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2 - Trends in Human Development

from Part I - An Aggregate View

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2022

Leandro Prados de la Escosura
Affiliation:
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
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Summary

In Chapter 2, trends in Augmented Human Development and its dimensions are presented and compared to those of GDP per head. Then, a breakdown of AHDI gains into their dimensions’ contribution is carried out, and some explanatory hypotheses proposed. Augmented human development improved significantly in the world since 1870, especially over 1913–1980, but significant room for improvement remains. Although AHDI and real per capita GDP exhibit similar progress over the long run, their pace does not match over the different phases of its evolution. Major gains in augmented human development were achieved across the board during the economic globalisation backlash of the first half of the twentieth century. AHD progress was driven by its non-income dimensions. Life expectancy at birth was the main contributor over time, even though its main contribution took place over 1920–1970, as the epidemiological transition diffused internationally. Schooling, mostly public, stimulated by new social views and nation-building, made a steady contribution over time, while civil and political liberties led AHD gains in the last two decades of the twentieth century as authoritarian regimes gave way to the expansion of liberal democracy.

Type
Chapter
Information
Human Development and the Path to Freedom
1870 to the Present
, pp. 37 - 64
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

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