Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-fv566 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-21T04:36:26.716Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Introduction

Empires and Their Space*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 January 2021

Yuri Pines
Affiliation:
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Michal Biran
Affiliation:
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jörg Rüpke
Affiliation:
Universität Erfurt, Germany
Get access

Summary

The Introduction to our volume starts by delineating changing attitudes towards the word “empire” in Western scholarship from the 20th to the 21st century. It then explains our concept of an empire as an entity with strongly pronounced aspirations to attain universal rule and with clear hegemonic position in its macro-region. We continue with a brief outline of the three waves of the empires’ formation in five Eurasian macro-regions (Near East, South Asia, Europe, East Asia, and the Inner Asian steppe belt). The second half of the Introduction deals with the factors that influenced spatial dimensions of Eurasian empires — from ideological and religious commitment to attaining universal rule to a variety of ecological, military, economic, and administrative considerations that prevented the empires’ leaders from realizing this goal. The multiplicity of these factors suffices to caution against any attempt to create a neat uniform scheme that would explain the empires’ expansion and contraction.

Type
Chapter
Information
The Limits of Universal Rule
Eurasian Empires Compared
, pp. 1 - 48
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alcock, Susan E., with D’Altroy, Terence N., Morrison, Kathleen D., and Sinopoli, Carla M.. 2001. Empires: Perspective from Archaeology and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Allsen, Thomas T. 2011. “Imperial Posts, West, East and North: A Review Article,” Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 17(1): 237–76.Google Scholar
Allsen, Thomas T. 2015. “Eurasia after the Mongols.” In The Cambridge World History. Volume 6, The Construction of a Global World, 1400–1800 CE, Part 1: Foundations, ed. Bentley, Jerry, Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, and Wiesner-Hanks, Merry E., 159–81. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ando, Clifford. 2018. “Empire as State: The Roman Case.” In: State Formations: Global Histories and Cultures of Statehood, ed. Brooke, John L., Strauss, Julia G., and Anderson, Greg, 175–89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Arnason, Johann P. 2015. “State formation and empire building.” In The Cambridge World History. Volume 5, Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500CE–1500CE, ed. Kedar, Benjamin and Wiesner-Hanks, Merry E.,483512. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bang, Peter Fibiger and Bayly, Christopher A, eds. 2011a. Tributary Empires in Global History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bang, Peter Fibiger and Bayly, Christopher A, 2011b. “Tributary Empires – Towards a Global and Comparative History.” In: Tributary Empires in Global History, ed. Bang, and Bayly, , 117. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bang, Peter Fibiger and Kolodziejczyk, Dariusz, eds. 2012. Universal Empire: A Comparative Approach to Imperial Culture and Representation in Eurasian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Barbieri-Low, Anthony J. and Robin, D.S. Yates. 2015. Law, State, and Society in Early Imperial China: A study with Critical Edition and Translation of the Legal Texts from Zhangjiashan Tomb no. 247. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Barfield, Thomas. 1989. The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Barkey, Karen. 2016. “The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923): The Bureuacratization of the Patrimonial Authority.” In: Empires and Bureaucracy in World History: From Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century, ed. Crooks, Peter and Parsons, Timothy H., 129–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bayly, Christopher A. 2011. “Religion, Liberalism and Empires: British Historians and their Indian Critics in the Nineteenth Century.” In: Tributary Empires in Global History, ed. Bang, Peter Fibiger and Bayly, Christopher A, 2147. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Berger, Stefan and Miller, Alexei 2015. “Introduction: Building Nations In and With Empires – A Reassessment.” In Nationalizing Empires, ed. Berger, Stefan and Miller, Alexei, 130. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
Biran, Michal. 2007. Chinggis Khan. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
Blanken, Leo J. 2012. Rational Empires: Institutional Incentives and Imperial Expansion. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonner, Michael. 2010. “The waning of empire, 861–945.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Robinson, Chase, 305–59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Braund, David. 1996. Ruling Roman Britain. Kings, Queens, Governors and Emperors from Julius Caesar to Agricola. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Briant, Pierre. 2002. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, trans. Daniels, Peter D.. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
