Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-f7d5f74f5-4fqgl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-03T04:32:07.685Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 December 2015

Timothy Nunan
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Humanitarian Invasion
Global Development in Cold War Afghanistan
, pp. 287 - 316
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Primary Sources

Abdulazizov, Abdulwakhov. Worked as a lecturer in Persian language and literature at Tajik State University. Worked as a translator in Kabul from 1980 to 1985 before returning to work as a scholar at Tajik State University. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, August 21, 2012.
Abdullaev, Rakhmatullo. Born in southern Tajikistan. Graduated from Tajik State University in 1979. Worked as a translator in Qandahar in the late 1980s. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 25, 2012.
Almqvist, Börje. Following engagement in the Swedish anti-Vietnam War movement, worked as a journalist for Swedish newspapers, covering the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Worked for the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Interview conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, June 22, 2014.
Begbudiev, Shokhrukh. Born in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, in 1945. Studied mathematics at Tajik State University in the 1960s and worked for the Central Committee of the Tajik SSR's LKSM. Worked as a Komsomol adviser to the Kunduz PC of DOYA from 1980 to 1981, before returning to Tajikistan and, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Samarkand. Interview conducted in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, September 20, 2012.
Belofastov, Aleksandr. Born in Moscow in 1952. After completing higher education in economics, worked for Komsomol from 1975 to 1985. Deployed to Afghanistan from 1985 to 1987 as an accounting and financial adviser to the Central Committee of DOYA in Kabul. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 15, 2012.
Davlatov, Mamadsho. Graduated Tajik State University with a degree in history before working as an instructor at Kabul Polytechnic University from 1976 to 1983. Later studied for a doktor nauk title at the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union from 1983 to 1985. Interview conducted in Khujand, Tajikistan, September 6, 2012.
Dzhumashev, Askar. Director of the Historical Section of the Karakalpakstan Academy of Sciences. Interview conducted in Nukus, Uzbekistan, September 12, 2012.
Ezhov, Georgiĭ. Studied Persian language and literature at the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, graduating in 1951. Worked as a translator at Russian–Persian Bank in Tehran, Iran, from 1951 to 1958 before working as an adviser in Afghanistan from 1958 to 1961. Later worked as an economic adviser at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran in the mid 1970s. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, April 15, 2013.
Fänge, Anders. Following youth engagement in Swedish FLN-Grupperna, worked as a journalist covering American politics and the Middle East. Served as field office manager for the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan from 1983 until the early 1990s; later worked for SCA in Taliban-era Afghanistan. Interview conducted by telephone from Berlin, Germany, September 17, 2014.
Forsberg, Anders. Studied in Afghanistan as a university student in Uppsala, Sweden, in the mid 1970s. Later became an organizer for the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan. Interview conducted in Uppsala, Sweden, June 28, 2014.
Häselbarth, Christoph. Worked as lead agricultural adviser for the Paktia Projekt for the West German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation in Paktia Province in the 1960s and 1970s before moving on to Sumatra, Indonesia. Later, quit career in development work to become a Christian pastor. Interview conducted in Strittmatt, Germany, April 14, 2012.
Hassanov, Hassan. Former military translator for the Soviet Army in Afghanistan; at present, Director of the Association of Veterans of the Afghan War in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Interview conducted in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, September 20, 2012.
Hultén, Gösta. Following activism in Swedish FLN-Grupperna, co-authored Afghanistan okkuperant with Jan Stolpe and worked with the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan until 1988. Interview conducted by telephone from Arninge, Sweden, June 27, 2014.
Ivanov, Valeriĭ. Graduated from Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1965 before working in various capacities in Afghanistan from 1966 to 1974. Worked for GKES in Moscow from 1974 to 1979 before directing GKES’ operations in Kabul from 1979 to 1991. Worked as Trade Representative of the Russian Federation to the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996 and from 2002 to 2005. Interview conducted in Ignatovo, Russian Federation, November 2, 2012.
Karimov, Said. Worked as a translator in Paktia and Paktika Provinces from 1987 to 1989. Now works in the Oriental Institute of Tajik State University. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 24, 2012.
Khaliknazarov, Khudaberdy. Graduated from Tajik State University in the early 1970s before working at the Oriental Institute in Dushanbe. Worked as a translator in Mazar-i Sharif and northern Afghanistan from 1974 to 1976. Worked as a translator for the Soviet Embassy in Tehran from 1978 to 1979. Studied for a kandidat nauk diploma at Moscow State University in the mid 1980s, writing a dissertation on reform movements in late nineteenth-century Iran, graduating in 1987. Worked as a translator in Kabul from 1987 to 1989. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, August 2, 2012.
Kireev, Georgiĭ. Born in Verkhnedneprovsk, Ukraine, in 1956. Graduated from Kryvih Rih Technical Academy in 1975 and the Higher Komsomol School in 1981. Served as an adviser to the Qandahar PC of DOYA from 1985 to 1986. Interview conducted via telephone from Moscow, Russian Federation, November 10, 2012.
Komissarov, Nikolaĭ. Born in Kazan, Russia, in 1953. Graduated from the Kirov Chemical-Technological Institute in 1975 before working for Komsomol in Kazan from 1976 to 1982. Served as the first Komsomol adviser in Faryab, Badakhshan, from 1982 to 1983. Following the Chernobyl disaster, worked near the accident site managing containment teams. Interview conducted by telephone from Moscow, Russian Federation, October 16, 2012.
Korgun, Viktor. Studied Dari and Afghan history in university, taught Dari at Moscow area universities in the late 1960s, and later attended the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1971 to 1974. Visited Afghanistan numerous times in the 1970s, serving as an adviser to the Afghan Ministry of Higher Education and translator in 1978–9. While working in Sektor Afganistan at IV AN SSSR in the 1980s, traveled to Afghanistan numerous times as an adviser. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 15, 2012.
Kravtsov, Vasiliĭ. Born in rural southern Belarus in 1951. After serving in the Soviet Army, was invited to take intensive Pashto and Dari courses at the KGB's institutions of higher education in Moscow. Served as a trainer in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan for KGB agents outbound to Afghanistan from 1980 to 1987. Served as an adviser for tribal affairs in the KhAD from 1987 to 1991, coordinating support for Ghilzai tribes in southern Afghanistan. Interviews conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 23, 2012, November 15, 2012, and April 12, 2013.
Kurbanov, Haydar. Worked as a translator for advisers in Qandahar and Kabul from 1987 to 1988. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 26, 2012.
Laber, Jeri. Founder and Executive Director of Human Rights Watch, 1978–95. Interview conducted by telephone from Cambridge, MA, May 7, 2014.
Malik, Hafeez. Born in Lahore, British India, in 1930. Graduated from Government College (Lahore) in 1949 before coming to the United States to pursue his higher education, while also working as a correspondent for Pakistani Urdu-language newspapers. Worked since 1961 as a professor of political science at Villanova University, collaborating frequently with Soviet scholar Iuriĭ Gankovskiĭ. Interview conducted by telephone from Cambridge, MA, September 4, 2013.
Matveeva, Anna. Born in Moscow in the 1960s. Studied under Soviet Afghan specialists at the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences before working for the publishing house Progress, Soviet foreign policy analysis centers, and, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Western development agencies. Interview conducted in London, United Kingdom, April 18, 2012.
Nekrasov, Vyacheslav. Born in 1954 in Ozhgikha, Sverdlovsk oblast’, Russia. After completing higher education in 1977, worked as a turner and technician in Sverdlovsk oblast’ factories and served in the Soviet Army in the Far East. Worked for Komsomol from 1980 and as Komsomol provincial adviser to Meymana, Faryab Province, in 1982. Has written numerous books on the country, returned to Afghanistan frequently, and held talks with Ahmad Shah Mas‘ud, Berhanuddin Rabbani, and former Governor of Herat Province Ismail Khan. Now works as an adviser to the Russian Federal Assembly. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 17, 2012.
Rachabov, Habibullo. Born in Tajikistan and graduated from Tajik State University, specializing in Oriental Studies with an emphasis on Persian- and Urdu-language cultures. Worked as a translator for Komsomol advisers in Kabul, Farah, Kunduz, Qandahar, and Asadabad from 1982 to 1984. Following return to the USSR, became an academic with research interests in the study of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 27, 2012.
Sal'nikov, Iuriĭ. Born in Kolomna, Russia. Studied in Leningrad in the 1970s before moving to Volgograd for Party work, eventually becoming the Second Secretary of the Committee of the central raĭon of Volgograd. Was tapped to work as a CC CPSU adviser to PDPA officials in Qandahar from 1984 to 1986, before returning to Party work in Volgograd from 1986 to 1991. Interview conducted in Volgograd, Russian Federation, November 4, 2012.
Samodov, Abdulrakim. Born in Kanibadam, Tajikistan. Graduated Tajik State University in 1966. Worked as a translator in northern Afghanistan from 1974 to 1979, and, later, at the Afghan Ministry of Justice, the Procurator General, and the Supreme Court of the DRA. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 19, 2012.
Schori, Pierre. Worked as the international secretary of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and an assistant to Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme. Later, served as State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the Swedish Foreign Ministry from 1982 to 1991. Interview conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, June 24, 2014.
Scott, Richard (“Dick”). Worked as a contractor for USAID in Turkey in the late 1960s and early 1970s before working in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, from 1971 to 1978. Helped conceptualize, critique, and implement a drainage improvement program for Nad-i ‘Ali and Marja in Helmand, and conducted several surveys on the socioeconomic life of farmers and nomads in Helmand Province. Left Afghanistan in 1978 to continue USAID work in West Africa, but has returned to Helmand both under Taliban rule as well as after 2001 to consult on drainage, irrigation, and agricultural issues in the province. Interview conducted by telephone from Tashkent, Uzbekistan, October 5, 2012.
Sharipov, Shavlat. Graduated from Tajik State University in the 1970s before beginning graduate work at the Oriental Institute of the Tajik SSR. Worked as a translator in the Panjshir Valley from 1984 to 1985, then in Kabul from 1985 to 1986. Interview conducted in Khujand, Tajikistan, September 6, 2012.
Shohinbudov, Nadmidin. Worked as a translator for Soviet military forces in Afghanistan from 1982 to 1983 and as a translator from 1985 to 1986 in Kabul, Khost, Paktia, and Paktika. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 28, 2012.
Snegirëv, Vladimir. Born in Tomsk oblast’ in 1947 and graduated from Ural State University in 1969 with a specialization in journalism. Worked for Shakhterskaia Pravda, a paper in Kemerovo oblast’, before accepting a job at Komsomol'skaia Pravda in Moscow. Was invited in 1981 to work as an adviser for Derafsh-i Javānān (Youth Banner), the official paper of DOYA based in Kabul for a year, before going on to write war correspondence for Komsomol'skaia Pravda from Afghanistan for much of the 1980s. At present, writes for Russian newspapers. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 22, 2012.
Stolpe, Jan. Born in 1940. Worked as a journalist and the editor of the Swedish newspaper FiB/Kulturfront. Later worked as a Stockholm-based organizer for the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan throughout the 1980s, serving as the group's Vice-Chairman and Chairman. Interview conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, June 24, 2014.
Struchkov, Viktor. Born in 1945 in Skopin, Riazanskaia oblast’. Worked for Komsomol in the Central Region of the Russian SFSR before becoming the head of the Section for Scholarly Youth of the Central Committee of Komsomol. Served as the lead coordinator for Komsomol advisers in Kabul from 1983 to 1985. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, October 24, 2012.
Symington, Leslie. Daughter of Arthur Paul; now lives in Baltimore, MD. Interview conducted by telephone from Oxford, United Kingdom, October 21, 2011.
Tokareva, Galina. Born in the western Soviet Union in the 1930s. After surviving imprisonment in a Nazi concentration camp, went through Soviet orphanages and schools, and later became an obkom secretary for Komsomol in several locations, eventually joining the Central Committee of Komsomol. Currently works at the head archivist of the Komsomol archives. Interview conducted in Moscow, Russian Federation, November 19, 2012.
Wahidov, Abduwakhov. Born in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Studied Persian philology and pedagogy in Samarkand before signing up to work as a translator for economic advisers in Jalalabad from 1987 to 1988. Following his service, returned to Samarkand to work in higher education. Interview conducted in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, September 20, 2012, and July 22, 2013.
Zafar, Chafi. Born in Paktia Province before attending school and university in France in the 1950s and 1960s. Married Anahita Esmatey-Wardak, the daughter of Massouma Esmatey-Wardak, and worked in the Afghan government from 1968 to 1990. Later emigrated to the United States. Interview conducted via telephone from Moscow, Russian Federation, April 30, 2013.
Zakirov, Abzuzaid. Born in Chormogzakonitadzhik, Tajikistan, in 1956. Graduated from Tajik State University in 1977 and the Higher Komsomol School in 1982. Worked as military translator in Bagram and Paktia Province, Afghanistan, from 1977 to 1979. Later, worked as a Komsomol adviser to the Kabul PC of DOYA from 1985 to 1987. Interview conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, July 31, 2012.
Ziar, Modschawer. Born in rural eastern Afghanistan before attending schools in Kabul on a government scholarship. Later received a doctoral scholarship to study linguistics at the University of Bern with Professor Georges Redard, a specialist in Iranian languages and linguistics. Served as a research assistant on a major linguistic atlas of dialects of Afghanistan before returning to Kabul in 1972. Taught at Kabul University from 1972 to 1982 before leaving the country. Interview conducted in Oxford, United Kingdom, July 14, 2011.
Ziar, Sakina. Born in Laghman Province in the 1950s, and attended German-language schools in Kabul in the 1960s. Fled Afghanistan in 1982, working with the United Nations Development Corporation before settling in the United Kingdom to work as an editor for BBC Pashto language services and with international aid organizations in Afghanistan. Interview conducted in Oxford, United Kingdom, July 14, 2011.

Secondary Sources

“1975 World Conference on Women.” Available online at:
Abdelal, Rawi. Capital Rules: The Construction of Global Finance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Abu-Lughod, Janet. “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others.” American Anthropologist 104(3) (2002), 783–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adamec, Ludwig W. Afghanistan's Foreign Affairs to the Mid-twentieth Century: Relations with the USSR, Germany, and Britain. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974.Google Scholar
“Afghanistan & the United Nations.” UN News Service. Available online at:
“International Afghanistan-Hearings,” Final Report, March 13–16, 1983. Edited by Bjorn Stordrange. Oslo: Afghanistan Hearings Committee, 1984.
Afghanistan Strategic Intelligence: British Records, 1919–1970. Edited by Burdett, A.L.P. Slough: Archive Editions, 2002.Google Scholar
“Afghanistan/Pakistan–UNGOMAP–Background.” Available online at:
Afghan Refugees Commissionerate. Relief Work for Afghan Refugees. Peshawar: Afghan Refugees Commissionerate, 1982.PubMed
“Afghanistan and the United Nations.” Available online at:
Afghanistan, Wardak Province: A Socio-economic Profile. Peshawar: UNIDATA, 1991.
Afghānshanāsi-yi shuruvi dar 'arseh-yi chehel sāl. Edited by Akhramovich, R.T. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1959.Google Scholar
Akhramovich, R.T.Taqiqāt dar bāreh-yi tārikh-i Afghānistān dar atahād-i shuruvi,” in Afghānshanāsi-yi shuruvi dar 'arseh-yi chehel sāl. Edited by. Akhramovich, R.T. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1959.Google Scholar
Alan, Pierre and Kläy, Dieter. Zwischen Bürokratie und Ideologie: Entscheidungs-prozesse in Moskaus Afghanistankonflikt. Bern: Verlag Paul Haupt, 1999.Google Scholar
Alekseenkov, P. Agrarnyĭ vopros v afganskom Turkestane. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnyĭ Agrarnyĭ Institut, 1933.Google Scholar
An American Engineer in Afghanistan. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 1948.
Andrew, Christopher and Mitrokhin, Vasiliĭ. The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World. New York: Basic Books, 2005.Google Scholar
Appadurai, Arjun. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Arato, Andrew. “Civil Society Against the State: Poland 1980–81.” Telos (Spring 1981), 34–6.
Arato, Andrew and Cohen, Jean. Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.Google Scholar
Ariana Encyclopedia Society. Afghanistan. 1955.
Ariès, Phillipe. L'enfant et la vie familiale sous l'Ancien Regime. Paris: Plon, 1960.Google Scholar
Arunova, Marianna. Gosudarstvo Nadir-Shakha Afshara: Ocherki obshchestvennyk otnosheniĭ v Irane 30–40 godov XVIII veka. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1958.Google Scholar
Arunova, Marianna. Dulat-i Nādir Shāh. Tehran: Shabgir, 1977.Google Scholar
Aāsnāmeh-yi sāzmān-i damukrātik-i zanān-i Afghānistān.” 1969.
Attwood, William. The Reds and the Blacks: A Personal Adventure. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.Google Scholar
The Awakened East: A Report by Soviet Journalists on the Visit of N.S. Khrushchov to India, Burma, Indonesia and Afghanistan. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1960.
Bahro, Rudolf. Die Alternative: Zur Kritik des Real Existierenden Sozialismus. Cologne: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1977.Google Scholar
Baluch Qaum Ke Tarikh-Ke Chand Parishan Dafter Auraq (A Few Pages from the Official Records of the History of the Baloch Nation). Edited by Bakhsh, Malik Allah. Quetta: Islamiyyah Press, 1957.Google Scholar
Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Barfield, Thomas. “Weak Links on a Rusty Chain: Structural Weaknesses in Afghanistan's Provincial Government,” in Revolutions and Rebellions in Afghanistan: Anthropological Perspectives. Edited by Canfield, R and Shahrani, M.N.. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.Google Scholar
Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Barry, Michael. Personal Account of Famine Conditions in Northwestern Afghanistan. Kabul: USAID Afghanistan, 1972.Google Scholar
Barry, Michael. Massoud: De l'islamisme à la liberté. Paris: Louis Audibert, 2002.Google Scholar
Barry, Michael. Kabul's Long Shadows: Historical Perspectives. Princeton: Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination, 2011.Google Scholar
Basov, V.V. Natsional'noe i plemennoe v Afganistane. K ponimaniiu nevoennykh istokov afganskogo krizisa. Edited by Kravtsov, V.B. Moscow: NITs FSKN Rossii, 2011.Google Scholar
Basov, V.V.. Interview with Russian television. Available online at:
Basov, V.V. and Poliakov, Genrikh. “Afganistan: trudnye sud'by revoliutsii.” U politicheskoĭ karty mira 8 (1988), 364.Google Scholar
Basov, V.V. and Poliakov, Genrikh. Afganistan: Trudnye sud'by Revoliutsii. Moscow: Znaniie, 1988.Google Scholar
Bass, Gary. The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide. New York: Knopf, 2013.Google Scholar
Bauer, Julia. “Zur Entwicklung einer Frauenbewegung in Afghanistan im Zeitraum von 1946 bis zur Gegenwart.” Doctoral Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 1985.
Bayly, C.A. The Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.Google Scholar
Beckert, Sven. “Das Reich der Baumwolle: Eine globale Geschichte,” in Das Kaiserreich transnational: Deutschland in der Welt 1870–1914. Edited by Conrad, Sebastian and Osterhammel, Jürgen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004.Google Scholar
Beckert, Sven. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York: Knopf, 2014.Google Scholar
Bekmakhanova, N.E. “Kazakhi mladshevo i srednogo zhuzov v krest'ianskoĭ voĭne 1773–1775 pod predvoditel'stvom E.I. Pugachev.” Dissertation, Leningrad Section of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1966.
Bekmakhanova, N.E.. Legenda o Nevidimke (Uchastie kazakhov v krest'ianskoĭ voĭne pod rukovodstvom Pugacheva v 1773–1775 gg). Alma-Ata: Kazakhstan, 1968.Google Scholar
Bekmakhanova, N.E.. Mnogonatsional'noe naselenie Kazakhstana i Kirgizii v epokhu kapitalizma (60-e gody XIX v.-1917 g). Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
Bellers, Jürgen. Außenwirtschaftpolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1949–1989. Münster: 1990.Google Scholar
Bernier, Philippe. Des médecins sans frontières. Paris: Albin Michel, 1980.Google Scholar
Benvenisti, Meron. Conflicts and Contradictions. New York: Villard Books, 1986.Google Scholar
Bezhan, Faridullah. “The Second World War and Political Dynamics in Afghanistan.” Middle Eastern Studies 50(2) (2014), 175–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali. “The Islamic Heritage.” In Z.A. Bhutto: Speeches-Interviews 1948–1966. 1948. Available online at: Scholar
Bińkowski, Andrzej. Podróż za rzeke Amu. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowei, 1960.Google Scholar
Bińkowski, Andrzej. Von Taschkent nach Kabul. Leipzig: VEB Brockhaus, 1961.Google Scholar
Blackbourn, David. The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape and the Making of Modern Germany. London: Pimlico, 2007.Google Scholar
Bodemer, Klaus. Entwicklungshilfepraxis–Politik für wen? Ideologie und Vergabepraxis der deutschen Entwicklungshilfe in der ersten Dekade. Munich: Weltforum Verlag, 1974.Google Scholar
Bol'shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia. 2nd Edition. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Bol'shaia Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia, 1951.
Borowsky, Peter. “Die DDR in den siebziger Jahren. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.” Available online at:
Bowles, Chester. The New Dimensions of Peace. New York: Harper, 1955.Google Scholar
Bowles, Chester. American Politics in a Revolutionary World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowles, Chester. Africa's Challenge to America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956.Google Scholar
Bowles, Chester. Ideas, People and Peace. New York: Harper, 1958.Google Scholar
Braithwaite, Rodric. Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. London: Profile Books, 2011.Google Scholar
Brauman, Rony. Mémoires. Paris, Juillard, 1983.Google Scholar
Brechna, Habibo. Die Geschichte Afghanistans. Historische Ereignisse, Erzählungen und Erinnerungen. Zürich: Hochschulverlag AG, 2012.Google Scholar
Brenner, M.M. Ekonomika geologorazvedochnykh rabot na neft’ i gaz v SSSR. Moscow: Nedra, 1979.Google Scholar
Brooks, Rosa. “Failed States, or the State as Failure?University of Chicago Law Review 72 (2005), 1159–96.Google ScholarPubMed
Brothers in Arms: The Rise and Fall of the Sino-Soviet Alliance. Edited by Westad, Odd Arne. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Brutents, Karen. Tridtsat’ let na staroĭ ploshchadi. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1998.Google Scholar
Bucherer-Dietschi, Paul. “Bibliotheca Afghanica.” British Society for Middle Eastern Studies 11(1) (1984), 65–6.Google Scholar
Bullen, Roger. “What Is Diplomatic History?” in What Is History Today? Edited by Gardiner, Juliet. London: Macmillan Education, 1988.Google Scholar
Butler, Judith. “Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of the ‘Postmodern’,” in Feminists Theorize the Political. Edited by Butler, Judith and Scott, Joan. New York: Routledge, 1992.Google Scholar
Campbell, Robert W. Trends in the Soviet Oil and Gas Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
Carlisle, Donald S.Geopolitics and Ethnic Problems of Uzbekistan and its Neighbors,” in Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. Edited by Ro'i, Yaacov. Newbury Park: Frank Cass, 1995.Google Scholar
Caron, James M. “Cultural Histories of Pashtun Nationalism, Public Participation and Social Inequality in Monarchic Afghanistan, 1905–1960.” PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
Caudill, Mildred. Helmand–Arghandab Valley: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Lashkar Gah: 1969.Google Scholar
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. Little America: The War Within the War for Afghanistan. New York: Knopf, 2012.Google Scholar
Chavis, Melody Ermachild. Meena, Heroine of Afghanistan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Cherniaev, Anatoliĭ. “The Afghanistan Problem.” Russian Politics and Law 42(5) (September–October 2004), 32–3.Google Scholar
Christensen, Asgar and Glatzer, Bernt. Coordinated Rehabilitation in the Khost Region: A Brief Profile of Khost and a Proposal for a Joint Approach. Peshawar: Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees/DACAAR, 1991.Google Scholar
CIA World Factbook.
Clinton, Hilary. “Remarks to the U.N. 4th World Conference on Women Plenary Session.” September 5, 1995.
Comaroff, Jean. “Beyond Bare Life: AIDS, (Bio)politics, and the Neoliberal Order.” Public Culture 19(1) (Winter 2007), 197219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Conde, Alexander. “What's Wrong with American Diplomatic History?” Newsletter of the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations 1 (May 1970).
Connelly, Matthew. A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Connelly, Matthew. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Cooper, Richard N. The Economics of Interdependence: Economic Policy in the Atlantic Community. New York: McGraw-Hill Books, 1968.Google Scholar
Coote, Ann and Campbell, Beatrix. Sweet Freedom: The Struggle for Women's Liberation. Oxford: Blackwell, 1982.Google Scholar
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Couldrey, Marion. “Eastern Paktia: Coordination Status Report.” Peshawar: ACBAR, June 24, 1992.
Coutin, Susan Bibler. Legalizing Mores: Salvadoran Immigrants’ Struggle for U.S. Residency. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Coutin, Susan Bibler. Nation of Emigrants: Shifting Boundaries of Citizenship in El Salvador and the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Crews, Robert. Afghan Modern: The History of a Global Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cronon, William. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991.Google Scholar
Cullather, Nick. The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Dale, Stephen. Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalrymple, William. Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.Google Scholar
Damm, Ulrich. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die Entwicklungsländer. Versuch einer Darstellung der politischen Beziehungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zu den Entwicklungsländern unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Entwicklungshilfe. Coburg: Graphischer Betrieb H. Biehl, 1965.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. Razvitie kapitalisticheskikh otnosheniĭ v zemledelii Afganistana. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoĭ literatury, 1962.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. O sel'skoĭ obshchine i eë khoziastvennoj znachenii v Afganistane (raĭony s preiumshchestvenno tadzhikskim naseleniem) – voprosy ekonomiki Afganistana. Moscow: Nauka, 1963.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. Agrarnyĭ stroĭ Afganistana: Osnovnye etapy razvitiia. Moscow: Nauka, 1967.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. Afganskaia derevniia. Sel'skaia obshchina i rassloeniie krest'ianstva. Moscow: Nauka, 1969.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskaia struktura derevni Afganistana: Osobennosti evoliutsii. Moscow: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
Davydov, A.D. Afganistan: voĭny moglo ne byt': Krestianstvo i reformy. Moscow: Nauka, 1993.Google Scholar
Devji, Faisal. Muslim Zion: Pakistan as a Political Idea. London: Hurst, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixit, J.N. An Afghan Diary: Zahir Shah to Taliban. New Delhi: Konark Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
Donert, Celia. “Whose Utopia? Gender, Ideology, and Human Rights at the 1975 World Congress of Women in East Berlin,” in The Breakthrough: Human Rights in the 1970s. Edited by Moyn, Samuel and Eckel, Jan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, 6887.Google Scholar
Donini, Antonio Eric Dudley, and Ockwell, Ron. “Afghanistan Report: Coordination in a Fragmented State.” December 1996. Available online at:
Dorronoso, Gilles. Revolution Unending: Afghanistan, 1979 to the Present. London: Hurst and Company, 2000.Google Scholar
Dudziak, Mary L. War-Time: An Idea, Its History, Its Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Dupree, Louis. Landlocked Images: Snap Responses to an Informal Questionaire. American Universities Field Staff Reports Service, South Asia Series, Volume VI(5), June 1962.Google Scholar
Dupree, Louis. Afghanistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.Google ScholarPubMed
Dupree, Louis. A Note on Afghanistan. American Universities Fieldstaff Reports, Asia Series, Volume XVIII(8, 12), 1974.Google Scholar
Durdenevskiĭ, V.N. Konstitutsii Vostoka. Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo, 1926.Google Scholar
Dvoriankov, N.A.Amukhtan-i zābānhā-yi Afghānistān dar atahād-i shuruvi,” in Afghānshanāsi-yi shuruvi dar 'arseh-yi chehel sāl. Edited by. Akhramovich, R.T.. Moscow, 1959.Google Scholar
Dvoriankov, N.A.. Iazyk pushtu. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoĭ literatury, 1960.Google Scholar
Dzhurabekov, I., Vartazar'ian, L., and Zhilin, E., Dzhelalabadskĭ irrigatsionnyĭ kompleks v Afganistane. Tashkent: “Uzbekistan,” 1981.Google Scholar
“ECOSOC Resolution 1235 (XLII).” August 1967.
Eighmy, Thomas H. Afghanistan's Population Inside and Out: Demographic Data for Reconstruction and Planning. Islamabad, 1990.Google Scholar
Ekbladh, David. The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Eley, Geoff. Making Democracy Social: A History of the Left in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Engerman, David. “The Second World's Third World.” Kritika 12(1) (Winter 2011), 183211.Google Scholar
Entsiklopediia Pakistana. Edited by Gankovskiĭ, Iu. V.. Moscow: Fundamenta Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Ermacora, Felix. “Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan, Prepared by the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Felix Ermacora, in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1985/88.” United Nations Document E/CN4/1985/21, February 21, 1985.
Ezhov, Georgiĭ. “Razvitiie ekonomiki Afganistana v period pervogo piatiletnego plana (1956/7–1960/61),” Kandidat nauk Dissertation, Moscow State University, 1968.
Fassin, Didier. “Subjectivity Without Subjects: Reinventing the Figure of the Witness,” in Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present. Translated by Gomme, Rachel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Fassin, Didier. “Humanitarianism as a Politics of Life.” Public Culture 19(3) (2007), 499520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fassin, Didier and Rechtman, Richard, The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood. Translated by Gomme, Rachel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Ferdinand, Klaus. “Preliminary Notes on Hazara Culture.” Copenhagen, 1959.
Ferdinand, Klaus. “Nomad Expansion and Commerce in Central Afghanistan.” Folk 4 (1962), 123–59.Google Scholar
Ferguson, James. The Anti-politics Machine: ‘Development’, Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Ferguson, James. Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, James. “Seeing Like an Oil Company: Space, Security and Global Capital in Neoliberal Africa.” American Anthropologist 107(3) (September 2005), 377–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, James and Gupta, Akhil. “Spatializing States: Towards an Ethnography of Neoliberal Governmentality.”American Ethnologist 29(4) (November 2002), 9811002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, Kathy E. The Feminist Case Against Bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, Paul and Gould, Elizabeth. Invisible History: Afghanistan's Untold Story. New York: City Lights Publishers, 2009.Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. Edited by Gordon, Colin. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.Google Scholar
Fraser-Tytler, William Kerr. “The Expulsion of Axis Nationals from Afghanistan,” in The Middle East in the War. Edited by Kirk, George and Toynbee, Arnold. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.Google Scholar
Fraser-Tytler, William Kerr. Afghanistan: A Study of Political Developments in Central and Southern Asia. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.Google Scholar
Friedan, Betty. “Scary Doings in Mexico City,” in “It Changed My Life”: Writings on the Women's Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
Friedman, Andrew. Covert Capital: Landscapes of Denial and the Making of U.S. Empire in the Suburbs of Northern Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Friedman, Andrew. Interview with Against the Grain. July 16, 2014. Available online at:
Friedman, Jeremy. “Reviving Revolution: The Sino-Soviet Split, the ‘Third World,' and the Fate of the Left.” PhD Dissertation, Princeton University, 2011.
Fry, Maxwell J. The Afghan Economy: Money, Finance, and the Critical Constraints to Economic Development. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974.Google Scholar
Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
Gankovskiĭ, Iu. V. Imperiia Durrani: Ocherki administrativnoĭ i voennoĭ sistemy. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1958.Google Scholar
Gankovskiĭ, Iu. V.. Natsional'nyĭ vopros i natsional'nye dvizheniia v Pakistane. Moscow: Nauka, 1967.Google Scholar
Gankovskiĭ, Iu. V.. Nekotorye mezhdunarodnye aspekty pushtunskoĭ problem.” Vostok i sovremennost’ 1 (1979), 111–24.Google Scholar
Gankovskiĭ, Iu. V.. “Ibragim-bek Lokaĩ (1889–1932).” Aziia i Afrika segodnia 4 (1994): 6063.Google Scholar
“General Information on Modern Afghanistan.” Royal Afghan Embassy (Washington, DC). September 1953.
A Generation of Illiterates? Information from and About the Afghanistan Education Committee. Co-authored by Safi, Batinshah, Andersson, Ingemar, Fänge, Anders. Peshawar: Afghanistan Education Committee, 1985.Google Scholar
Geyer, Michael and Bright, Charles. “World History in a Global Age.” The American Historical Review 100(4) (October 1995), 1034–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geyer, Michael and Bright, Charles. “Where in the World is America? The History of the United States in the Global Age,” in Rethinking American History in a Global Age. Edited by Bender, Thomas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.Google Scholar
“Ghazni Health Facilities Map.” UNIDATA, 1989.
Goldman, Marshall L. The Enigma of Soviet Petroleum: Half-Full or Half-Empty?. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1980.Google Scholar
Goodrich, Carter. The Miner's Freedom: A Study of the Working Life in a Changing Industry. Boston: Marshall Jones & Co., 1925.Google Scholar
Gorbachev, Mikhaĭl. “Vystupleniie General'nogo sekretaria TsK KPSS M.S. Gorbacheva na general'noĭ assamblee OON 7 dekabria 1988 goda.” Available online at:,1
Gorbachev, Mikhaĭl. “Europe as a Common Home.” July 6, 1989.
Gould, Michael. The Struggle for Modern Nigeria: The Biafran War. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012.Google Scholar
Green, Nile. “Locating Afghan History. Roundtable on The Future of Afghan History.” International Journal of Middle East Studes 45 (2013), 132–4.Google Scholar
Green, Nile. “Introduction. Roundtable on The Future of Afghan History.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 (2013), 127–8.Google Scholar
Gregorian, Vartan. The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: The Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880–1946. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
Griffith, J.C. Afghanistan. London: Pall Mall, 1967.Google Scholar
Gubar, Mir Gulam Muhammad. Afganistan na puti istorii. Translated by Davliatov, Mullosho. Moscow: Nauka, 1987.Google Scholar
Guibert, Emmanuel. Le photographe. Marcinelle: Dupuis, 2010.Google Scholar
Gureev, M.A. Moia poslednaia afganskaia voĭna. Moscow: Insan, 1996.Google Scholar
Gurevich, N.M. Vneshniaia torgovlia Afganistana. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1959.Google Scholar
Gurevich, N.M.. Voprosy ekonomiki Afganistana. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1963.Google Scholar
Gurevich, N.M.. Ocherk istorii torgovogo kapitala v Afganistane. Moscow: Nauka, 1967.Google Scholar
Gurevich, N.M.. Afganistan: Nekotorye osobennosti sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiia, 1919–1977. Moscow: Nauka, 1983.Google Scholar
Gustafson, Thane. Crisis Amid Plenty: The Politics of Soviet Energy Under Brezhnev and Gorbachev. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Gutman, Roy. How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban, and the Hijacking of Afghanistan. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Hall, Catherine. Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination. Cambridge: Polity, 2002.Google Scholar
Hanifi, Mohammad J.Vending Distorted Afghanistan Through Patriotic ‘Anthropology.’Critique of Anthropology 31(3) (2011), 256–70.Google Scholar
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. “The Combined History of Pashto Printing and Resistance to Print.” Available online at:
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. “A History of Linguistic Boundary Crossing Within and Around Pashto,” in Beyond Swat: History, Society and Economy Along the Afghanistan–Pakistan Frontier. Edited by Marsden, Magnus and Hopkins, Ben. London: Hurst, 2013, 6376.Google Scholar
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. “Mapping Afghanistan: Colonial, National, and Post-Colonial Cartographies.” Unpublished Paper.
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. “Quandaries of the Afghan Nation,” in Under the Drones: Modern Lives in the Afghanistan–Pakistan Borderlands, by Crews, Robert and Bashir, Shahzad. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012, 83101.Google Scholar
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. “Comparing Camels in Afghanistan and Australia: Industry and Nationalism During the Long Nineteenth Century,” in Camel Cultures: Historical Traditions, Present Threats, and Future Prospects. Edited by Emery, Ed. London: SOAS, 2013.Google Scholar
Harrison, Selig S. In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations. New York: Canegie Endowment for International Peace, 1981.Google Scholar
Harrison, Selig S.. “Making the Russians Bleed,” in Out of Afghanistan: The Inside Story of the Soviet Withdrawal. Edited by Cordovez, Diego and Harrison, Selig. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Hashimi, Muhammad Azim, “Osnovnye napravleniia po razvitiiu sistemy elektro-snabzheniia Demokraticheskoĭ Respubliki Afganistan.” Kandidat nauk Dissertation, Moskovskiĭ Energeticheskiĭ Institut, 1984.
Heathershaw, John. “The Global Performance State: A Reconsideration of the Central Asian ‘Weak State’,” in Performing Politics in Central Asia: Ethnographies of the State, Edited by Reeves, Madeleine, Rasanayagam, Johan, and Beyer, Judith. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013, 3961.Google Scholar
Hein, Bastian. Die Westdeutschen und die Dritte Welt: Entwicklungspolitik und Entwicklungsdienste zwischen Reform und Revolte, 1959–1974. Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsch, Francine. Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Hirschman, Albert O.The Rise and Decline of Development Economics,” in Essays in Trespassing: Economics to Politics and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
Hopgood, Stephen. The Endtimes of Human Rights. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Hough, Jerry F. The Struggle for the Third World: Soviet Debates and American Options. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1986.Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. “Afghanistan: The Massacre in Mazar-i Sharif.” November 1, 1998, Document C1007. Available online at:
Iandolo, Alessandro. “The Rise and Fall of the ‘Soviet Model of Development’ in West Africa, 1957–64.” Cold War History 12(4) (2012), 683704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IMF World Economic Outlook Database. Available online at:
Immerwahr, Daniel. Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irwin, Ryan. Gordian Knot: Apartheid and the Unmaking of the Liberal World Order. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irwin, Ryan. “Decolonization and the Cold War,” in The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War. Edited by Kalinovsky, Artemy and Daigle, Craig. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, 91103.Google Scholar
Iskanderov, Kosimsho. Molodezhnoe dvizheniie v Afganistane (1945–1990 gg.). Dushanbe: 1992.Google Scholar
Jackson, Robert H. Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Jansson, Irland. “India, Pakistan, or Pakhtunistan: the Nationalist Movements in the North-West Frontier Province, 1937–47.” PhD Dissertation, University of Uppsala, 1981.
Jersild, Austin. The Sino-Soviet Alliance: An International History. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Jones, Paul S. Afghanistan Venture: Discovering the Afghan People: The Life, Contacts and Adventures of an American Civil Engineer During His Two Year Sojourn in the Kingdom of Afghanistan. San Antonio: Naylor Co., 1956.Google Scholar
Tony, Judt. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York: Penguin, 2006.Google Scholar
Kahn, Jeffrey S. “Islands of Sovereignty: Haitian Migration and the Borders of Empire.” PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 2013.
Kakar, M. Hassan. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Kalinovsky, Artemy. A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamenev, S.N.Konferentsiia, posviashchennaia 90-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia Iu. V. Gankovskogo.” Vostok. Afroaziatskie obshchestva, istoriia i sovremennost' 5 (2011), 169–73Google Scholar
Kandagar–pobratim Alma-Atinskoĭ oblasti (v pomosch' lektoru–propagandistu po internatsional'nomu vospitaniiu). Alma-Ata: Kabinet komsomol'skoĭ raboty Almatinskogo Obkoma LKSM Kazakhstana, 1988.
Kaplan, Robert. Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Vintage Departures, 2001.Google Scholar
Kelly, Catriona. Children's World: Growing up in Russia, 1890–1991. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Kassymbekova, Botakoz. “Humans as Territory: Forced Resettlement and the Making of Soviet Tajikistan, 1920–1938.” Central Asian Survey 30(3–4) (2011), 349–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kishtmand, Sultan ‘Ali. Yāddāshthā-yi siyāsi va ruydādhā-yi tārikhi: khāṭirāt-i shakhṣi bā burahʹhāʾi az tārikh-i siyāsi-i muʻāṣir-i Afghānistān. Tehran: Najib-i Kabir, 2002.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph S.. “Transnational Relations and World Politics: An Introduction.” International Organization 25(3) (Summer 1971), 329–49.Google Scholar
Keynes, John Maynard. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Howe, 1920.Google Scholar
Khaĭtun, Alekseĭ. Eskpeditsionno–vakhtovoe stroitel'stvo v Zapadnoĭ Sibiri. Leningrad: Stroĭizdat, 1982.Google Scholar
Khalili, K. Yāddāshthā-yi Astād-i Khalili: Maqālāmā Beh Dakhtarash Mary. Virginia, Herndon: All Prints, 2010.Google Scholar
Khashimbekov, Khadiia. Uzbeki Severnogo Afganistana. Moscow: Institut Vostokovedeniia, 1994.Google Scholar
Killen, Andreas. 1973: Nervous Breakdown: Watergate, Warhol, and the Birth of Post 1960s America. New York: Bloomsbury, 2006.Google Scholar
Kireev, Georgiĭ. “Kandagarskiĭ dnevnik.” Available online at:
Klass, Rosanne.Genocide in Afghanistan,” in The Widening Circle of Genocide. Edited by Charney, Isabel W. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1988.Google Scholar
Jay Klinghoffer, Arthur. The Soviet Union & International Oil Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
Kotkin, Stephen. Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Kotkin, Stephen. “Modern Times: The Soviet Union and the Interwar Conjuncture.” Kritika 2(1) (Winter 2001), 111–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kotkin, Stephen. “Trashcanistan.” The New Republic, April 15, 2002.
Kotkin, Stephen. “The Kiss of Debt: The East Bloc Goes Borrowing,” in The Shock of the Global: The 1970s in Perspective. Edited by Ferguson, Niall, Maier, Charles S., Manela, Erez, and Sargent, Daniel J.. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010, 8093.Google Scholar
Kotkin, Stephen and Gross, Jan. Uncivil Society: 1989 and the Implosion of the Communist Establishment. New York: The Modern Library, 2009.Google Scholar
Knabe, Erika. Frauenemanzipation in Afghanistan. Hain: Meisenheim am Glan, 1977.Google Scholar
Krasner, Stephen. Structural Conflict: The Third World Against Global Liberalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.Google Scholar
Kravtsov, V.B. Spetsifika afganskogo obshchestva i eë vlianiie na obstanovku v Demokraticheskoĭ Respublike Afganistana. Moscow, 1987.Google Scholar
Kravtsov, V.B.. “Zhizn’, otdannaia Afganistanu: K 70-letiiu Vladimira Basova.” Informat-sionno-analiticheskiĭ zhurnal politicheskoe obrazovaniie. November 2, 2011. Available online at:
Kravtsov, V.B.. Introduction to V.V. Basov, Natsional'noe i plemennoe v Afganistane. K ponimaniiu nevoennykh istokov afganskogo kriziza. Edited by Kravtsov, V.B.. Moscow: NIF FSKN Rossii, 2011.Google Scholar
Kushkeki, Burhān al-Din Khān. Kattagan i Badakhshan: dannye po geografii strany, estestvenno-istoricheskim usloviiam, naseleniiu, ekonomike i putiam soobshcheniia. Translated by Vvedenskiĭ, P.P., Levkovskiĭ, E.V., and Dolgopolov, B.I.. Edited by Semënov, A.A.. Tashkent: Obshestvo dlia izucheniia Tadzhikistana i iranskikh narodnosteĭ za ego predelami, 1926.Google Scholar
Kux, Dennis. The United States and Pakistan, 1947–2000, Disenchanted Allies. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Lacey, Jim. Keep from All Thoughtful Men: How U.S. Economists Won World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Langer, V. The Defence and Foreign Policy of India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1998.Google Scholar
Lasch, Christopher. The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991.Google Scholar
Lauterpacht, Hersch. “Freedom of Transit in International Law.” Transactions of the Grotius Society 44 (1958), 313–56.Google Scholar
Leonov, Nikolaĭ. Likholet'e. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniia, 1995.Google Scholar
Lerner, Gerda. “Women Among the Professors of History: The Story of a Process of Transformation,” in Voices of Women Historians: The Personal, the Political, the Professional. Edited by Boris, Eileen and Chaudhuri, Nupur. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
Lessar, P.M. Iugo-Zapadnaia Turkmeniia (zemlia sarykov i salyrov). St. Petersburg, 1885.Google Scholar
Lewis, Arthur. Theory of Economic Growth. London: Allen & Unwin, 1955.Google Scholar
Liakhovskiĭ, Aleksandr. Tragediia i doblest' Afgana. Moscow: GPI “Iskon”, 1995.Google Scholar
Lieven, Anatol. Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Limon, Marc and Power, Hilary, History of the United Nations Special Procedures Mechanism: Origins, Evolution, and Reform. Washington: Brookings Institution, 2014.Google Scholar
Link, Stefan. “Transnational Fordism: Ford Motor Company, Nazi Germany, and the Soviet Union in the Interwar Years.” PhD Dissertation, Harvard University, 2012.
Linton, Ralph. The Study of Man: An Introduction. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1936.Google Scholar
Lodge, David. Small World: An Academic Romance. London: Penguin Books, 1984.Google Scholar
Lüthi, Lorenz M. The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960.Google Scholar
Ma'āhadeh-yi fimābin-i Āfghānistān va Rus.” February 21, 1921. In Manāsabāt-i Afghānistān va atahād-i shuruvi dar sālhā-yi 1919–1969. Kabul: 1969.
Magris, Claudio. “Come i pesci il mare.” Frontiere, Novi Argumenti 38 (1991), 112.Google Scholar
Maier, Charles S.The Politics of Productivity.” International Organization 31(4) (1977), 607–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maier, Charles S.. “Marking Time: Contemporary Historical Writing in the United States,” in The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing in the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
Maier, Charles S.. “Consigning the Twentieth Century to History: Alternative Narratives for the Modern Era.” American Historical Review 105(3) (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maier, Charles S.. “An American Empire? Implications for Order, Disorder, and Democracy in World Politics.” Unpublished Paper (2004).
Maier, Charles S.. Among Empires: American Ascendency and Its Predecessors. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Maier, Charles S.. “Return to Rome: Half a Century of American Historiography in Light of the 1955 Congress for International Historical Studies,” in La storiografia tra passato e futuro (Il X Congreso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche (Roma 1955) cinquant'anni dopo). Rome: 2008, 189211.Google Scholar
Maier, Charles S.. Leviathan 2.0: Inventing Modern Statehood. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Majrooh, Parwin Ali. “Afghan Women Between Marxism and Islamic Fundamentalism.” Central Asian Survey 8(3) (1989), 95–6.Google Scholar
Makmudov, E.R. Transport sovremennogo Afghanistana. Nekotorye ekonomicheskie problemy. Moscow: Nauka, 1983.Google Scholar
Mamadshoev, R., “Vklad Iu. V. Gankovskogo v razvitie vostokovedeniia v Tadzhikistane.” Presented Paper. April 6, 2011. Oriental Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” Translated by Samuel Moore. Available online at:
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. Letter to Ludwig Kugelmann. December 12, 1868. Available online at:
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. Capital, Available online at:
Malik, Hafeez. The Encyclopedia of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006.Google Scholar
Malik, Hafeez. “The Soviet Union, Russia: Yuri and I. A Memoir.” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies XXXV(3) (Spring 2012), 5675.Google Scholar
Manela, Erez. “A Pox on Your Narrative: Writing Disease Control into Cold War History,” Diplomatic History 34(2) (April 2010), 299323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, Gregory. From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel: The Road to Nongovernmentality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markovits, Claude. Merchants, Traders, Entrepreneurs: Indian Business in the Colonial Era. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Terry D. The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Mas‘ud, Ahmad Shah. “A Message to the People of the United States of America.” 1998. Available online at:
Masov, Sergeĭ. A Distant Front in the Cold War: The USSR in West Africa and the Congo. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Massey, Doreen. For Space. London: Sage, 2005.Google ScholarPubMed
Masson, V.M. Ekonomika i sotsialnyĭ stroĭ drevnikh obshchestvakh. Leningrad: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
Masson, V.M. and Romodin, V.A.. Istoriia Afganistana. Moscow: Nauka, 1965.Google Scholar
Matn-i asnād-i awalin konferāns-e sartāsari-ye zanān-e Afghānistān. Kabul: 1980.PubMed
Mazov, Sergeĭ. A Distant Front in the Cold War: The USSR in West Africa and the Congo, 1956–1964. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Mazower, Mark. “Governing the World: The Rise and Fall of an Idea.” Public Lecture at Columbia University. November 28, 2011. Available online at:
Mazower, Mark. Governing the World: The History of an Idea. New York: The Penguin Press, 2012.Google Scholar
McDonald, Jason. “Transition to Utopia: A Reinterpretation of Economics, Ideas, and Politics in Hungary, 1984 to 1990.” East European Politics and Societies 7(2) (1993), 203–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medécins sans Frontières. “MSF in Afghanistan.” Available online at:
Mead, Lawrence M.Scholasticism in Political Science.” Perspectives on Politics 8(2) (June 2010), 453–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Elizabeth. “An Open Letter to the Editors of Ms. Magazine.” April 21, 2002. Available online at:
Miller, L.C., Timouri, M., Wijnker, J., and Schaller, J.G.. “Afghan Refugee Children and Mothers.” Archive of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 148 (7) (July 1944), 704–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Ministerstvo Innostrannykh Del SSSR. Deistvuiushchie dogovory, soglasheniia i konventsii, vstupivshie v silu s 1 ianvaria po 31 dekabria 1985 goda. Volume XLI. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniia, 1987.
Missiia v Kabul. 1971. Directed by Leonid Kvinkhidze.
Mitchell, Timothy. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. “Carbon Democracy.” Economy and Society 38(3) (2009), 399432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil. New York: Verso, 2011.Google Scholar
Mohmand, Abdul-Qayum. “American Foreign Policy Toward Afghanistan: 1919–2001.” PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 2001.
Molodëzh Afganistana. 1986. Directed by V. Shorokhov. Available online at:
Morrison, Alexander. Review of Robert Crews, For Prophet and Tsar. The Slavonic and East European Review 86(3) (July 2008), 553–7.Google Scholar
Moscow State Institute for International Relations. “Pushtu.” Available online at:
Mouzin, Éric. “Approche de l'Afghanistan à travers six mois de mission humanitaire avec MSF.” Doctoral Thesis, Université René-Descartes, 1990.
Moyn, Samuel. The Last Utopia: Human Rights In History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Moyn, Samuel. “The Return of the Prodigal: The 1970s as a Turning Point in Human Rights History,” in The Breakthrough: Human Rights in the 1970s. Edited by Moyn, Samuel and Eckel, Jan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, 114.Google Scholar
Mushavery. Moscow: Nauka, Tekhnika, Obrazovaniie, 2005.
Munn, Nancy D. The Fame of Gawa: A Symbolic Study of Value Transformation in a Massim (Papua New Guinea) Society. Durham: Duke University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Myrdal, Jan. Kulturers korsväg; en bok om Afghanistan. Stockholm: Norstedt, 1960.Google Scholar
Naimark, Norman. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Nalbandiants, Ruben. Zapiski vostokoveda. Moscow: Luch, 2002.Google Scholar
Nathan, Robert R., Gass, Oscar, and Creamer, Daniel. Palestine: Problem and Promise. An Economic Study. Washington: Public Affairs Press of the American Council on Public Affairs, 1946.Google Scholar
Robert, R. Nathan Associates. “Economic Advisory Services Provided to the Ministry of Planning, Royal Government of Afghanistan, September 1961 to June 1972, Final Report. Submitted to the Royal Government of Afghanistan and U.S. Agency for International Development by Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc., Washington.” June 1972.
Robert, R. The Potential Impact of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area on its Surrounding Communities: A Summary of the Report Prepared for the State Planning Board of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Department of Conservation and Economic Development of the State of New Jersey. Washington: Robert R. Nathan Associates, 1966.Google Scholar
Nathans, Benjamin and Platt, Kevin. “Socialist in Form, Indeterminate in Content: The Ins and Outs of Late Soviet Culture.” Ab Imperio 2 (2011), 301–24.Google Scholar
National Atlas of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Warsaw: GEOKART, 1985.
Nguyen, Mimi Thi. The Gift of Freedom: War, Debt, and Other Refugee Passages. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nikoforov, V.N. Sovetskie istoriki o problemakh Kitaia. Moscow: Nauka, 1970.Google Scholar
Nikulin, Lev. Chetyrnadtsat' mesiatsev v Afganistane. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Krasnaia Nov', 1923.Google Scholar
Noelle-Karimi, Christine. “Maps and Spaces.” Roundtable on “The Future of Afghan History.” International Journal of Middle East Studes 45 (2013), 142–5.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph S. and Keohane, Robert O.. Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977.Google Scholar
O'Brien, Connor Cruise. Murderous Angels: A Political Tragedy and Comedy in Black and White. Boston: Little, Brown, 1968.Google Scholar
Office of the Co-ordinator for United Nations Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes Relatingto Afghanistan. “Operation Salam: First Coordinated Report.” February 1989.
Office of the United Nations Co-Ordinator for Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes Relating to Afghanistan. “First Consolidated Report.” Geneva, 1988.
Ogle, Vanessa. “Whose Time Is It? The Pluralization of Time and the Global Condition, 1870s–1940s.” The American Historical Review 188(5) (December 2013), 13761402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogle, Vanessa. The Global Transformation of Time, 1879–1950. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okimbekov, Ubaĭd Vafobekovich. “Problemy ekonomicheskogo i sotsial'nogo razvitiia Severo–Vostoka Afganistana.” Kandidat nauk Dissertation, Institut Vostokovedeniia Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Nauk, 2003.
Olcott, Jocelyn. “Globalizing Sisterhood: International Women's Year and the Politics of Representation,” in The Shock of the Global: The 1970s in Perspective. Edited by Ferguson, Niall, Maier, Charles S, Manela, Erez, and Sargent, Daniel J. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Olcott, Jocelyn. “Transnational Feminism: Event, Temporality, and Performance at the 1975 International Women's Year Conference,” in Cultures in Motion. Edited by Rodgers, Daniel T., Raman, Bhavani, and Reinitz, Helmut (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), 231–66.Google Scholar
OMA, Rem Koolhaas, and Mau, Bruce. “Field Trip: A Memoir. The Berlin Wall as Architecture,” in S, M, L, XL. Edited by OMR, Rem Koolhaas and Mau, Bruce (New York: Monacelli Press, 1995), 212–33.Google Scholar
Once in Afghanistan DVD. Directed by Jody Bergedick and Jill Vickers. 2008; Dirt Road Documentaries, 2008.
Orme, Nicholas. Medieval Children. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Orr, Michael. “The Russian Army and the War in Tajikistan,” in Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence. Edited by Djalili, Mohammad-Reza, Grare, Frederic, and Akiner, Shirin. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1998, 151–9.Google Scholar
Osman, Wazhmah. “Thinking Outside the Box: Television and the Afghan Culture Wars.” PhD Dissertation, New York University, 2012.
Osmani, A.S. and Noori, W.. Health Facilities in Afghanistan by Location. Peshawar: November 1992.Google Scholar
Osterhammel, Jürgen. Die Verwandlung der Welt. Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oye, Mari Michener. “Government Legitimacy, Local Politics and the 1971–2 Famine in Afghanistan.” M.Phil. Thesis, University of Cambridge, 2013.
Özsu, Umut. “Sovereign Equality Today” (January 19, 2015). Available online at:
Pandolfi, Mariella. “‘Moral entrepreneurs,’ souverainetés mouvantes et barbelés: le bio-politique dans les Balkans postcommunistes.” Anthropologie et Sociétés 26(1) (2002), 2951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, Anna R.Scholars, Advisers, and State-Builders: Soviet Afghan Studies in Light of Present-Day Afghan Development.” In The Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies. Edited by Kemper, Michael and Conermann, Stephan. Abdingdon: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
Patterson, David S.What's Wrong (And Right) with American Diplomatic History?: A Diagnosis and a Prescription.” SHAFR Newsletter 9 (September 1978), 114.Google Scholar
Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier. Nobel Peace Prize Lecture. January 9, 1989. Available online at:
del Pero, Mario. “Tra lunghe paci i guerre fredde. La storiografia di John Lewis Gaddis.” 2005. Available online at:
del Pero, Mario. The Eccentric Realist: Henry Kissinger and the Shaping of American Foreign Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Plastun, Vladimir and Andrianov, Vladimir. Nadzhibulla. Afganistan v tiskakh geopolitiki. Moscow: Agenstvo “sokrat,” 1998.Google Scholar
“Politbiuro TsK RKP(b)–VKP(b) i Komintern. 1919–1943.” Dokumenty, Moscow, 2004.
Po obe storone granitsy (Afganistan: 1979–1989). Volume I. Edited by Gribanov, V.I. Moscow: Granitsa, 1999.Google Scholar
Po obe storone granitsy (Afganistan 1979–1989). Volume II. Edited by Gribanov, V.I. Voronezh, 1999.Google Scholar
Poullada, Leon. Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, 1919–1929: King Amanullah's Failure to Modernize a Tribal Society. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
Power, Samantha. “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 2002.Google Scholar
“Preliminary Results of the First Afghan Census.” Central Statistics Office, State Planning Committee, Government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. January 1981.
“Province of Paktyka: Tribal Territories.” UNIDATA, 1990.
Puar, Jasbir. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Qānun-i Asāsi-yi Jumhuri-yi Afghānistān (Constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan). 1990. Available online at:
Rakove, Robert. Kennedy, Johnson, and the Nonaligned World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
“Record of a Conversation of M.S. Gorbachev with President of Afghanistan, General Secretary of the CC PDPA Najibullah, Tashkent, 7 April 1988,” Cold War International History Project Bulletin 14/15 (Winter 2003–Spring 2004), 174–81.
Redfield, Peter. Life in Crisis: The Ethical Journey of Doctors Without Borders. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Reetz, Dietrich. “Pakistan and the Central Asian Hinterland Option.” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies XVII 1 (Fall 1993), 2856.Google Scholar
Reĭsner, Igor. Razvitie feodalizma i obrazovanie gosudarstva u afgantsev. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1954.Google Scholar
Reĭsner, Larisa. Afganistan. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, 1925.Google Scholar
“Remembering the Past: The Early Years of U.S.–Afghan Relations.” In Small Things Remembered Online Exhibition. Available online at:
“Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade For Women: Equality, Development And Peace,” 1986. Available online at:
Republic of Afghanistan Central Statistical Office. Economic and Social Indicators March 1979–1984. Kabul: 1984.
Rethinking American History in a Global Age. Edited by Bender, Thomas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rishtiyā, Sayyid Qāsam. Khāṭarāt-i Siyasi-yi Sayyid Qāsim Rishtiyā, 1311 tā 1371. Peshawar, Markaz-I Maṭbu‘āt-I Afghāni-yi Pishāvar, 1997.Google Scholar
Rich, Adrienne. Blood, Bread, and Poetry: Selected Prose, 1979–1985. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1986.Google Scholar
Robinson, Paul and Dixon, Jay. Aiding Afghanistan: A History of Soviet Assistance to a Developing Country. London: Hurst, 2013.Google Scholar
Rodgers, Daniel. Age of Fracture. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Romodin, V.A. “‘Siradzh at-tavarikh’ (tom III) kak istochnik,” in Pis'mennye pamiatniki i problemy istorii kul'tury narodov Vostoka. Edited by Griaznevich, Pëtr, Zograf, Georgiĭ, Kychanov, Evgeniĭ, Petrosian, Iuriĭ, and Temkin, Eduard. Leningrad: Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Institut Narodov Azii, Leningradskoe Otdelenie, 1968, 42–4.Google Scholar
Romodin, V.A.. “Poslednye gody domusul'manskoī istorii kafirov Gindukusha i politika Abdurrakhman-khana (po ‘Siradzh at-tavarikh’),” in Strany i narodov Vostoka. Volume 10. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Vostochnoĭ Literatury, 1971.Google Scholar
Romodin, V.A.. “Eshchë ob avtore ‘Siradzh at-tavarikh’ i ob izdanii etogo sochineniia,” in Pis'mennye pamiatniki i problemy istorii kul'tury narodov Vostoka. Volume XVI/1. Moscow, 1979.Google Scholar
Romodin, V.A.. Afganistan vo vtoroĭ polovine XIX-nachale XXv. Ofitsial'naia istoriia i istoriografiia. Moscow: Nauka, 1990.Google Scholar
Roshchin, Michael. “Evgeniĭ M. Primakov: Arabist and KGB Middleman, Director and Statesman,” in The Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies. Edited by Kemper, Michael and Conermann, Stephan. Routledge: Abdingon, 2011.Google Scholar
Rossiia i Afrika. Dokumenty i Materialy, XVIII v.-1960 g., Vol. II: 1918–1960 gg. Edited by Davidson, Apollon and Mazov, Sergey. Moscow: IVI RAN, 1999.Google Scholar
Rostow, Walt Whitman. The Process of Economic Growth. New York: W.W. Norton, 1952.Google Scholar
Roy, Olivier. Afghanistan, Islam et modernité politique. Paris: Seuil, 1985.Google Scholar
Rubin, Barnett. Afghanistan from the Cold War Through the War on Terror. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Rubin, Barnett. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Rushdie, Salman. Shame. New York: Knopf, 1983.Google Scholar
Russo, Ann. “The Feminist Majority Foundation's Campaign to Stop Gender Apartheid: The Intersections of Feminism and Imperialism in the United States.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 8(4) (December 2006), 557–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rutland, Peter. The Politics of Economic Stagnation in the Soviet Union: The Role of Local Party Organs in Economic Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Sadat, Mir Hekmatullah. “The Life of a 102 year-old Afghan Entrepreneur: an Economic Perspective.” Available online at:
Sad rangli sad sol: Toč̦ikon dar ķarni bistum. Edited by Ajubzod, Salimi. Prague: Postscriptum Imprimatur, 2002.Google Scholar
Sahadeo, Jeff. Review of Robert Crews, For Prophet and Tsar. Central Asian Survey 27(1) (March 2008), 105–6.Google Scholar
Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1978.Google Scholar
Sakharov, Andreĭ. Memoirs. Translated by Lourie, Richard. London: Hutchinson, 1990.Google Scholar
Sal'nikov, Iuriĭ. 600 dneĭ v Kandagare. Dnevniki 1984–1986. Volgograd: Izdatel', 2010.Google Scholar
Sánchez-Sibony, Oscar. “Red Globalization: The Political Economy of Soviet Foreign Relations in the 1950s and 60s.” PhD Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2010.
Samari, Artur. “V Samarkande mitinguiut studenty: vystupleniĭ takovo masshtaba ne nabliudalos’ v Uzbekistane uzhe bolee desiati let.” February 21, 2005.
Samoĭlenko, Viktor. Kak otkryvaesh’ stranu: Afganistan glazami ochevidstev. Novosibirsk: Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo, 1986.Google Scholar
Sargent, Daniel J. A Superpower Transformed: The Remaking of American Foreign Relations in the 1970s. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Schimmelpennick van der Oye, David. Russian Orientalism: Asia in the Russian Mind from Peter the Great to the Emigration. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, Carl. “The Großraum Order of International Law with a Ban on Intervention for Spatially Foreign Powers: A Contribution to the Concept of Reich in International Law,” in Writings on War. Translated and edited by Timothy Nunan. Cambridge: Polity, 2011.
Scott, James C. Seeing Like a Scott: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Scott, Joan W.Gender: A Useful Category of Social Analysis.” American Historical Review 91(5) (December 1986), 1053–75.Google Scholar
Seriot, Patrick. Analyse du discours politique soviétique. Paris: Institut d’études Slaves, 1985.Google Scholar
Shah, I.A. Trade with Afghanistan. Kabul: 1946.Google Scholar
Sharq, Muhammad Hassan. The Bare-Foot in Coarse Clothes. Peshawar: Area Study Centre of University of Peshawar, 2000.Google Scholar
Shipley, Jesse Weaver, Comaroff', Jean, and Mbembe, Achille. “Africa in Theory: A Conversation Between Jean Comaroff and Achille Mbembe.” Anthropological Quarterly 83(3) (Summer 2010), 653–78.Google Scholar
Shukrullo: Die ohne Leichentuch Begrabenen. Translated by Baldauf, Ingeborg. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2005.Google Scholar
Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif. The Politics of Ethnic Difference: The Baloch, Sindhi, and Mohajir Ethnic Movements. London: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
Siegelberg, Mira. Statelessness: An International History, 1921–1961. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, forthcoming.
Simoniia, Nodari. “Moĭ marksizm–eto ne marksizm sovetskikh uchebnikov…” Mezhdunarodnye protsessy: zhurnal teorii mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniĭ i mirovoĭ politiki 7. Available online at:
Sinitsyn, Sergeĭ. Missiia v Efiopii: Efiopiia, Afrikanskiĭ Rog i politika SSSR glazami sovetskogo diplomata 1956–1982 gg. Moscow: Izdatel'skiĭ dom “XXI vek–soglasie”, 2001.Google Scholar
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. A New World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Slinkin, M.O politicheskoĭ deiatel'nosti konservativnykh krugov Afganistana v 60–70-x godakh.” Spetsbiulleten’ IV AN SSSR. Volume 2. Moscow: IV AN SSSR, 1980.Google Scholar
Snegirëv, Vladimir. Opalennyĭ porokhom rassvet. Moscow: Molodaia Gvardiia, 1984.Google Scholar
Snegirëv, Vladimir and Samunin, Valeriĭ. Virus A: Kak my zaboleli vtorzheniem v Afganistan. Politicheskoe rassledovaniie. Moscow: Rossiĭskaia Gazeta, 2011.Google Scholar
Snyder, Timothy D. Remarks at Memorial Event to Tony Judt. King's College, Cambridge, United Kingdom. March 23, 2012.
Snyder, Timothy D.. Remarks at “Ukraine: Thinking Together” Conference, Kiev, Ukraine, May 16, 2014. Available online at:
Snyder, Timothy D.. “Not Even Past: History, Russia, Ukraine and Europe.” Lecture, The Red House Centre for Culture and Debate, Sofia, Bulgaria, June 4, 2014. Available online at:
Sobianin, Sergeĭ. Interview. May 30, 2013. Available online at:
Solzhenitsyn, the Voice of Freedom. Two Addresses by Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn. Washington: AFL-CIO, 1975.
Spivak, Gayatri. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Edited by Nelson, Cary and Grossberg, Lawrence. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988, 271316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spufford, Francis. “Response: Part I.” Crooked Timber Blog, June 11, 2012. Available online at:
Stremlau, John J. The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967–1970. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
Suri, Jeremi. Power and Protest: Global Revolution and the Rise of Detente. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Tagore, Rabindranath. Rabindra-Racnabali. Kolkata: Biśvabhāratī, 1995.Google Scholar
Thompson, E.P.Outside the Whale,” in The Poverty of Theory & Other Essays. London: Merlin, 1978.Google Scholar
Tikhonov, Iuriĭ. Afganskaia voĭna Stalina: Bitva za tsentral'nuiu Aziiu. Moscow: Eksmo, 2008.Google Scholar
Tolz, Vera. Russia's Own Orient: The Politics of Identity and Oriental Studies in the Late Imperial and Early Soviet Periods. Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toynbee, Arnold. Between Oxus and Jumna. New York: 1961.Google Scholar
Trachtenberg, Mark. “What's the Problem? A Research Agenda for Diplomatic History.” H-Diplo State of the Field Essay. October 10, 2014.
Tribal Analysis Center. “Achakzai Tribe.” October 2009. Available online at: Tribe.pdf
Tribal Analysis Center. “Pashtun Tribal Dynamics.” October 2009. Available online at:
Tribal Analysis Center. “Afghanistan's Development: An Instability Driver?” August 2010. Available online at:
Tsuchimoto, Noriaki. Another Afghanistan: Kabul Diary 1985. 2011.
Tworek, Heidi. “Magic Connections: German News Agencies and Global News Networks, 1905–45.” PhD Dissertation, Harvard University, 2012.
Ukhanov, Ivan. “Ubit po zakazu,” in Victor Polianichko–chelovek i grazhdanin. Ocherki vospominaniĭ. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo “Kliuch”, 1994.Google Scholar
UNOCA. “Afghanistan. Operation Salam Report for 1991.” June 1992.
UNOCA. “Operation Salam Programme for 1991. Progress Report January–June 1991. Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes Relating to Afghanistan.”
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. “UNODC 2010 World Drug Report.”
Vallaeys, Anne. Médecins sans Frontières. La biographie. Paris: Fayard, 2004.Google Scholar
Vos'moi s"ezd RKP(b): Protokoly. Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1959.
Wahab Zada, Amina. “Die Notwendigkeit der Gleichberechtigung der Frau unter den Bedingungen der national-demokratischen Revolution in Afghanistan und Aufgaben der Gewerkschaften um Kampf um ihre Verwirklichung.” Dissertation, Gewerkschaftshochscule,Fritz Heckert, May–June 1987.
Wakhidi, Zokira. “Strukturnye preobrazovaniia natsional'noĭ ekonomiki Respubliki Afganistan v 80–e gody.” Kandidat nauk Dissertation, G.V. Plekhanov Institute for the National Economy, 1990.
Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westad, Odd Arne. Remarks, “A True Alternative? The Nonaligned Movement in the Cold War” Conference, Belgrade, Serbia, May 24–6, 2012.
Wilber, Donald. Afghanistan: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture. New Haven: HRAF Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Yate, C.E. Northern Afghanistan, or Letters from the Afghan Boundary Commission. Edinburgh and London, 1888.Google Scholar
Yehoshua, A.B.Facing the Forests,” in Three Days and a Child. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1970.Google Scholar
Young, Alden. “Qatar, Inequality, and the Possibilities for Humanity” (January 21, 2015). Available online at:
Yunus, Mohammad. Bhutto and the Breakup of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Zābali, Abd Almajid. Yāddāshthā-yi ‘Abd Almajid Zābali. Peshawar, 2001.Google Scholar
Zahra, Tara. Kidnapped Souls: National Indifference and the Battle for Children in the Bohemian Lands, 1900–1948. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Zahra, Tara. The Lost Children: Reconstructing Europe's Families After World War II. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaripov, Sh. Proizvoditel'nye sily sel'skogo khoziaĭstva sovremennogo Afganistana. 1972.