and emotional outcomes. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009;48:341–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boerekamps, A, De Weggheleire, A, van den Berk, GE, Lauw, FN, Claassen, MAA, Posthouwer, D, Bierman, WF, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4 with 8 weeks of grazoprevir plus elbasvir (DAHHS2): an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 3b trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;4:269–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Misra, S, Dieterich, DT, Saberi, B, Kushner, T. Direct-acting antiviral treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018;16:599610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rehermann, B. HCV in 2015: advances in hepatitis C research and treatment. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;13:70–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kwo, PY, Mantry, PS, Coakley, E, Te, HS, Vargas, HE, Brown, R Jr., Gordon, F, et al. An interferon-free antiviral regimen for HCV after liver transplantation. N Engl J Med 2014;371:2375–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawitz, E, Gane, E, Pearlman, B, Tam, E, Ghesquiere, W, Guyader, D, Alric, L, et al. Efficacy and safety of 12 weeks versus 18 weeks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in previously untreated patients with cirrhosis and patients with previous null response with or without cirrhosis (C-WORTHY): a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet 2015;385:1075–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poordad, F, Hezode, C, Trinh, R, Kowdley, KV, Zeuzem, S, Agarwal, K, Shiffman, ML, et al. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1973–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sulkowski, M, Hezode, C, Gerstoft, J, Vierling, JM, Mallolas, J, Pol, S, Kugelmas, M, et al. Efficacy and safety of 8 weeks versus 12 weeks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 mono-infection and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection (C-WORTHY): a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet 2015;385:1087–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeuzem, S, Jacobson, IM, Baykal, T, Marinho, RT, Poordad, F, Bourliere, M, Sulkowski, MS, et al. Retreatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1604–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abdel-Hady, M, Bansal, S, Davison, SM, Brown, M, Tizzard, SA, Mulla, S, Barnes, E, et al. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis C in children and adolescents: UK experience. Arch Dis Child 2014;99:505–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Afdhal, N, Zeuzem, S, Kwo, P, Chojkier, M, Gitlin, N, Puoti, M, Romero-Gomez, M, et al. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1889–98.Google ScholarPubMed
Curry, MP, O’Leary, JG, Bzowej, N, Muir, AJ, Korenblat, KM, Fenkel, JM, Reddy, KR, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2618–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Druyts, E, Thorlund, K, Wu, P, Kanters, S, Yaya, S, Cooper, CL, Mills, EJ. Efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2013;56:961–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feld, JJ, Jacobson, IM, Hezode, C, Asselah, T, Ruane, PJ, Gruener, N, Abergel, A, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 infection. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2599–607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, GR, Afdhal, N, Roberts, SK, Brau, N, Gane, EJ, Pianko, S, Lawitz, E, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV genotype 2 and 3 infection. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2608–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gane, EJ, Stedman, CA, Hyland, RH, Ding, X, Svarovskaia, E, Symonds, WT, Hindes, RG, et al. Nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 2013;368:3444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jara, P, Hierro, L, de la Vega, A, Diaz, C, Camarena, C, Frauca, E, Minos-Bartolo, G, et al. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon-alpha2b and ribavirin combination therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008;27:142–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Lawitz, E, Poordad, FF, Pang, PS, Hyland, RH, Ding, X, Mo, H, Symonds, WT, et al. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir fixed-dose combination with and without ribavirin in treatment-naive and previously treated patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection (LONESTAR): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2014;383:515–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pawlotsky, JM. New hepatitis C therapies: the toolbox, strategies, and challenges. Gastroenterology 2014;146:1176–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wirth, S, Ribes-Koninckx, C, Calzado, MA, Bortolotti, F, Zancan, L, Jara, P, Shelton, M, et al. High sustained virologic response rates in children with chronic hepatitis C receiving peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. J Hepatol 2010;52:501–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wisniewska-Ligier, M, Pawlowska, M, Pilarczyk, M, Halota, W, Wozniakowska-Gesicka, T. Efficacy of pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C virus (genotypes 1 and 4) infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013;57:694–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Kelly, DA, Haber, B, Molleston, J, Murray, KF, Jonas, MM, Shelton, M, et al. Interferon alfa-2b in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children: efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics. Hepatology 2005;42:1010–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sokal, EM, Bourgois, A, Stephenne, X, Silveira, T, Porta, G, Gardovska, D, Fischler, B, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in children and adolescents. J Hepatol 2010;52:827–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, M, Tajiri, H, Tanaka, Y, Takano, T, Miyoshi, Y, Murakami, J, Shimizu, T, et al. Peginterferon therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C: a nationwide, multicenter study in Japan, 2004–2013. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;63:8893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wirth, S, Lang, T, Gehring, S, Gerner, P. Recombinant alfa-interferon plus ribavirin therapy in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:1280–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wirth, S, Pieper-Boustani, H, Lang, T, Ballauff, A, Kullmer, U, Gerner, P, Wintermeyer, P, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin treatment in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005;41:1013–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jonas, MM, Balistreri, W, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Haber, B, Lobritto, S, Mohan, P, Molleston, JP, et al. Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial. Hepatology 2012;56:523–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jonas, MM, Schwarz, KB, Gonzalez-Peralta, R, Lobritto, S, Molleston, JP, Murray, KF, Rosenthal, P, et al. Long-term growth outcomes in children treated for chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr 2014;165:1252–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granot, E, Sokal, EM. Hepatitis C virus in children: deferring treatment in expectation of direct-acting antiviral agents. Isr Med Assoc J 2015;17:707–11.Google ScholarPubMed
Schwarz, KB, Molleston, JP, Jonas, MM, Wen, J, Murray, KF, Rosenthal, P, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, et al. Durability of response in children treated with pegylated interferon alfa [corrected] 2a +/- ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;62:93–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhong, YW, Zhang, HF, Shi, YM, Li, YL, Chu, F, Xu, ZQ, Chen, DW, et al. IL28B SNP rs12979860 is the critical predictor for sustained viral response in Chinese children aged 1 to 6 years with chronic hepatitis C. Int J Biol Sci 2016;12:1357–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhu, SS, Zeng, QL, Dong, Y, Xu, ZQ, Wang, LM, Chen, DW, Gan, Y, et al. Interferon-alpha plus ribavirin yields 98% sustained virologic response in children aged 1–5 years with iatrogenic chronic hepatitis C. Hepatol Int 2015;9:578–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balistreri, WF, Murray, KF, Rosenthal, P, Bansal, S, Chuan-Hao, L, Kersey, K, Massetto, B, et al. The safety and effectiveness of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents 12 to 17 years old with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Hepatology 2017;66(2):371–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wirth, S, Rosenthal, P, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Jonas, MM, Balistreri, WF, Lin, CH, Hardikar, W, et al. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in adolescents 12–17 years old with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 infection. Hepatology 2017;66:1102–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indolfi, G, Hierro, L, Dezsofi, A, Jahnel, J, Debray, D, Hadzic, N, Czubkowski, P, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in children: a position paper by the Hepatology Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018;66:505–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nguyen, J, Barritt, ASt, Jhaveri, R. Cost effectiveness of early treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy in adolescent patients with hepatitis C virus infection. J Pediatr 2019;207:90–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leung, DH, Squires, JE, Jhaveri, R, Kerkar, N, Lin, CH, Mohan, P, Murray, KF, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Roberts, EA, Sundaram, SS. Hepatitis C in 2020: A North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Sep;71(3):407–417.Google Scholar
The European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 2014;60:392420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panel, AIHG. Hepatitis C guidance: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating adults infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2015;62:932–54.Google Scholar
Poynard, T, Morra, R, Halfon, P, Castera, L, Ratziu, V, Imbert-Bismut, F, Naveau, S, et al. Meta-analyses of FibroTest diagnostic value in chronic liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol 2007;7:40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steadman, R, Myers, RP, Leggett, L, Lorenzetti, D, Noseworthy, T, Rose, S, Sutherland, L, et al. A health technology assessment of transient elastography in adult liver disease. Can J Gastroenterol 2013;27:149–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsochatzis, EA, Gurusamy, KS, Ntaoula, S, Cholongitas, E, Davidson, BR, Burroughs, AK. Elastography for the diagnosis of severity of fibrosis in chronic liver disease: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. J Hepatol 2011;54:650–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poynard, T, Moussalli, J, Munteanu, M, Thabut, D, Lebray, P, Rudler, M, Ngo, Y, et al. Slow regression of liver fibrosis presumed by repeated biomarkers after virological cure in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2013;59:675–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poynard, T, Munteanu, M, Deckmyn, O, Ngo, Y, Drane, F, Castille, JM, Housset, C, et al. Validation of liver fibrosis biomarker (FibroTest) for assessing liver fibrosis progression: proof of concept and first application in a large population. J Hepatol 2012;57:541–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poynard, T, Ngo, Y, Munteanu, M, Thabut, D, Massard, J, Moussalli, J, Varaud, A, et al. Biomarkers of liver injury for hepatitis clinical trials: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Antivir Ther 2010;15:617–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poynard, T, Vergniol, J, Ngo, Y, Foucher, J, Munteanu, M, Merrouche, W, Colombo, M, et al. Staging chronic hepatitis C in seven categories using fibrosis biomarker (FibroTest) and transient elastography (FibroScan(R)). J Hepatol 2014;60:706–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vergniol, J, Foucher, J, Terrebonne, E, Bernard, PH, le Bail, B, Merrouche, W, Couzigou, P, et al. Noninvasive tests for fibrosis and liver stiffness predict 5-year outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2011;140:1970–9, e1971–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, M, Bahirwani, R, Levine, MH, Malik, S, Goldberg, D, Reddy, KR, Shaked, A. Outcomes in pediatric hepatitis C transplant recipients: analysis of the UNOS database. Pediatr Transplant 2015;19:153–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, BD, Morgan, RL, Beckett, GA, Falck-Ytter, Y, Holtzman, D, Teo, CG, Jewett, A, et al. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945–1965. MMWR Recomm Rep 2012;61:132.Google ScholarPubMed