Brooke, John L. 2014. Climate Change and the Course of Global History: A Rough Journey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick. 2010. The Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Calasso, Giovanna and Lancioni, Giuliano, eds. 2017. Dār al-islām, dār al-ḥarb: Territories, People, Identities. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calhoun, Craig, Cooper, Frederick, and Moore, Kevin W., eds. 2006. Lessons of Empire: Imperial Histories and American Power. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
Sanping, Chen, 1996. “Succession Struggle and the Ethnic Identity of the Tang Imperial House,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series) 6(3): 379405.Google Scholar
Cline, Eric H. and Graham, Mark W.. 2011. Ancient Empires: From Mesopotamia to the Rise of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wen-djang, Chu. 1966. The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China, 1862–1878: A Study of Government Minority Policy. Paris: The Hague.Google Scholar
Cobb, Paul. 2010. “The Empire in Syria, 705–763.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Robinson, Chase, 226–68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Corcoran, Simon. 2014. “State Correspondence in the Roman Empire: Imperial Communication from Augustus to Justinian.” In: State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom to the Roman Empire, ed. Radner, Karen, 172209. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Crooks, Peter and Parsons, Timothy H.. 2016a. Empires and Bureaucracy in World History: From Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Crooks, Peter and Parsons, Timothy H.. 2016b. “Empires, Bureaucracy, and the Paradox of Power.” In: Empires and Bureaucracy in World History: From Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century, ed. Crooks, and Parsons, , 328. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dagron, Gilbert. 2003. Emperor and Priest: The Imperial Office in Byzantium, trans. Birrell, Jean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Dai, Yingcong. 2009. The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Doyle, Michael W. 1986. Empires. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Denaro, Roberta. 2017. “Naming the Enemy’s Land: Definitions of dār al-ḥarb in Ibn al-Mubārak’s Kitāb al-Jihād.” In: Dār al-islām, dār al-ḥarb: Territories, People, Identities, ed. Calasso, Giovanna and Lancioni, Giuliano, 93107. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola and Maas, Michael. 2018. Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity: Rome, China, Iran, and the Steppe, ca. 250–750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cosmo, Di, Nicola, Amy Hessl, Leland, Caroline, Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa, Tian, Hanqin, Nachin, Baatarbileg, Pederson, Neil, Andreu-Hayles, Laia, and Cook, Edward R.. 2018. “Environmental Stress and Steppe Nomads: Rethinking the History of the Uyghur Empire (744–840) with Paleoclimate Data.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 48(4): 439–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drompp, Michael R. 1999. “Breaking the Orkhon Tradition: Kirghiz Adherence to the Yenisei Region after AD 840,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 119(3): 390403.Google Scholar
Drompp, Michael R. 2018. “The Kök Türk Empires.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia: Asian History. DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.52.Google Scholar
Düring, Bleda S., and Stek, Tesse D., eds. 2018. The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes: A Comparative Study of Empires in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. 1963. The Political System of Empires. London: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. and Shachar, Arie. 1987. Society, Culture, and Urbanization. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
Ellenblum, Ronnie. 2012. Collapse of the Eastern Mediterranean: Climate Change and the Decline of the East, 950–1072. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Elliott, Mark C. 2005. “Whose Empire Shall It Be? Manchu Figurations of Historical Process in the Early Seventeenth Century.” In: Time, Temporality, and Imperial Transition: East Asia from Ming to Qing, ed. Struve, Lynn A., 3172. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Fall, Juliet J. 2010. “Artificial States? On the Enduring Geographical Myth of Natural Borders.” Political Geography 29: 140–7.Google Scholar
Ferguson, Niall. 2004. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Finch, John. 1844. The Natural Boundaries of Empires: And a New View of Colonization. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Fowden, Garth. 1993. Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Fowden, Garth. 2012. “Pseudo-Aristotelian Politics and Theology in Universal Islam.” In: Universal Empire: A Comparative Approach to Imperial Culture and Representation in Eurasian History, ed. Bang, Peter Fibiger and Kolodziejczyk, Dariusz, 130–48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nobuyoshi, Fujinami. 2019. “Between Sovereignty and Suzerainty: History of the Ottoman Privileged Provinces.” In: A World History of Suzerainty: A Modern History of East and West Asia and Translated Concepts, ed. Tadashi, Okamoto, 4160. Tokyo: Toyo Bunko.Google Scholar
Garnsey, Peter D. A. and Whittaker, C. R.. 1978. Imperialism in the Ancient World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Geanakoplos, Deno J. 1965. “Church and State in the Byzantine Empire: A Reconsideration of the Problem of Caesaropapism.” Church History 34(4): 381403.Google Scholar
