Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-cnmwb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T03:27:35.079Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

7 - After materialism – reflections of Idealism in Lebensphilosophie: Dilthey, Bergson and Simmel

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 December 2013

David Midgley
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
Nicholas Boyle
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
Liz Disley
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
John Walker
Affiliation:
Birkbeck College, University of London
Get access

Summary

The term Lebensphilosophie was adopted in the early decades of the twentieth century to identify a philosophical trend that distinguished itself by its concern with the conception of life as a creative process, with the continuity of mental experiences associated with that process, and with ‘inner perception’ or intuition as a privileged mode of understanding that process. That trend answered to a number of perceived needs in the broader intellectual culture of the Western world at the time. These included the sense that modern, industrialised societies were generating oppressive institutional structures that constrained creativity and the life choices of individuals; the notion that organising human lives in ways that were more in touch with natural processes and the world of nature might overcome the supposed decadence and degeneracy of contemporary European societies; and the endeavour of interpreting life processes and human cultural activity in ways that looked beyond the ostensibly mechanistic conceptions associated with the rise of the natural sciences and the dominance of philosophical materialism and positivism in the mid-nineteenth century. In the German-speaking world in particular, these three tendencies came together in the well-known cult of Nietzsche around 1900. Nietzsche's writings offered trenchant criticisms of contemporary European culture and educational institutions, as well as challenging inherited philosophical doctrines and seeming to point the way to the cultivation of a higher humanity. But there were other thinkers, equally influential in their day, whose writings bear the traces of a thoughtful dialogue with (as opposed to a scornful repudiation of) the exponents of post-Kantian Idealism, and it is with three of the most prominent of these – Dilthey, Bergson and Simmel – that the present chapter is concerned.

Type
Chapter
Information
The Impact of Idealism
The Legacy of Post-Kantian German Thought
, pp. 161 - 185
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2013