El-Kamary, SS, Serwint, JR, Joffe, A, Santosham, M, Duggan, AK. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in urban children. J Pediatr 2003;143:54–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trucchi, C, Orsi, A, Alicino, C, Sticchi, L, Icardi, G, Ansaldi, F. State of the art, unresolved issues, and future research directions in the fight against hepatitis C virus: perspectives for screening, diagnostics of resistances, and immunization. J Immunol Res 2016;2016:1412840.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snijdewind, IJ, Smit, C, Schutten, M, Nellen, FJ, Kroon, FP, Reiss, P, van der Ende, ME. Low mother-to-child-transmission rate of hepatitis C virus in cART treated HIV-1 infected mothers. J Clin Virol 2015;68:1115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, RS Jr., McMahon, BJ, Lok, AS, Wong, JB, Ahmed, AT, Mouchli, MA, Wang, Z, et al. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B viral infection during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology 2016;63:319–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moradpour, D, Grakoui, A, Manns, MP. Future landscape of hepatitis C research – basic, translational and clinical perspectives. J Hepatol 2016;65:S143–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pierce, BG, Keck, ZY, Lau, P, Fauvelle, C, Gowthaman, R, Baumert, TF, Fuerst, TR, et al. Global mapping of antibody recognition of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein: implications for vaccine design. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113(45):E6946–54..CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folgori, A, Capone, S, Ruggeri, L, Meola, A, Sporeno, E, Ercole, BB, Pezzanera, M, et al. A T-cell HCV vaccine eliciting effective immunity against heterologous virus challenge in chimpanzees. Nat Med 2006;12:190–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yokokawa, H, Higashino, A, Suzuki, S, Moriyama, M, Nakamura, N, Suzuki, T, Suzuki, R, et al. Induction of humoural and cellular immunity by immunisation with HCV particle vaccine in a non-human primate model. Gut 2018;67(2):372–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swadling, L, Capone, S, Antrobus, RD, Brown, A, Richardson, R, Newell, EW, Halliday, J, et al. A human vaccine strategy based on chimpanzee adenoviral and MVA vectors that primes, boosts, and sustains functional HCV-specific T cell memory. Sci Transl Med 2014;6:261ra153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graf Einsiedel, H, Christiansen, H, Wiegand, J. Eight weeks treatment with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir in a 4-year-old child with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016;35:1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hashmi, MA, Cheema, HA. Effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir in treatment-naive children with hepatitis C infection. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017;27:423–6.Google Scholar
Murray, KF, Balistreri, WF, Bansal, S, Whitworth, S, Evans, HM, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Wen, J, et al. Safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in children aged 6–11. Hepatology 2018;68:2158–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El-Karaksy, H, Mogahed, EA, Abdullatif, H, Ghobrial, C, El-Raziky, MS, El-Koofy, N, El-Shabrawi, M, et al. Sustained viral response in genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C virus-infected children and adolescents treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018;67:626–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leung, DH, Wirth, S, Yao, BB, Viani, RM, Gonzalez-Peralta, RP, Jonas, MM, Lobritto, SJ, et al. Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with or without dasabuvir and with or without ribavirin for adolescents with HCV genotype 1 or 4. Hepatol Commun 2018;2:1311–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alkaaby, BA, Al-Ethawi, AE. The effectiveness of oral antiviral (sofosbuvir/ledipasvir) in treating children with HCV infection. Pak J Med Sci 2018;34:1353–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Tucci, F, Calbi, V, Barzaghi, F, Migliavacca, M, Ferrua, F, Bernardo, ME, Canarutto, D, et al. Successful treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency with HCV allowed gene therapy with strimvelis. Hepatology 2018;68:2434–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