Geertz, Clifford. 1981. Negara: The Theatre State in 19th Century Bali. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gehler, Michael and Rollinger, Robert, eds. 2014. Imperien und Reiche in der Weltgeschichte. Epochenübergreifende und globalhistorische Vergleiche. Teil 1: Imperien des Altertums, Mittelalterliche und frühneuzeitliche Imperien. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Gillingham, John. 2016. “Bureaucracy, the English State and the Crisis of the Angevin Empire, 1199–1205.” In Empires and Bureaucracy in World History: From Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century, ed. Crooks, Peter and Parsons, Timothy H., 197220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golden, Peter B. 1982. “Imperial Ideology and the Sources of Political Unity amongst the pre-Činggisid Nomads of Western Eurasia.” Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 2: 3777.Google Scholar
Goldstone, Jack A. and Haldon, John F.. 2009. “Ancient States, Empires and Exploitation: Problems and Perspectives.” In The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, ed. Morris, Ian and Scheidel, Walter, 329. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Grüll, Tibor, 2017. “The Idea of World Empire in Ancient Rome.” Specimina Nova Universitatis Quinqueecclesiensis 24: 757.Google Scholar
Hämäläinen, Pekka. 2008. The Comanche Empire. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Harari, Yuval N. 2015. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
Haubold, Johannes. 2012. “The Achaemenid Empire and the Sea.” Mediterranean Historical Review 27(1): 524.Google Scholar
Hazard, Leland, 1965. “New World Factors and Old Empire.” In: Empire Revisited, by Leland Hazard, with contributions by Bernard Brodie, 120. Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
Hglin, Thomas O. 1982. “The Idea of Empire: Conditions for Integration and Disintegration in Europe.Publius 12(3): 1142.Google Scholar
Hopkins, Keith. 2009. “The Political Economy of the Roman Empire.” In: Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, ed. Scheidel, Walter and Morris, Ian, 178204. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Xudong, Hou. 2016. “The Helpless Emperor: The Expenditure on Official Hostel System and Its Institutional Change in the Late Former Han China.” World History Studies 3(2): 123.Google Scholar
Kagan, Kimberley. 2006. “Redefining Roman Grand Strategy.” The Journal of Military History 70(2): 333–62.Google Scholar
Kagan, Kimberly, ed. 2010. The Imperial Moment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Hugh. 2010. “The Late ʿAbbāsid pattern, 945–1050.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Robinson, Chase, 360–94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Hugh. 2016. Caliphate: The History of an Idea. New York: Basic books.Google Scholar
Khazanov, Anatoly M. 2015. “The Schitians and their Neighbors.” In Nomads as Agents of Cultural Change: The Mongols and Their Eurasian Predecessors, ed. Amitai, Reuven and Biran, Michal, 3249. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyun Jin, Vervaet, Frederik Juliaan, and Adalı, Selim Ferruh. 2017. Eurasian Empires in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Contact and Exchange between the Graeco-Roman World, Inner Asia and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Korolkov, Maxim. 2020. “Empire-Building and Market-Making at the Qin Frontier: Imperial Expansion and Economic Change, 221–207 BCE.” PhD dissertation, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
Kuhrt, Amélie. 2014. “State Communications in the Persian Empire.” In: State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom to the Roman Empire, ed. Radner, Karen, 112–40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kumar, Krishan. 2010. “Nation-states as Empires, Empires as Nation-states: Two Principles, One Practice?Theory and Society 39(2): 119–43.Google Scholar
Lavan, Myles, Payne, Richard E., and Weisweiler, John. 2016a. Cosmopolitanism and Empire: Universal Rulers, Local Elites, and Cultural Integration in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lavan, Myles, Payne, Richard E., and Weisweiler, John. 2016b. “Cosmopolitan Politics: The Assimilation and Subordination of Elite Cultures.” In: Cosmopolitanism and Empire: Universal Rulers, Local Elites, and Cultural Integration in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean, ed. Myles Lavan, et al., 128. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, Mark E. 2007. The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Yali, Li, Shelach, Gideon, and Ellenblum, Ronnie. 2019. “Short-Term Climatic Catastrophes and the Collapse of the Liao Dynasty (907–1125): Textual Evidence.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 49(4): 591610.Google Scholar
Liverani, Mario. 1979. “The Ideology of the Assyrian Empire,” in Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires, ed. Larsen, Mogens T., 297317. Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag.Google Scholar
Liverani, Mario. 2001. International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600–1100 BC. Houndmills: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Luttwak, Edward. 1976. Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire from the First Century A.D. to the Third. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Malešević, Siniša. 2017. “Empires and Nation-States: Beyond the Dichotomy.” Thesis Eleven 20: 18.Google Scholar
Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power. Volume I: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mann, Michael. 2003. Incoherent Empire. London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Martynov, Aleksandr S. 1987. “Конфуцианская утопия в древности и средневековье.” In: Китайские социальные утопии, ed. Deliusin, Lev P. and Borokh, L. N., 1057. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
Mattern, Susan P. 1999. Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
MacKenzie, John M., ed. 2016. The Encyclopedia of Empire. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
McCoy, Alfred W., Fradera, Josep M., and Jacobson, Stephen. 2012. Endless Empire: Spain’s Retreat, Europe’s Eclipse, America’s Decline. Madison, WI: Wisconsin University Press.Google Scholar
McNeill, John R.China’s Environmental History in World Perspective.” In Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History, ed. Elvin, Mark and Ts’ui-jung, Liu, 3149. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Miller, Harry. 2009. State versus Gentry in Late Ming Dynasty China, 1572–1644. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Millward, James. 1998. Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Morris, Ian and Scheidel, Walter, eds. 2009. The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Morkot, Robert. 2001. “Egypt and Nubia.” In: Empires: Perspective from Archaeology and History, ed. Susan E Alcock, Terence N. D’Altroy, Kathleen D. Morrison, Carla M. Sinopoli, 227–51. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Morris, Ian. 2009. “The Great Athenian State.” In The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, ed. Morris, Ian and Scheidel, Walter, 99178. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Münkler, Herfried. 2007. Empires: The Logic of World Domination from Ancient Rome to the United States. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Muthu, Sankar. 2009. Enlightenment against Empire. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mutschler, Fritz-Heiner, and Mittag, Achim, eds. 2008. Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Negri, Antonio and Hardt, Michael 2000. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Olivelle, Patrick. 2013. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Olivelle, Patrick. 2018. “Imperial Ideology and Religious Pluralism in The Aśokan Inscriptional Corpus.” Paper presented at the workshop “Empires and Religions,” Berlin, March 13.Google Scholar
Parker, Bradley J. 2002. “At the Edge of Empire: Conceptualizing Assyria’s Anatolian Frontier ca. 700 BC.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 21: 371–95.Google Scholar
Parsons, Timothy H. 2010. The Rule of Empires: Those Who Built Them, Those Who Endured Them, and Why They Always Fall. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter C. 2005. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Peterson, Charles A., 1979. “Court and Province in Mid- and Late T’ang.” In: The Cambridge History of China. Volume 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589–906 AD, Part One, ed. Twitchett, Denis C., 464560. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. 2018. “A Christian Roman Empire? Byzantium between imperial monotheism and religious multiplicity, 4th–9th century CE.” Paper presented at the workshop “Empires and Religions,” Berlin, March 13.Google Scholar
Pines, Yuri. 2002. “Changing Views of tianxia in Pre-imperial Discourse.” Oriens Extremus 43(1/2): 101–16.Google Scholar
Pines, Yuri. 2012. The Everlasting Empire: The Political Culture of Ancient China and Its Imperial Legacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Pitts, Jennifer. 2010. “Political Theory of Empire and Imperialism.” Annual Review of Political Science 13: 211235.Google Scholar
Pollock, Sheldon. 2005. “Axialism and Empire.” In: Axial Civilization and World History, ed. Arnason, Johann P., Eisenstadt, Shmuel N., and Wittrock, Björn, 387450. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Pollock, Sheldon. 2006. “Empire and Imitation.” In: Lessons of Empire, ed. Calhoun, Craig, Cooper, Frederick, and Moore, Kevin, 175–88. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
Pomper, Philip. 2005. “The History and Theory of Empires.” History and Theory 44(4): 127.Google Scholar
Radner, Karen. 2014a. “Introduction: Long-Distance Communication and the Cohesion of Early Empires.” In: State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom to the Roman Empire, ed. Radner, Karen, 19. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Radner, Karen. 2014b. “An Imperial Communication Network: The State Correspondence of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.” In: State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom to the Roman Empire, ed. Radner, Karen, 6493. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Radner, Karen, ed. 2014c. State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom to the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Reinhard, Wolfgang, ed. 2015a. Empires and Encounters: 1350–1750. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Reinhard, Wolfgang. 2015b. “Introduction.” In: Empires and Encounters: 1350–1750, ed. by Reinhard, Wolfgang, 152. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Susan. 2006. “Empires: a Problem of Comparative History.” Historical Research 79(204): 151–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, Chase. 2010. “The Rise of Islam, 600–705.” In: The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Robinson, Chase, 171225. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rollinger, Robert. 2013. “The View from East to West: World View and Perception of Space in the Neo-Assyrian Empire.” In: Aneignung und Abgrenzung. Wechselnde Perspektiven auf die Antithese von ‘Ost’ und ‘West’ in der griechischen Antike, ed. Zenzen, Nicolas, Hölscher, Tonio, and Trampedach, Kai, 93134. Heidelberg: Antike Verlag.Google Scholar
Romm, James S. 1992. The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought: Geography, Exploration, and Fiction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rossabi, Morris. 1983. China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Scales, Len. 2018. “Eschatology and the Medieval Western Empire.” Paper presented at the workshop “Empires and Religions,” Berlin, March 13.Google Scholar
Schafer, Edward H. 1954. The Empire of Min: A South China Kingdom of the Tenth Century. Rutland, VT: Tuttle.Google Scholar
Scharfe, Hartmut. 1989. The State in Indian Tradition. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Scheidel, Walter, ed. 2009. Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Scheidel, Walter, ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford Studies in Early Empires. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shahbazi, Alireza Shapour. 2001. “Early Sasanians’ Claim to Achaemenid Heritage.Journal of Ancient Persian History 1(1): 6173.Google Scholar
Shayegan, M. Rahim. 2011. Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Shelach, Gideon. 2014. “Collapse or Transformation? Anthropological and Archaeological Perspectives on the Fall of Qin.” In: Birth of an Empire: The State of Qin revisited, ed. Pines, Yuri, von Falkenhausen, Lothar, Shelach, Gideon and Yates, Robin D.S., 113–40. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Silverstein, Adam J. 2007. Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Sinor, Denis. 1990. “The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire.” In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, ed. Sinor, Denis, 285316. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Smarczyk, Bernhard. 2007. “Religion und Herrschaft: Der Delisch-Attische Seebund.” Saeculum 58(2): 205–28.Google Scholar
Smith, Monica. 2005. “Networks, Territories, and the Cartography of Ancient States.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95(4): 832–49.Google Scholar
Snyder, Jack. 1991. Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics and International Ambition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Somers, Robert M. 1979. “The End of the T’ang.” In: The Cambridge History of China. Volume 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589–906 AD, Part One, ed. Twitchett, Denis C., 682789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Strong, John S. 1983. The Legend of King Aśoka. A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Strootman, Rolf. 2014. “Hellenistic Imperialism and the Ideal of World Unity.” In: The City in the Classical and Post-Classical World: Changing Contexts of Power and Identity, ed. Rapp, Claudia and Drake, H. A., 3861. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Taagepera, Rein. 1978a. “Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size.” Social Science Research 7: 108–27.Google Scholar
Taagepera, Rein. 1987b. “Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 BC.” Social Science Research 7: 180–96.Google Scholar
Taagepera, Rein. 1979. “Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.Social Science History 3: 115–38.Google Scholar
Taagepera, Rein. 1997. “Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia.” International Studies Quarterly 41: 475504.Google Scholar
Tackett, Nicolas. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Thapar, Romila. 1961. Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tracy, James D. 2002. Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tse, Wicky W.K. 2018. The Collapse of China’s Later Han Dynasty, 25–220 CE: The Northwest Borderlands and the Edge of Empire. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Turchin, Peter, Adams, Jonathan M., and Hall, Thomas D.. 2006. “East-West Orientation of Historical Empires and Modern States.” Journal of World-Systems Research 12(2): 218–29.Google Scholar
Tymowski, Michal. 2011. “Early Imperial Formations in Africa and the Segmentation of Power.” In: Tributary Empires in Global History, ed. Bang, Peter Fibiger and Bayly, Christopher A, 108–19. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2016. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000–323 BC, 3rd edn. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
Gungwu, Wang. 1983. “The Rhetoric of a Lesser Empire: Early Sung Relations with Its Neighbors.” In China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries, ed. Rossabi, Morris, 4765. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Zhenping, Wang. 2013. Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia: A History of Diplomacy and War. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press.Google Scholar
Watson, Burton, trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian. Vol. 3: Qin Dynasty. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
Wesson, Robert G. 1967. The Imperial Order. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Whitby, Michael. 2016. “The Late Roman Empire Was before All Things a Bureaucratic State.” In: Empires and Bureaucracy in World History: From Late Antiquity to the Twentieth Century, ed. Peter Crooks, and Timothy H. Parsons, , 129–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Woolf, Stuart. 1991. Napoleon’s Integration of Europe. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Wright, Arthur. 1957. “Sui Ideology.” In: Chinese Thought and Institutions, ed. Fairbank, John K., 71104. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1971. “Were the Sasanians Heirs to the Achaemenids?” In La Persia nel Medioevo, Atti del Convegno Internazionale (Roma, 31 Marzo–5 Aprile 1970), 517–31. Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×