Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-t89mg Total loading time: 0.873 Render date: 2023-02-02T12:15:02.389Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

8 - The Birth of the Penal Organization: Why Prisons Were Born to Fail

from Part II - Court Reform on Trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 April 2019

Rosann Greenspan
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Hadar Aviram
Affiliation:
University of California, Hastings College of the Law
Jonathan Simon
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Get access

Summary

A recurring question for students of punishment has been: why, despite more than “one and a half centuries of failure” (Cohen 1979: 341), has the prison persisted? Throughout history, reformers, politicians, voters, and others have assigned prisons myriad tasks associated with crime reduction – various incarnations of rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation. After every significant reform effort, prisons have disappointed. In the 1970s, prisons were accused of failing to rehabilitate (Martinson 1974; Allen 1981), or potentially making prisoners worse through the process of labeling (Becker 1963).

Type
Chapter
Information
The Legal Process and the Promise of Justice
Studies Inspired by the Work of Malcolm Feeley
, pp. 152 - 171
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
Allen, F. 1981. The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal: Penal Policy and Social Purpose. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Aviram, H. 2015. Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment. Oakland: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banner, S. 2002. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Barker, V. 2013. “Nordic Exceptionalism Revisited: Explaining the Paradox of a Janus-Faced Penal Regime.” Theoretical Criminology, 17 (1): 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, H. 1963. Outsiders. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Beckett, K. 1997. Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bordt, R. L. and Musheno, M. C.. 1988. “Bureaucratic Co-Optation of Informal Dispute Processing: Social Control as an Effect of Inmate Grievance Policy.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 25 (1): 726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calavita, K. and Jenness, V.. 2015. Appealing to Justice: Prisoner Grievances, Rights, and Carceral Logic. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Chantraine, G. 2010. “French Prisons of Yesteryear and Today.” Punishment & Society 12 (1): 2746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cliquennois, G. 2013. “Which Penology for Decision Making in French Prisons?Punishment & Society 15 (5): 468–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cloward, R. A., Cressey, D. R., Grosser, G. H., McCleery, R., Ohlin, L. E., Sykes, G. M., and Messinger, S. L.. 1960. Theoretical Studies in Social Organization of the Prison. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
Cohen, S. 1979. “The Punitive City: Notes on the Dispersal of Social Control.” Crime, Law and Social Change 4 (3): 339–63.Google Scholar
Conover, T. 2001. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Cressey, D. R. 1961. Introduction to The Prison: Studies in Institutional Organization and Change, edited by Cressey, D. R., 112. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.Google Scholar
Cummins, E. 1994. The Rise and Fall of California’s Radical Prison Movement. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, P. J. and Powell, W. W.. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review. 48 (2): 147–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donziger, S. R. 1996. The Real War on Crime: The Report of the National Criminal Justice Commission. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
Dumm, T. 1987. Democracy and Punishment: Disciplinary Origins of the United States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Durkheim, E. 1969 [1900]. “Two Laws of Penal Evolution.” University of Cincinnati Law Review 38 (1): 3261.Google Scholar
Durkheim, E. 1984 [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Free Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edelman, L. B. 1992. “Legal Ambiguity and Symbolic Structures: Organizational Mediation of Civil Rights Law.” American Journal of Sociology 97 (6): 1531–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Espeland, W. N. and Sauder, M.. 2007. “Rankings and Reactivity: How Public Measures Recreate Social Worlds.” American Journal of Sociology 113 (1): 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feeley, M. and Rubin, E.. 1998. Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State: How the Courts Reformed America’s Prisons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Feeley, M. M. 1983. Court Reform on Trial: Why Simple Solutions Fail. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Feeley, M. M. and Simon, J.. 1992. “The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and Its Implications.” Criminology 30 (4): 449–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fine, G. A. 2006. “Shopfloor Cultures: The Idioculture of Production in Operational Meteorology.” The Sociological Quarterly 47 (1): 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foucault, M. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Foulke, W. (1846–1852). Notebooks concerning prisons and prisoners. Box 7, William Parker Foulke Papers. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Garland, D. 1985. Punishment and Welfare. Brookfield: Gower.Google Scholar
Goffman, I. 1961. Asylums. Garden City: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
Goodman, P., Page, J., and Phelps, M.. 2015. “The Long Struggle: An Agonistic Perspective on Penal Development.” Theoretical Criminology 19 (3): 315–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grattet, R. and Jenness, V.. 2005. “The Reconstitution of Law in Local Settings: Agency Discretion, Ambiguity, and a Surplus of Law in the Policing of Hate Crime.” Law & Society Review 39 (4): 893942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guetzkow, J. and Schoon, E.. 2015. “If You Build It, They Will Fill It: The Consequences of Prison Overcrowding Litigation.” Law & Society Review 49 (2): 401–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hannah-Moffat, K. and Klassen, A.. 2015. “Normalizing Exceptions: Solitary Confinement and the Micro-Politics of Risk/Need in Canada.” In Extreme Punishment: Comparative Studies in Detention, Incarceration and Solitary Confinement, edited by Reiter, K. and Koenig, A., 135–55. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Heimer, C. A. 1999. “Competing Institutions: Law, Medicine, and Family in Neonatal Intensive Care.” Law & Society Review 33 (1): 1766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsch, A. J. 1992. The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishment in Early America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ibsen, A. Z. 2013. “Ruling by Favors: Prison Guards’ Informal Exercise of Institutional Control.”Law & Social Inquiry 38 (2): 342–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irwin, J. 1980. Prisons in Turmoil. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
Irwin, J. 1985. The Jail: Managing the Underclass in American Society. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Irwin, J. 2005. The Warehouse Prison: Disposal of the New Dangerous Class. Los Angeles: Roxbury.Google Scholar
Jacobs, J. B. 1977. Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Kruttschnitt, C. and Gartner, R.. 2005. Marking Time in the Golden State: Women’s Imprisonment in California. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lerman, A. E. and Page, J.. 2012. “The State of the Job: An Embedded Work Role Perspective on Prison Officer Attitudes.” Punishment & Society 14 (5): 503–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucken, K. 1998. “Contemporary Penal Trends: Modern or Postmodern?British Journal of Criminology 38 (1): 106–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, M. 1998. “Waste Managers? The New Penology, Crime Fighting, and Parole Agent Identity.” Law & Society Review 32 (4): 839–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, M. 2010. Sunbelt Justice: Arizona and the Transformation of American Punishment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Martinson, R. 1974. “What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform.” The Public Interest 35: 2254.Google Scholar
Masur, L. P. 1989. Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and the Transformation of American Culture, 1776–1865. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Maynard-Moody, S. and Musheno, M.. 2003. Cops, Teachers, Counselors: Stories from the Front Lines of Public Service. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLennan, R. M. 2008. The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics, and the Making of the American Penal State, 1776–1941. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meranze, M. 1996. Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760–1835. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Meyer, J. W. and Rowan, B.. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83 (2): 340–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Page, J. 2011. The Toughest Beat: Politics, Punishment, and the Prison Officers Union in California. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pennsylvania 1835. Report of the Joint Committee of the Legislature of Pennsylvania Relative to the Eastern State Penitentiary at Philadelphia (Mar. 26, 1835). Harrisburg: Welsh and Patterson.Google Scholar
Pennsylvania 1850. The Twenty-First Annual Report of the Inspectors of the Eastern State Penitentiary of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Edmond Barrington and George D. Haswell.Google Scholar
Perrow, C. 1991. “A Society of Organizations.” Theory and Society 20 (6): 725–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piacentini, L. 2004. “Penal Identities in Russian Prison Colonies.” Punishment & Society 6 (2): 131–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pisciotta, A. 1994. Benevolent Repression: Social Control and the American Reformatory-Prison Movement. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Pratt, J. 2008. “Scandinavian Exceptionalism in an Era of Penal Excess: Part I: The Nature and Roots of Scandinavian Exceptionalism.” British Journal of Criminology 48 (2): 119–37.Google Scholar
Rafter, N. 1985. Partial Justice: Women in State Prisons, 1800–1935. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
Reiter, K. A. 2012a. “The Most Restrictive Alternative: A Litigation History of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons, 1960–2006.” Studies in Law, Politics, and Society 57: 71124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiter, K. A. 2012b. “Parole, Snitch, or Die: California’s Supermax Prisons and Prisoners, 1997– 2007.” Punishment & Society 14 (5): 530–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiter, K. A. 2014. “The Pelican Bay Hunger Strike: Resistance Within the Structural Constraints of a U.S. Supermax Prison.” South Atlantic Quarterly 113 (3): 579611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothman, D. J. 1971. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
Rothman, D. J. 1980. Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum and Its Alternatives in Progressive America. Hawthorne: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Rothman, D. J. 1998. “Perfecting the Prison: United States, 1789–1865.” In Oxford History of the Prison: The Practice of Punishment in Western Society, edited by Morris, N. and Rothman, D. J., 111–30. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rubin, A. T. 2013. “Institutionalizing the Pennsylvania System: Organizational Exceptionalism, Administrative Support, and Eastern State Penitentiary, 1829–1875.” PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Rubin, A. T. 2015. “A Neo-Institutional Account of Prison Diffusion.” Law & Society Review 49 (2): 365–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, A. T. 2017a. “The Consequences of Prisoners’ Micro-Resistance.” Law & Social Inquiry 42 (1): 138–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, A. T. 2017b. “Resistance As Agency? Incorporating the Structural Determinants of Prisoner Behaviour.” British Journal of Criminology 57 (3): 644–63.Google Scholar
Rubin, A. T. 2016. “Penal Change as Penal Layering: A Case Study of Proto-Prison Adoption and Capital Punishment Reduction, 1785–1822.” Punishment & Society 18 (4): 420–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rusche, G. and Kirchheimer, O. 1939. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sapers, H. 2008. A Preventable Death. Office of the Correctional Investigator. www.oci-bec.gc.ca/cnt/rpt/pdf/oth-aut/oth-aut20080620-eng.pdf (last accessed: January 5, 2018).Google Scholar
Sauder, M. and Espeland, W. N.. 2009. “The Discipline of Rankings: Tight Coupling and Organizational Change.” American Sociological Review 74 (1): 6382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schoenfeld, H. 2010. “Mass Incarceration and the Paradox of Prison Conditions Litigation.” Law & Society Review 44 (3–4): 731–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, R. W. 2003. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. 5th edn. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
Selznick, P. 1949. TVA and the Grass Roots. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Selznick, P. 1957. Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Simon, J. 2007. Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Simon, J. 2014. Mass Incarceration on Trial. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
Skolnick, J. H. 1965. “The Sociology of Law in America: Overview and Trends.” Social Problems 13 (1): 439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spierenburg, P. 1991. The Prison Experience: Disciplinary Institutions and Their Inmates in Early Modern Europe. New Brunswick: Rutgers.Google Scholar
Sykes, G. M. 1958. The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Wacquant, L. 2001. “Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh.” Punishment & Society 3 (1): 95133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, M. 1968 [1922]. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedminster.Google Scholar
Whitman, J. Q. 2003. Harsh Justice: Criminal Punishment and the Widening Divide between America and Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zald, M. N. 1965. “Organizational Control Structures in Five Correctional Institutions.” In Social Welfare Institutions: A Sociological Reader, edited by Zald, M. N., 451–65. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Zimring, F., Kamin, S., and Hawkins, G.. 2001. Punishment and Democracy: Three Strikes and You’re Out in California. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×