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aschheim, Steven E., The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, 1890–1990 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992)Google Scholar
Thomas, R. Hinton, Nietzsche in German Politics and Society, 1890–1918 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983)Google Scholar
Martens, Gunter, Vitalismus und Expressionismus (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1971), 31–102Google Scholar
Clark, Christopher, Iron Kingdom: the rise and downfall of Prussia 1600–1947 (London: Penguin Books, 2006), 431–5Google Scholar
Riedel, Wolfgang, ‘Homo Natura’: literarische Anthropologie um 1900 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1996), 41–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnädelbach, Herbert, Philosophy in Germany 1831–1933 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 143–5Google Scholar
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm, Schöpferisches Handeln, ed. Fuchs, Emil (Jena: Eugen Diederichs, 1907)Google Scholar
Heidler, Irmgard, Der Verleger Eugen Diederichs und seine Welt (1896–1930) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998), 238–42Google Scholar
Mosse, George L., The Crisis of German Ideology: intellectual origins of the Third Reich (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964), 52–66Google Scholar
Scheler, Max, ‘Versuche einer Philosophie des Lebens: Nietzsche–Dilthey–Bergson’, Gesammelte Werke iii (Bern: Francke, 1955)Google Scholar
Rickert, Heinrich, Die Philosophie des Lebens: Darstellung und Kritik der philosophischen Modeströmungen unserer Zeit (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1920)Google Scholar
Hein, Peter Ulrich (ed.), Georg Simmel (Auslegungen) (Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1990), 11Google Scholar
Bollnow, Otto Friedrich, Die Lebensphilosophie (Berlin: Springer, 1958), 141–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helle, Horst Jürgen, Soziologie und Erkenntnistheorie bei Georg Simmel (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1988), 40–4Google Scholar
Fitzi, Gregor, Soziale Erfahrung und Lebens-philosophie: Georg Simmels Beziehung zu Henri Bergson (Constance: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002)Google Scholar
Guyer, Paul, ‘Absolute idealism and the rejection of Kantian dualism’, in Ameriks, Karl (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to German Idealism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kant, Immanuel, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, ed. Weischedel, Wilhelm (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1974), 144Google Scholar
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Truth and Method, trans. Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall (rev.) (2nd edn, London: Sheed & Ward, 1989), 230–3Google Scholar
Gjesdal, Kristin, Gadamer and the Legacy of German Idealism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilthey, Wilhelm, Gesammelte Schriften, 26 vols. (vols. i–ix and xi–xii, Leipzig and Berlin: B. G. Teubner, 1921–36Google Scholar
Teubner, B. G., 1958; vols. xiii–xxvi, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970–2005)
Makkreel, Rudolf A., Dilthey: philosopher of the human studies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992)Google Scholar
Bambach, Charles R., Heidegger, Dilthey and the Crisis of Historicism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995), 136–48Google Scholar
Lotze, Hermann, Logik (Leipzig: Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, 1843)Google Scholar
Sigwart, Christoph, Logik (Tübingen: Laupp, 1873–8)
Dilthey, Wilhelm, Selected Writings, ed. Rickman, H. P. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 14–16Google Scholar
Stumpf, Carl, Psychologie und Erkenntnistheorie (Munich: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1891)Google Scholar
Ricoeur, Paul, Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 48–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilthey, Wilhelm, Selected Works, ed. Makkreel, R. A. and Rodi, F., vol. iii (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), 101–209Google Scholar
Bergson, Henri, Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, critical edition, ed. Worms, Frédéric and Bouaniche, Arnaud (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2007)Google Scholar
Bergson, Henri, L’Évolution créatrice, critical edition, ed. Worms, Frédéric and François, Arnaud (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2007)Google Scholar
Smith, Justin E. H., ‘Leibniz and the life sciences’, in Look, Brandon C. (ed.), The Continuum Companion to Leibniz (London: Continuum, 2011), 259–74Google Scholar
Driesch, Hans, The History and Theory of Vitalism (London: Macmillan, 1914)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateson, William, Materials for the Study of Variation: treated with special regard to discontinuity in the origin of species (London: Macmillan & Co., 1894)Google Scholar
de Vries, Hugo, Die Mutationstheorie (Leipzig: Verlag von Veit, 1901–3)Google Scholar
Riquier, Camille, Archéologie de Bergson: temps et métaphysique (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2009), 19–21Google Scholar
Lovejoy, Arthur Oncken, Bergson and Romantic Evolutionism (Berkeley: University of California, 1914), 8Google Scholar
Deleuze, Gilles, Le Bergsonisme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966)Google Scholar
Bergson, , Matière et mémoire, ed. Frédéric Worms and Camille Riquier (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2008), 205–6Google Scholar
La Pensée et le mouvant, ed. Worms, Frédéric et al. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2009), 148–9
Behler, Ernst, ‘Der Beitrag Henri Bergsons zur Gegenwartsphilosophie’, Hochland 55 (1962/3), 417–29Google Scholar
Ingarden, Roman, ‘Intuition und Intellekt bei Henri Bergson: Darstellung und Versuch einer Kritik’, Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Phänomenologische Forschung 5 (1922), 285–461Google Scholar
Midgley, David, ‘“Schöpferische Entwicklung”: zur Bergsonrezeption in der deutschsprachigen Welt um 1910’, Scientia Poetica 16 (2012), 12–66Google Scholar
Driesch, Hans, ‘Bergson, der biologische Philosoph’, Zeitschrift für den Ausbau der Entwicklungslehre 2, nos. 1–2 (1908), 48–55Google Scholar
Jäger, Georg, Das Verhältnis Bergsons zu Schelling: ein Beitrag zur Erörterung der Prinzipien einer organistischen Weltauffassung (Hamburg: Lütke & Wulff, 1917), 18–19Google Scholar
Berthelot, René, Un Romantisme utilitaire: étude sur le mouvement pragmatiste ii: Le Pragmatisme chez Bergson (Paris: F. Alcan, 1913), 84–121Google Scholar
Conry, Yvette, L’Évolution créatrice d’Henri Bergson: investigations critiques (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000), 265–8Google Scholar
Le Lannou, Jean-Michel, ‘L’Anti-idéalisme de Bergson’, Études Philosophiques 59, no. 4 (2001)Google Scholar
Knudsen, Peter, ‘Die Bergsonsche Philosophie in ihrem Verhältnis zu Schopenhauer’, Jahrbuch der Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft 16 (1929), 3–44Google Scholar
Bergson, Henri and Hamelin, Octave, Deux cours sur Fichte, ed. Soulez, Philippe and Turlot, Fernand (Strasbourg: Presses universitaires de Strasbourg, 1989)Google Scholar
Goddard, Jean-Christophe, ‘Bergson: une lecture néo-platonicienne de Fichte’, Études Philosophiques 59, no. 4 (2001)Google Scholar
Worms, Frédéric, ‘L’Intelligence gagnée par l'intuition? La relation entre Bergson et Kant’, Études Philosophiques 59, no. 4 (2001)Google Scholar
Frisby, David, Georg Simmel (London: Routledge, 2002)Google Scholar
Kracauer, Siegfried, ‘Georg Simmel’ (1920), in Das Ornament der Masse (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1977), 209–48Google Scholar
Simmel, Georg, Gesamtausgabe (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1989–2008)Google Scholar
Weingartner, Rudolph H., Experience and Culture: the philosophy of Georg Simmel (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1962), 21–40Google Scholar
Hegel, G. W. F., Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, pt 1, in Werke in zwanzig Bänden, ed. Moldenhauer, Eva and Michel, Karl Markus, 20 vols. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1969–71)Google Scholar
Adolf, Heinrich, Erkenntnistheorie auf dem Weg zur Metaphysik: Interpretation, Modifikation und Überschreitung des kantischen Apriorikonzepts bei Georg Simmel (Munich: Herbert Utz, 2002)Google Scholar
Cassirer, Ernst, The Logic of the Cultural Sciences, trans. S. G. Lofts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 105–10Google Scholar
‘Die “Tragödie der Kultur”’, in Zur Logik der Kulturwissenschaften, Göteborgs högskolas årsskrift 48 (Gothenburg: Elanders boktryckeri aktiebolag, 1942), 113–39
Frischeisen-Köhler, Max, ‘Georg Simmel’, Kant-Studien 24 (1919), 1–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmel, Georg, The View of Life, trans. John A. Y. Andrews and Donald N. Levine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmel, Georg, Hauptprobleme der Philosophie, in Gesamtausgabe xiv (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1996) (hereafter GSG), 31Google Scholar
Riquier, Camille, Archéologie de Bergson: temps et métaphysique (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2009), 120Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×