El-Shabrawi, MHF, Kamal, NM, El-Khayat, HR, Kamal, EM, Abdel Gawad, M, Yakoot, M. A pilot single arm observational study of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (200 + 45 mg) in 6- to 12-year old children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018;47:1699–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quintero, J, Juamperez, J, Julio, E, Cabello, V, Mercadal-Hally, M, Soler-Palacin, P, Segarra, O, et al. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination for chronic hepatitis C infection in children and adolescents. An Pediatr 2019;90:141–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Abdel Ghaffar, TY, El Naghi, S, Abdel Gawad, M, Helmy, S, Abdel Ghaffar, A, Yousef, M, Moafy, M. Safety and efficacy of combined sofosbuvir/daclatasvir treatment of children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. J Viral Hepat 2019;26:263–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fouad, HM, Ahmed Mohamed, A, Sabry, M, Abdel Aziz, H, Eysa, B, Rabea, M. The effectiveness of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in youth with genotype 4 hepatitis C virus: a single Egyptian center study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019;38:22–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sofosbuvir, and Ribavirin, Therapy for Children Aged 3 to <12 Years With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 or 3 Infection. Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Lin CH, Kelly DA, Nightingale S, Balistreri WF, Bansal S, Jonas MM, Massetto B, Brainard DM, Hsueh CH, Shao J, Parhy B, Davison S, Feiterna-Sperling C, Gillis LA, Indolfi G, Sokal EM, Murray KF, Wirth S.Hepatology. 2020 71(1):31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwarz, KB RP, Murray, KF, Honegger, JR, Hardikar, W, Hague, R, Mittal, N, Massetto, B, Brainard, D, Begley, R, Parhy, B, Shao, J, Narkewicz, MR, Rao, GS, Whitworth, S, Bansal, S, Balistreri, WB. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is safe and effective in children 3 to &lt;6 years old with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2020;71(2):422–30.Google Scholar
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, Kunz, R, Falck-Ytter, Y, Alonso-Coello, P, Schunemann, HJ, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336:924–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Mieli-Vergani, G, Vergani, D. Autoimmune hepatitis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;8(6):320–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whittingham, S, et al. Smooth muscle autoantibody in “autoimmune” hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1966;51(4):499505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Groote, J, et al. A classification of chronic hepatitis. Lancet 1968;2(7568):626–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Johnson, PJ, McFarlane, IG. Meeting report: International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Hepatology 1993;18(4):9981005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palle, SK, et al. Racial disparities in presentation and outcomes of paediatric autoimmune hepatitis. Liver Int 2019;39(5):976–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czaja, AJ. Global disparities and their implications in the occurrence and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci 2017;62(9):2277–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mieli-Vergani, G, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018;4:18017.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webb, GJ, et al. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of autoimmune hepatitis. Annu Rev Pathol 2018;13:247–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Longhi, MS, et al. Aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis. J Autoimmun 2010;34(1):714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Than, NN, Jeffery, HC, Oo, YH. Autoimmune hepatitis: progress from global immunosuppression to personalised regulatory T cell therapy. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;2016:7181685.Google ScholarPubMed
Mieli-Vergani, G, Vergani, D. Autoimmune hepatitis in children: what is different from adult AIH? Semin Liver Dis 2009;29(3):297306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Invernizzi, P, Lleo, A, Podda, M. Interpreting serological tests in diagnosing autoimmune liver diseases. Semin Liver Dis 2007;27(2):161–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czaja, AJ. Autoantibodies as prognostic markers in autoimmune liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 2010;55(8):2144–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karlsen, TH, Chung, BK. Genetic risk and the development of autoimmune liver disease. Dig Dis 2015;33(Suppl 2):1324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerkar, N. (2019). Autoimmune hepatitis in special populations: in pediatrics and across different ethnicities/races, in Clinical Liver Disease (pp. 3740). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Jaeckel, E, Hardtke-Wolenski, M, Fischer, K. The benefit of animal models for autoimmune hepatitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2011;25(6):643–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lapierre, P, et al. A murine model of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: xenoimmunization with human antigens. Hepatology 2004;39(4):1066–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, U, Hintermann, E. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune hepatitis: how much do we know from animal models? Int J Mol Sci 2016;17(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hennes, EM, et al. Simplified criteria for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2008;48(1):169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arcos-Machancoses, JV, et al. Accuracy of the simplified criteria for autoimmune hepatitis in children: systematic review and decision analysis. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2019;9(2):147–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czaja, AJ. Drug-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci 2011;56(4):958–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerkar, N, Miloh, T. Sclerosing cholangitis: pediatric perspective. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2010;12(3):195202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiler-Normann, C, Schramm, C. Drug-induced liver injury and its relationship to autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol 2011;55(4):747–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zen, Y, Yeh, MM. Hepatotoxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a histology study of seven cases in comparison with autoimmune hepatitis and idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Mod Pathol 2018;31(6):965–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mathis, D, Benoist, C. Aire. Annu Rev Immunol 2009;27:287312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, EG, Thrasher, AJ. Update on the hyper immunoglobulin M syndromes. Br J Haematol 2010;149(2):167–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, GC, Mulligan, R, Sherlock, S. Controlled prospective trial of corticosteroid therapy in active chronic hepatitis. Q J Med 1971;40(158):159–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rumbo, C, et al. Azathioprine metabolite measurements in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in pediatric patients: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002;35(3):391–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheiko, MA, et al. Outcomes in pediatric autoimmune hepatitis and significance of azathioprine metabolites. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017;65(1):80–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunkin, D, et al. Allopurinol salvage therapy in pediatric overlap autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis with 6-MMP toxicity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2010;51(4):524–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, DS, Flavin, DP, Kaplan, MM. The successful treatment of autoimmune hepatitis with 6-mercaptopurine after failure with azathioprine. Gastroenterology 1996;110(1):271–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregorio, GV, et al. Organ and non-organ specific autoantibody titres and IgG levels as markers of disease activity: a longitudinal study in childhood autoimmune liver disease. Autoimmunity 2002;35(8):515–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czaja, AJ, Manns, MP. Advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2010;139(1):5872 e4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lohse, AW, Gil, H. Reactivation of autoimmune hepatitis during budesonide monotherapy, and response to standard treatment. J Hepatol 2011;54(4):837–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manns, MP, et al. Budesonide induces remission more effectively than prednisone in a controlled trial of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2010;139(4):1198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woynarowski, M, et al. Budesonide versus prednisone with azathioprine for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 2013;163(5):1347–53 e1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zizzo, AN, et al. Second-line agents in pediatric patients with autoimmune hepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017;65(1):615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerkar, N. Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis: what do you do when first-line therapy fails? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017;65(1):24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson, PD, James, PD, Ryder, SD. Mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis in patients resistant to or intolerant of azathioprine. J Hepatol 2000;33(3):371–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aw, MM, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil as rescue treatment for autoimmune liver disease in children: a 5-year follow-up. J Hepatol 2009;51(1):156–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yu, ZJ, et al. Comparison of mycophenolate mofetil with standard treatment for autoimmune hepatitis: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;31(7):873–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, KE, Narkewicz, M, Pinto, PC. Cyclosporine in the management of corticosteroid-resistant type I autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J Hepatol 1994;21(6):1040–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyams, JS, Ballow, M, Leichtner, AM. Cyclosporine treatment of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1987;93(4):890–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Lemos-Bonotto, M, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of second-line immunosuppressants for autoimmune hepatitis treatment. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018;30(2):212–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanouneh, M, et al. A review of the utility of tacrolimus in the management of adults with autoimmune hepatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2019;54(1):7680.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlaka, JR, et al. Tacrolimus without or with the addition of conventional immunosuppressive treatment in juvenile autoimmune hepatitis. Acta Paediatr 2012;101(9):993–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Efe, C, et al. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as second-line therapies for pediatric patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci 2018;63(5):1348–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mieli-Vergani, G, et al. Diagnosis and management of pediatric autoimmune liver disease: ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee Position Statement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018;66(2):345–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuarterolo, ML, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy allows recovery from liver failure in children with autoimmune hepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;9(2):145–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rahim, MN, et al. Acute severe autoimmune hepatitis: corticosteroids or liver transplantation? Liver Transpl 2019;25(6):946–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ichai, P, et al. Usefulness of corticosteroids for the treatment of severe and fulminant forms of autoimmune hepatitis. Liver Transpl 2007;13(7):9961003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Giorgio, A, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure of autoimmune aetiology in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015;60(2):159–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greene, MT, Whitington, PF. Outcomes in pediatric autoimmune hepatitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2009;11(3):248–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montano-Loza, AJ, Carpenter, HA, Czaja, AJ. Improving the end point of corticosteroid therapy in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis to reduce the frequency of relapse. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102(5):1005–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Chalabi, T, et al. Impact of gender on the long-term outcome and survival of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol 2008;48(1):140–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radhakrishnan, KR, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis in children–impact of cirrhosis at presentation on natural history and long-term outcome. Dig Liver Dis 2010;42(10):724–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoman, AD, et al. Evaluation of risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis: implications for follow-up and screening. Hepatology 2008;48(3):863–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerkar, N, et al. De-novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Lancet 1998;351(9100):409–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demetris, AJ, et al. Comprehensive Update of the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology: Introduction of Antibody-Mediated Rejection. Am J Transplant 2016;16(10):2816–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerkar, N, Vergani, D. De novo autoimmune hepatitis: is this different in adults compared to children? J Autoimmun 2018;95:2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerkar, N, et al. Rapamycin successfully treats post-transplant autoimmune hepatitis. Am J Transplant 2005;5(5):1085–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Molodecky, NA, Kareemi, H, Parab, R, Barkema, HW, Quan, H, Myers, RP, et al. Incidence of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology 2011;53(5):1590–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanaka, A, Takikawa, H. Geoepidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a critical review. J Autoimmun 2013;46:3540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindkvist, B, Benito de Valle, M, Gullberg, B, Bjornsson, E. Incidence and prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis in a defined adult population in Sweden. Hepatology 2010;52(2):571–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Card, TR, Solaymani-Dodaran, M, West, J. Incidence and mortality of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the UK: a population-based cohort study. J Hepatol 2008;48(6):939–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Escorsell, A, Pares, A, Rodes, J, Solis-Herruzo, JA, Miras, M, de la Morena, E. Epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Spain. Spanish Association for the Study of the Liver. J Hepatol 1994;21(5):787–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, GG, Laupland, KB, Butzner, D, Urbanski, SJ, Lee, SS. The burden of large and small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis in adults and children: a population-based analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102(5):1042–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deneau, M, Jensen, MK, Holmen, J, Williams, MS, Book, LS, Guthery, SL. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and overlap in Utah children: epidemiology and natural history. Hepatology 2013;58(4):1392–400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deneau, MR, El-Matary, W, Valentino, PL, Abdou, R, Alqoaer, K, Amin, M, et al. The natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in 781 children: a multicenter, international collaboration. Hepatology 2017;66(2):518–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaya, M, Angulo, P, Lindor, KD. Overlap of autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis: an evaluation of a modified scoring system. J Hepatol 2000;33(4):537–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abdalian, R, Dhar, P, Jhaveri, K, Haider, M, Guindi, M, Heathcote, EJ. Prevalence of sclerosing cholangitis in adults with autoimmune hepatitis: evaluating the role of routine magnetic resonance imaging. Hepatology 2008;47(3):949–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregorio, GV, Portmann, B, Karani, J, Harrison, P, Donaldson, PT, Vergani, D, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome in childhood: a 16-year prospective study. Hepatology 2001;33(3):544–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergquist, A, Montgomery, SM, Bahmanyar, S, Olsson, R, Danielsson, A, Lindgren, S, et al. Increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis in first-degree relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6(8):939–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folseraas, T, Melum, E, Rausch, P, Juran, BD, Ellinghaus, E, Shiryaev, A, et al. Extended analysis of a genome-wide association study in primary sclerosing cholangitis detects multiple novel risk loci. J Hepatol 2012;57(2):366–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melum, E, Franke, A, Schramm, C, Weismuller, TJ, Gotthardt, DN, Offner, FA, et al. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies two non-HLA susceptibility loci. Nat Genet 2011;43(1):1719.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, JZ, Hov, JR, Folseraas, T, Ellinghaus, E, Rushbrook, SM, Doncheva, NT, et al. Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Nat Genet 2013;45(6):670–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellinghaus, D, Folseraas, T, Holm, K, Ellinghaus, E, Melum, E, Balschun, T, et al. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis identifies risk loci at GPR35 and TCF4. Hepatology 2013;58(3):1074–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed