Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-c4bbg Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-08T05:36:22.869Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Section 2 - Antenatal Care: General Considerations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2016

Philip J. Steer
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London
Michael A. Gatzoulis
Royal Brompton Hospital, London
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Macdonald, A. The Bearings of Chronic Disease of the Heart Upon Pregnancy, Parturition, and Childbed, London: J&A Churchill; 1878.Google Scholar
Clapp, JF 3rd, Seaward, BL, Sleamaker, RH, Hiser, J. Maternal physiologic adaptations to early human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159(6):1456–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capeless, EL, Clapp, JF. Cardiovascular changes in early phase of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161(6 Pt 1):1449–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jauniaux, E, Johnson, MR, Jurkovic, D, Ramsay, B, Campbell, S, Meuris, S. The role of relaxin in the development of the uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84(3):338–42.Google ScholarPubMed
McGuane, JT, Debrah, JE, Debrah, DO, et al. Role of relaxin in maternal systemic and renal vascular adaptations during gestation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1160:304–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paller, MS. Mechanisms of decreased pressor responsiveness to ANG II, NE and vasopressin in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol 1984;247:H100–8.Google Scholar
Podjarney, E, Mandelbaum, A, Bernheim, J. Does nitric-oxide play a role in normal pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994;9:1527–40.Google Scholar
Myatt, L, Brewer, A, Brockman, DE. The action of nitric oxide in the perfused human fetal-placental circulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:687–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valensise, H, Novelli, GP, Vasapollo, B, Borzi, M, Arduini, D, Galante, A, et al. Maternal cardiac systolic and diastolic function: Relationship with uteroplacental resistances. A Doppler and echocardiographic longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;15:487–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duvekot, JJ, Cheriex, EC, Pieters, FA, et al. Early pregnancy changes in hemodynamics and volume homeostasis are consecutive adjustments triggered by a primary fall in systemic vascular tone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:1382–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Boys, RJ, Dunlop, W. Serial study of factors influencing changes in cardiac output during human pregnancy. Am J Physiol 1989;256:H1060–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Mabie, WC, DiSessa, TG, Crocker, LG, Sibai, BM, Arheart, KL. A longitudinal study of cardiac output in normal human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:849–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, E, Wood, C, Keller-Wood, M. The normal increase in adrenal secretion during pregnancy contributes to maternal volume expansion and fetal homeostasis. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002;9:362–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longo, LD. Maternal blood volume and cardiac output during pregnancy: A hypothesis of endocrinologic control. Am J Physiol 1983;245:R720–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Crane, MG, Harris, JJ. Plasma rennin activity and aldosterone excretion rate in normal subjects. II. Effect of oral contraceptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1969;29:558–62.Google Scholar
Lund, CJ, Donovan, JC. Blood volume during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967;98:393403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ueland, K. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. VII. Intrapartum blood volume changes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;126:671–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen, AJ, van Rhenen, DJ, Steegers, EA, Duvekot, JJ. Postpartum hemorrhage and transfusion of blood and blood components. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005;60(10):663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rovinsky, JJ, Jaffin, H. Cardiovascular hemodynamics in pregnancy. I. Blood and plasma volumes in multiple pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965;93:115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Boys, RJ, Dunlop, W. Hemodynamic changes during twin pregnancy. A Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989 Nov;161(5):1273–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pieters, LLH, Verkeste, CM, Saxena, PR, et al. Relationship between maternal hemodynamics and hematocrit and hemodynamic effects of isovolemic hemodilution and hemoconcentration in the awake late-pregnant guinea pig. Pediatr Res 21:584, 1987.Google Scholar
Sala, C, Campise, M, Ambroso, G, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide and hemodynamic changes during normal human pregnancy. Hypertension 1995;25:631–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, AB, Abraham, WT, Zamudio, S, et al. Temporal relationships between hormonal and hemodynamic changes in early human pregnancy. Kidney Int 1998;54:2056–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, SA, Macdonald, GJ, Brown, MA. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in pregnancy: Response to posture. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991 165:591–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davison, JM. Kidney function in pregnant women. Am J Kidney Dis 1987:9:248–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, J, Von Klemperer, K, Brooks, R, Peebles, D, Walker, F, Cohen, H. Use of high intensity adjusted dose low molecular weight heparin in women with mechanical heart valves during pregnancy: A single-center experience. Haematologica 2009;94(11):1608–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shotan, A, Ostrzega, E, Mehra, A, et al. Incidence of arrhythmias in normal pregnancy and relation to palpitations, dizziness, and syncope. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1061–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gowda, R M, Khan, I A, Mehta, N J, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy: Clinical and therapeutic considerations. Int J Cardiol 2003;88:129–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bamfo, JE, Kametas, NA, Nicolaides, KH, Chambers, JB. Maternal left ventricular diastolic and systolic long-axis function during normal pregnancy. Eur J Echocardiogr 2007;8:360–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Paco, C, Kametas, N, Rencoret, G, et al. Maternal cardiac output between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation in the prediction of preeclampsia and small for gestational age. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:292300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duvecot, J, Peeters, L. Very early changes in cardiovascular physiology. In: Chamberlain, G, Broughton-Pipkin, F, eds. Clinical physiology in obstetrics, 3rd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 1998. pp. 332.Google Scholar
Atkins, AFJ, Watt, JM, Milan, P, Davies, P, Crawford, JS. A longitudinal study of cardiovascular dynamic changes throughout pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Reprod Biol 1981;12:215–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Katz, R, Karliner, JS, Resnik, R. Effects of a natural volume overload state (pregnancy) on left ventricular performance in normal human subjects. Circulation 1978;5:434–41.Google Scholar
Veille, JC, Morton, MJ, Burry, KJ. Maternal cardiovascular adaptations to twin pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;153:261–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bosio, PM, McKenna, PJ, Conroy, R, O’Herlihy, C. Maternal central hemodynamics in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(6):978–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kametas, NA, McAuliffe, F, Cook, B, Nicolaides, KH, Chambers, J. Maternal left ventricular transverse and long-axis systolic function during pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;18:467–74.Google ScholarPubMed
Desai, DK, Moodley, J, Naidoo, DP. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:20–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Oppen, AC, Stigter, RH, Bruinse, HW. Cardiac output in normal pregnancy: A critical review. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:310–18.Google ScholarPubMed
Bamfo, JE, Kametas, NA, Turan, O, Khaw, A, Nicolaides, KH. Maternal cardiac function in fetal growth restriction. BJOG 2006;113(7):784–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Estensen, ME, Beitnes, J, Grindheim, G, et al. Altered left ventricular contractility and function during normal pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;41:659–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savu, O, Jurcut, R, Giusca, S, et al. Morphological and functional adaptation of the maternal heart during pregnancy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2012;5:289–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mesa, A, Jessurun, C, Hernandez, A, et al. Left ventricular diastolic function in normal human pregnancy. Circulation 1999;99:511–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geva, T, Mauer, MB, Striker, L, Kirshon, B, Pivarnik, JM. Effects of physiologic load of pregnancy on left ventricular contractility and remodeling. Am Heart J 1997;133:53–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilson, GJ, Samaan, S, Crawford, MH, et al. Changes in hemodynamics, ventricular remodeling, and ventricular contractility during normal pregnancy: A longitudinal study. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:957–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capeless, EL, Clapp, JF. When do cardiovascular parameters return to their preconceptional values? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:683–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, A, Cornette, J, Johnson, MR, et al. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: Cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2011;13:31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duvekot, JJ1, Peeters, LL. Maternal cardiovascular hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1994;49(12 Suppl):S114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lang, RM, Bierig, M, Devereux, RB, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:1440–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, LA, Gillin, AG, Jeremy, RW. Structural and functional changes in left ventricle during normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002;283:H1627–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ducas, RA, Elliott, JE, Melnyk, SF, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnancy: Insights from the cardiac hemodynamic imaging and remodeling in pregnancy (CHIRP) study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2014;16(1):1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clark, SL, Cotton, DB, Lee, W, et al. Central hemodynamic assessment of normal term pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:1439–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adduljabbar, HS, Marzouki, KM, Zawawi, TH, Kahn, AS. Pericardial effusion in normal pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:291–4.Google Scholar
Campos, O. Doppler echocardiography during pregnancy: physiological and abnormal findings. Echocardiography 1996;13:135–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zentner, D, du Plessis, M, Brennecke, S, et al. Deterioration in cardiac systolic and diastolic function late in normal human pregnancy. Clin Sci (Lond) 2009;116:599606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Dunlop, W, Boys, RJ, et al. Cardiac output during labour. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295:1169–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, W, Rokey, R, Miller J, Cotton, DB Maternal hemodynamics effects of uterine contractions by M-mode and pulsed-Doppler echocardiography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:974–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ueland, K, Hansen, JM. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. 3. Labour and delivery under local and caudal analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1969;103:818.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonica, JJ, McDonald, JS. Principles and Practice of Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia, 2nd edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1994.Google Scholar
Adams, JG, Alexander, AM. Alterations in cardiovascular physiology during labor. Obstet Gynecol 1958;12:542–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Söhnchen, N1, Melzer, K, Tejada, BM, et al. Maternal heart rate changes during labour. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;158(2):173–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pouta, AM, Raasanen, JP, Airaksinen, KEJ, et al. Changes in maternal heart dimensions and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels in the early puerperium of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. BJOG 1996;103(10):988–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Moore, M, Dunlop, W. Haemodynamic changes during the puerperium: A Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987;94:1028–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clapp, JF III, Capeless, E. Cardiovascular function before, during and after the first and subsequent pregnancies. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:1469–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Stout, K. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: The importance of evaluation and counseling. Heart 2005;91:713–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Health Service. Adult Congenital Heart Disease (A commissioning guide for services for young people and Grown Ups with Congenital Heart Disease (GUCH) London: Dept of Health; 2006.
Cantwell, R, Clutton-Brock, T, Cooper, G. Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer 2006–2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. BJOG 2011;118:1203.Google ScholarPubMed
Hunter, S, Robson, SC. Adaptation of the maternal heart in pregnancy. Br Heart J 1992;68:540–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whittaker, PG, Macphail, S, Lind, T. Serial hematologic changes and pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:33–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pritchard, JA. Changes in the blood volume during pregnancy and delivery. Anesthesiology 1965;26:393–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chesley, LC. Plasma and red cell volumes during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972;112:440–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Boys, RJ, Dunlop, W. Serial changes in pulmonary haemodynamics during human pregnancy: A non-invasive study using Doppler echocardiography. Clin Sci (Lond) 1991;80:113–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Dunlop, W, Boys, RJ, Hunter, S. Cardiac output during labour. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295:1169–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Moore, M, Dunlop, W. Haemodynamic changes during the puerperium: A Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987;94:1028–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kenny, A, Shapiro, LM. Sudden cardiac death in athletes. Br Med Bull 1992;48:534–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huisman, CM, Zwart, JJ, Roos-Hesselink, JW, Duvekot, JJ, van Roosmalen, J. Incidence and predictors of maternal cardiovascular mortality and severe morbidity in The Netherlands: A prospective cohort study. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e56494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burrow, G, Duffy, T, Copel, J, eds. Medical Complications During Pregnancy, 6th edn. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2004.Google Scholar
British Hypertension Society. [] [accessed September 22, 2015]
Beevers, G, Lip, GY, O’Brien, E. ABC of hypertension. Blood pressure measurement. Part I –sphygmomanometry: Factors common to all techniques. BMJ 2001;323:805.Google Scholar
British Hypertension Society. Video tutorial. []. [Accessed September 21, 2015]
Kilner, PJ, Geva, T, Kaemmerer, H, Trindade, PT, Schwitter, J, Webb, GD. Recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with congenital heart disease from the respective working groups of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2010;31:794805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, G, ed. Why Mothers Die 2000–2002: The Sixth Report of Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: RCOG Press; 2004.Google Scholar
Siu, SC, Sermer, M, Colman, JM, et al. Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy (CARPREG) Investigators. Prospective multicenter study of pregnancy outcomes in women with heart disease. Circulation 2001;104:515–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siu, SC, Colman, JM. Heart disease and pregnancy. Heart 2001;85:710–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freed, LA, Levy, D, Levine, RA, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of mitral-valve prolapse. N Engl J Med 1999;341(1):17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Head, CE, Thorne, SA. Congenital heart disease in pregnancy. Postgrad Med J 2005;81(955):292–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
RCOG Heart Disease and Pregnancy Study Group. Cardiac Disease and Pregnancy (Good Practice No. 13). [] [Accessed September 21, 2015]
Report of the British Cardiac Society Working Party. Grown-up congenital heart (GUCH) disease: Current needs and provision of service for adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease in the UK. Heart 2002;88 (Suppl 1):1114.PubMed
European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM), et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: The Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:3147–97.
Steer, PJ. Pregnancy and contraception. In: Gatzoulis, M, Swan, L, Therrien, J, Pantley, G, eds. Adult Congenital Heart Disease. London: Blackwell; 2005. pp. 1636.Google Scholar
Drenthen, W, Boersma, E, Balci, A, et al. Predictors of pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J 2010;31(17):2142–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman. NICE Clinical Guideline. London: RCOG Press; 2008. []. [Accessed September 21, 2015]
Makrydimas, G, Sortidiadis, A, Huggon, I, et al. Nuchal translucency and fetal cardiac defects: A pooled analysis of major fetal echocardiography centers. AJOG 2005;192 (1):8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References accessed December 1, 2015.
European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM), et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: The Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:3147–97.
NHS England. Proposed congenital heart disease standards and service specifications. A consultation. September 2014. [Accessed September 21, 2015]
Meijboom, LJ, Vos, FE, Timmermans, J, Boers, GH, Zwinderman, AH, Mulder, BJ. Pregnancy and aortic root growth in the Marfan syndrome: A prospective study. Eur Heart J 2005;26:914–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossiter, JP, Repke, JT, Morales, AJ, Murphy, EA, Pyeritz, RE. A prospective longitudinal evaluation of pregnancy in the Marfan syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1599–606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Colman, JM, Silversides, CK, Sermer, M, et al. Cardiac monitoring during pregnancy. In: Steer, P, Gatzoulis, MA, Baker, P, eds. Cardiac disease and pregnancy. London: RCOG Press; 2006. pp. 6777.Google Scholar
Kafka, H, Johnson, MR, Gatzoulis, MA. The team approach to pregnancy and congenital heart disease. Cardiol Clin 2006;24:587605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desai, DK, Adanlawo, M, Naidoo, DP, et al. Mitral stenosis in pregnancy: A four-year experience at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. BJOG 2000;107:953–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siu, SC, Sermer, M, Colman, JM, et al. Prospective multicenter study of pregnancy outcomes in women with heart disease. Circulation 2001;104:515–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khairy, P, Ouyang, DW, Fernandes, SM, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with congenital heart disease. Circulation 2006;113:517–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drenthen, W, Pieper, PG, Roos-Hesselink, JW, et al. Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: A literature review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:2303–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uebing, A, Steer, PJ, Yentis, SM, et al. Pregnancy and congenital heart disease. BMJ 2006;332:401–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM), et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: The Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:3147–97.
Regitz-Zagrosek, V, Gohlke-Bärwolf, C, Iung, B, et al. Management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy. Curr Probl Cardiol 2014;39:85151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drenthen, W, Boersma, E, Balci, A, et al.; ZAHARA Investigators. Predictors of pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J 2010;31:2124–32CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balint, OH, Siu, SC, Mason, J, et al. Cardiac outcomes after pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease. Heart 2010;96:1656–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowater, SE, Selman, TJ, Hudsmith, LE, et al. Long-term Outcome Following Pregnancy in Women with a Systemic Right Ventricle: Is the deterioration due to pregnancy or a consequence of time? Congenit Heart Dis 2013;8:302–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Assenza, GE, Cassater, D, Landzberg, M, et al. The effects of pregnancy on right ventricular remodeling in women with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Int J Cardiol 2013;168:1847–52.Google Scholar
Bedard, E, Dimopoulos, K, Gatzoulis, MA. Has there been any progress made on pregnancy outcomes among women with pulmonary arterial hypertension? Eur Heart J 2009;30:256–65.Google ScholarPubMed
Guedes, S, Mercier, L-A, Leduc, L, et al. Impact of pregnancy on the systemic right ventricle after a Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:433–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Metz, TD, Jackson, GM, Yetman, AT. Pregnancy outcomes in women who have undergone an atrial switch repair for congenital d-transposition of the great arteries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205:273,e1–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uebing, A, Arvanitis, P, Li, W, et al. Effect of pregnancy on clinical status and ventricular function in women with heart disease. Int J Cardiol 2010;139:50–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rokey, R, Hsu, HW, Moise, KJ, Jr, et al. Inaccurate noninvasive mitral valve area calculation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:950–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Erbel, R, Aboyans, V, Boileau, C, et al. 2014 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases: Document covering acute and chronic aortic diseases of the thoracic and abdominal aorta of the adult. Eur Heart J 2014;35:2873–926.Google ScholarPubMed
Lui, GK, Silversides, CK, Khairy, P, et al. Heart rate response during exercise and pregnancy outcome in women with congenital heart disease. Circulation 2011;123:242–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bellenger, NG, Burgess, MI, Ray, SG, et al. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes in heart failure by echocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Are they interchangeable? Eur Heart J 2000:21:1387–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, MM, Coakley, FV, Kaimal, A, et al. Guidelines for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:333–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bulas, D, Egloff, A. Benefits and risks of MRI in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 2013;37:301–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ducas, RA, Elliott, JE, Melnyk, SF, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnancy: Insights from the cardiac hemodynamic imaging and remodeling in pregnancy (CHIRP) study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2014; 16:1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossi, A, Cornette, J, Johnson, MR, et al. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: Cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2011;13:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


Schardein, JL. Chemically-induced Birth Defects, 4th edn. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, K, Holmes, LB. Malformations due to presumed spontaneous mutations in newborn infants. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, JD. Embryotoxicity of drugs to man. In: Wilson, JD, Frazer, FC, eds. Handbook of Teratology, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press; 1977. pp. 309–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2005.PubMed
Heinonen, OP, Slone, D, Shapiro, S, Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy. Littleton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group; 1997.Google Scholar
Briggs, GG, Freeman, RK, Yaffe, SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, 5th edn. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1998.Google Scholar
Heinonen, OP, Slone, D, Shapiro, S. Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy. Littleton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group; 1977. pp. 371–3.Google Scholar
Votta, RA, Parada, OH, Windgrad, RH, Alvarez, OH, Tomassinni, TL, Patoria, A. Furosemide action on the creatinine concentration of amniotic fluid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975;123:621–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, HC. Intrauterine ototoxicity: A case report and review of literature. J Natl Med Assoc 1973;65:201–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Kraft, IL, Mus, BD. Hypertonic solutions to induce abortions. Br Med J 1971;2:49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yemini, M, Shoham, Z, Dgani, R, et al. Lupus-like syndrome in a mother and newborn following administration of hydrazaline: A case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1989;30:193–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spinnato, JA, Sibai, BM, Anderson, GD. Fetal distress after hydralazine therapy for severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. South Med J 1986;79:559–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomlinson, AJ, Campbell, J, Walker, JJ, Morgan, C. Malignant primary hypertension in pregnancy treated with lisinopril. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:180–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barr, M Jr. Teratogen update: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Teratology 1994;50:399409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, WO, Hernandez-Diaz, S, Abrogast, PG, et al. Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2443–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, D-K, Yang, C, Andrade, S, Tavares, V, Ferber, JR. Maternal exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in the first trimester and risk of malformations: A retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2011;343:d5931.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, A. Fetal risk from ACE inhibitors in the first trimester. BMJ 2011;343:d6667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brent, RL, Beckman, DA. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, an embryopathic class of drugs with unique properties: Information for clinical teratology counselors. Teratology 1991;43:543–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108:776–89.PubMed
Saji, H, Yamanaka, M, Hagiwara, A, Ijira, R. Losartan and fetal toxic effects. Lancet 2001;357:363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinsberger, A, Wingen, A-M, Hoyer, PF. Losartan and fetal toxic effects. Lancet 2001;357:1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jogler, JA, Page, RL. Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Drug Saf 1999;20:8594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rotmensch, HH, Rotmensch, S, Elkayam, U. Management of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy: Current concepts. Drugs 1987;33:623–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macaulay, JH, Bond, K, Steer, PJ. Epidural analgesia in labor and fetal hyperthermia. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80:665–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Janz, D, Fuchs, V. Are anti-epileptic drugs powerful when given during pregnancy? German Med Monogr 1964;9:20–3.Google Scholar
Grosso, S, Berardi, R, Cioni, M, Morgese, G. Transient neonatal hypothyroidism after gestational exposure to amiodarone: A follow-up of two cases. J Endocrinol Invest 1998;21:699702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ovadia, M, Breto, M, Hoyer, GL, Marcus, FI. Human experience with amiodarone in the embryonic period. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:316–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oudijk, MA, Michon, MM, Kleinman, CS, et al. Sotalol in the treatment of fetal dysrhythmias. Circulation 2000;101:2721–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magee, LA, Nulman, I, Rovet, JF, Koren, G. Neurodevelopment after in utero amiodarone exposure. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1999;21:261–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magee, LA, Schick, B, Donnenfeld, AE, et al. The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: A prospective, multicenter core study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:823–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Czeizel, AE, Rockenbauer, M, Population-based case–controlled study of teratogenic potential of corticosteroids. Teratology 1997;56:335–40.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorensen, HT, Steffensen, FH, Olesen, C, Nielsen, GL, Pedersen, L, Olsen, J. Pregnancy outcome in women exposed to calcium channel blockers. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:383–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Marlettini, MG, Crippa, S, Morselli-Labate, AN, Orlandi, C. Randomized comparison of calcium antagonists and beta-blockers in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Curr Ther Res 1990;48:684–92.Google Scholar
Orlandi, C, Marlettini, MG, Cassani, A. Treatment of hypertension during pregnancy with the calcium antagonist verapamil. Curr Ther Res 1986;39:884–93.Google Scholar
Houtzager, BA, Hogendoorn, SM, Papatsonis, DN, et al. Long-term follow-up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine for the management of preterm labour. BJOG 2006;113:324–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, CEL, Wendel, GD. Cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1989;32:89102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madden, BP. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2009;18:156–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Easterling, TR, Brateng, D, Schmucker, B, Brown, Z, Millard, SP. The prevention of pre-eclampsia: A randomized trial of atenolol in hyperdynamic patients before onset of hypertension. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:725–33.Google ScholarPubMed
Butters, L, Kennedy, S, Rubin, PC. Atenolol in essential hypertension during pregnancy. Br Med J 1990;301:587–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lydakis, C, Lip, GY, Beavers, M, Beavers, DG. Atenolol and fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:541–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magee, LA, Duley, L. Oral beta-blockers for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(3):CD002863.Google ScholarPubMed
von Dadelszen, P, Ornstein, MP, Bull, SB, Logan, AG, Koren, G, Magee, LA. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: A meta-analysis. Lancet 2000;355:8792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, B, Butters, L, Evans, J, Adama, T, Rubin, PC. First year of life after the use of atenolol in pregnancy-associated hypertension. Arch Dis Child 1984;59:1061–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, PC, Butters, L, Kelman, AW, Fitzsimons, C, Reid, JL. Labetalol disposition and concentration-effect relationships during pregnancy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983;15:465–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, V, Tse, TF, Wong, V. Transfer of digoxin across the placenta and into breast milk. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;85:605–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saarikoski, S. Placental transfer and fetal uptake of 3H-digoxin in humans. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1976;83:879–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrigan, JT, Kangos, JJ, Sikka, A, et al. Successful treatment of fetal congestive heart failure secondary to tachycardia. N Engl J Med 1981;304:1527–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsieh, Y, Lee, C, Chang, C, Tsai, H, Yeh, L, Tsai, C. Successful prenatal digoxin therapy for Ebstein’s anomaly with hydrops fetalis. A case report. J Reprod Med 1998;43:710–12.Google ScholarPubMed
Tikanoja, T, Kirkinen, P, Nikolajev, K, Eresmaa, L, Haring, P. Familial atrial fibrillation with fetal onset. Heart 1998;79:195–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bennett, PN, ed. Drugs and Human Lactation, 2nd edn. Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier; 1996.Google Scholar
Greer, IA, Nelson-Piercy, C. Low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: A systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood 2005;106:401–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindqvist, PG, Dahlback, B. Bleeding complications associated with low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis during pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 2000;84:140–1.Google ScholarPubMed
Bates, SM, Ginsberg, JS. Anticoagulants in pregnancy: Fetal effects. Bailliere’s Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1997;11:479–88.Google ScholarPubMed
Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate). Bristol-Myers Squibb. Full prescribing information at [accessed 9th September 2015]
Klinzing, P, Markert, UR, Liesaus, K, Peiker, G. Case report: Successful pregnancy and delivery after myocardial infarction and essential thrombocythemia treated with clopidogrel. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2001;28:215–16.Google Scholar
Coulson, C, Thorp, M, Mayer, D, Cefalo, R. Central hemodynamic effects of oxytocin and interaction with magnesium and pregnancy in the isolated perfused rat heart. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:91–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hendricks, CH, Brenner, WE. Cardiovascular effects of oxytocic drugs used post partum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1970;108:751–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Secher, NJ, Amso, P, Wallin, L. Haemodynamic effects of oxytocin (syntocinon) and methyl ergometrine (methergin) on the systemic and pulmonary circulations of pregnant anaesthetized women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1978;57:97107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brecht, T. Effect of misoprostol on human circulation. Prostaglandins 1987;33:51–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanchez-Ramos, L, Kaunitz, AM, Delvalle, GO, Delke, I, Schroeder, PA, Briones, DK. Labor induction with the prostaglandin E1 methyl analogue misoprostol versus oxytocin: A randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:332–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Wing, DA, Rahall, A, Jones, MM, Goodwin, TM, Paul, RH. Misoprostol: An effective agent for cervical ripening and labor induction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:1811–16.Google ScholarPubMed
Wing, DA, Jones, MM, Rahall, A, Goodwin, TM, Paul, RH. A comparison of misoprostol and prostaglandin E2 gel for preinduction cervical ripening and labor induction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:1804–10.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanchez-Ramos, L, Kaunitz, AM, Wears, RL, Isaac, D, Gaudier, FL. Misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction: A meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:633–42.Google ScholarPubMed
Hofmeyr, GJ, Gulmezoglu, AM. Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction in late pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD000941. Updates in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(1):CD000941; Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(3):CD000941.Google ScholarPubMed
Del Valle, GO, Sanchez-Ramos, L, Jordan, CW, Gaudier, FL, Delke, I. Use of misoprostol (prostaglandin E1 methyl analogue) to expedite delivery in severe pre-eclampsia remote from term. J Matern Fetal Med 1996;5:3940.3.0.CO;2-U>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsey, P, Hogg, B, Savage, K, Winkler, D, Owen, J. Cardiovascular effects of intravaginal misoprostol in the mid-trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1100–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nathanielsz, PW, Honnebier, MB, Mecenas, C, Jenkins, SL, Holland, ML, Demarest, K. Effect of the oxytocin antagonist atosiban (1-deamino-2-D-tyr(OET)-4-thr-8-orn-vasotocin/oxytocin) on nocturnal myometrial contractions, maternal cardiovascular function, transplacental passage, and fetal oxygenation in the pregnant baboon during the last third of gestation. Biol Reprod 1997;57:320–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thorp, JM. Jr, Mayer, D, Kuller, JA. Central hemodynamic effects of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (atosiban) in the isolated, perfused rat heart. J Soc Gynecol Investig 1999;6:186–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Mazze, RI, Kallen, B. Reproductive outcome after anesthesia and operation during pregnancy: A registry study of 5405 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:1178–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avila, WS, Rossi, EG, Ramires, JAF, et al. Pregnancy in patients with heart disease: Experience with 1000 cases. Clin Cardiol 2003;26:135–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhatla, N, Lal, S, Behera, G, et al. Cardiac disease in pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2003;82:153–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mishra, S, Narang, R, Sharma, M, et al. Percutaneous transseptal mitral commissurotomy in pregnant women with critical mitral stenosis. Indian Heart J 2001;53:192–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Parry, AJ, Westaby, S. Cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:1865–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mora, CT. Pregnancy and cardiopulmonary bypass. In: Mora, CT, ed. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Principles and Techniques of Extracorporeal Circulation. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1995. pp. 359–75.Google Scholar
Sepehripour, AH, Lo, TT, Shipolini, AR, et al. Can pregnant women be safely placed on cardiopulmonary bypass? Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg 2012;15:1063–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
John, AS, Gurley, F, Schaff, HV, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy. Ann Thorac Surg 2011;91:1191–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, BM, von Segesser, LK, Alon, E, et al. Outcome of cardiovascular surgery and pregnancy: A systematic review of the period 1984–1996. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:1643–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elassy, SMR, Elmidany, AA, Elbawab, HY. Urgent cardiac surgery during pregnancy: A continuous challenge. Ann Thorac Surg 2014;97:1624–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, DJ. Changing temperature management for cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 1999;88:1254–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicolini, F, Beghi, C, Muscari, C, et al. Myocardial protection in adult cardiac surgery: Current options and future challenges. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2003;24:986–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pomini, F, Mercogliano, D, Cavalletti, C, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:259–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahli, A, Izdes, S, Coskun, D. Cardiac operations during pregnancy: Review of factors influencing fetal outcome. Ann Thorac Surg 2000;69:1622–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ovrum, E, Holen, EA, Tangen, G, et al. Completely heparinized cardiopulmonary bypass and reduced systemic heparin: Clinical and hemostatic events. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;60:365–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnoni, RT, Arnoni, AS, Bonini, RCA, et al. Risk factors associated with cardiac surgery during pregnancy. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;76:1605–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karahan, N, Ozturk, T, Yetkin, U, et al. Managing severe heart failure in a pregnant patient undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: Case report and review of the literature. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004;18:339–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Tocolysis for Women in Preterm Labour. Green-top Guideline 1b, 2nd ed. London: RCOG, 2011.
Goldstein, I, Jakobi, P, Gutterman, E, et al. Umbilical artery flow velocity during maternal cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;60:1116–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, RG, Castro, LJ. Cardiac surgery during pregnancy. In: Elkayam, U, Gleicher, N, eds. Cardiac Problems in Pregnancy. 3rd edn. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1998. pp. 277–83.Google Scholar
Tehrani, H, Masroor, S, Lombardi, P, et al. Beating heart aortic valve replacement in a pregnant patient. J Card Surg 2004;19:57–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jahangiri, M, Clark, J, Prefumo, F, et al. Cardiac surgery during pregnancy: Pulsatile or nonpulsatile perfusion? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;126:894–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chambers, CE, Clark, SL. Cardiac surgery during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1994;37:316–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pardi, G, Ferrari, MM, Iorio, F, et al. The effect of maternal hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on fetal lamb temperature, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and acid–base balance. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;127:1728–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willcox, TW, Stone, P, Milsom, FP, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy: Possible new role for the intra-aortic balloon pump. J Extra Corpor Technol 2005;37:189–91.Google ScholarPubMed
Silberman, S, Fink, D, Berko, RS, Mendzelevski, B, Bitran, D. Coronary artery bypass surgery during pregnancy. Eur J Cardio-Thorac Surg 1996;10:925–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klutstein, MW, Tzivoni, D, Bitran, D, et al. Treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection: Report of three cases. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1997;40:372–6.3.0.CO;2-P>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aggarwal, N, Suri, V, Goyal, A, et al. Closed mitral valvotomy in pregnancy and labor. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2005;88:118–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elkayam, U, Bitar, F. Valvular heart disease and pregnancy. Part I: Native valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:223–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steer, P. The epidemiology of preterm labour. BJOG 2005;112:13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esteves, CA, Munoz, JS, Braga, S, et al. Immediate and long-term follow-up of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty in pregnant patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:812–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sebastian, C, Scherlag, M, Kugelmass, A, et al. Primary stent implantation for acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy: Use of abciximab, ticlopidine and aspirin. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1998;45:275–9.3.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abello, M, Peinado, R, Merino, JL, et al. Cardioverter defibrillator implantation in a pregnant woman guided with transesophageal echocardiography. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2003;26:1913–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Natarajan, MK, Paul, N, Mercuri, M, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement on radiation exposure from cardiac imaging and interventional procedures. Can J Cardiol 2013;29:1361–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirshfeld, JW, Balter, S, Brinker, JA, et al. ACCF/AHA/HRS/SCAI Clinical competence statement on physician knowledge to optimize patient safety and image quality in fluoroscopically guided invasive cardiovascular procedures. Circulation 2005;111:511–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dauer, LT, Thornton, RH, Miller, DL, et al. Radiation management for interventions using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance during pregnancy. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colletti, PM, Lee, KH, Elkayam, U. Cardiovascular imaging of the pregnant patient. AJR 2013;200:515–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Damilakis, J, Theocharopoulos, N, Perisinakis, K, et al. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from cardiac catheter ablation procedures. Circulation 2001;104:893–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myerson, SG, Mitchell, ARJ, Ormerod, OJM, et al. What is the role of balloon dilatation for severe aortic stenosis during pregnancy? J Heart Valve Dis 2005;14:147–50.Google ScholarPubMed
Saleh, MAAW, El Fiky, AA, Fahmy, M, et al. Use of biplane transesophageal echocardiography as the only imaging technique for percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy. Am J Cardiol 1996;78:103–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antonelli, D, Bloch, L, Rosenfeld, T. Implantation of permanent dual chamber pacemaker in a pregnant woman by transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999;22:534–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daehnert, I, Ewert, P, Berger, F, et al. Echocardiographically guided closure of a patent foramen ovale during pregnancy after recurrent strokes. J Interven Cardiol 2001;14:191–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bulas, D, Egloff, A. Benefits and risks of MRI in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 2013;37:301–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patenaude, Y, Pugash, D, Lim, K, et al. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the obstetric patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014;36:349–55.Google Scholar
Valverde, I, Hussain, T, Razavi, R. Novel imaging techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects: MR-guided interventions and beyond. Future Cardiol 2012;8:149–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roudijk, RW, Gujic, M, Suman-Horduna, I, et al. Catheter ablation in children and young adults: Is there an additional benefit from remote magnetic navigation? Neth Heart J 2012;21:296303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, GL, Loubeyre, C, Morice, MC. Safety and feasibility of the radial approach for primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy. J Invasive Cardiol 2002;14:359–62.Google Scholar
Presbitero, P, Prever, SB, Brusca, A. Interventional cardiology in pregnancy. Eur Heart J 1996;17:182–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elkayam, U, Bitar, F. Valvular heart disease and pregnancy: Part II: Prosthetic valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:403–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tzemos, N, Silversides, CK, Colman, JM, et al. Late cardiac outcomes after pregnancy in women with congenital aortic stenosis. Am Heart J 2009;157:474–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silversides, CK, Colman, JM, Sermer, M, et al. Cardiac risk in pregnant women with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1382–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hameed, A, Karaalp, IS, Tummala, PP, et al. The effect of valvular heart disease on maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:893–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Souza, JA, Martinez, EE, Ambrose, JA, et al. Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty in comparison with open mitral valve commissurotomy for mitral stenosis during pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:900–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Subbarao, KSVK, Nachiappan, M, Irineu, AP. Transventricular mitral commissurotomy in critical mitral stenosis during pregnancy. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2004;12:233–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iung, B, Nicoud-Houel, A, Fondard, O, et al. Temporal trends in percutaneous mitral commissurotomy over a 15-year period. Eur Heart J 2004;25:701–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delabays, A, Goy, JJ. Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. N Engl J Med 2001;345:e4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esteves, CA, Ramos, AIO, Braga, SLN, et al. Effectiveness of percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy during pregnancy. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:930–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pershad, A, Byrne, TJ, Morgan, JM, et al. Precipitous labor in association with percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty: Successful delivery in the catheterization laboratory. Cathet Cardiovasc Interv 2000;49:459–60.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sivadasanpillai, H, Srinivasan, A, Sivasubramoniam, S, et al. Long-term outcome of patients undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy in pregnancy. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:1504–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, TO. Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty by the Inoue balloon technique is the ideal procedure for treatment of significant mitral stenosis in pregnant women. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2000;57:323–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Siu, SC, Colman, JM. Heart disease and pregnancy. Heart 2001;85:710–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawson, J, Rodriguez, Y, De Marchena, E, et al. Aortic balloon valvuloplasty in pregnancy for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Int J Cardiol 2012;162:e12e13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, N, Rosaeg, OP, Chan, KL. Anaesthetic management of a parturient with pulmonary stenosis and aortic incompetence for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2003;90:241–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hameed, AB, Goodwin, TM, Elkayam, U. Effect of pulmonary stenosis on pregnancy outcomes. A case–control study. Am Heart J 2007;154:852–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lavoie, JP, Leduc, L, Mercier, LA. Embolic myocardial infarction in a pregnant woman with a mechanical heart valve on low molecular weight heparin. Can J Cardiol 2004;20:917–19.Google Scholar
Salazar, E, Espinola, N, Molina, FJ, et al. Heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnant women. Archivos Cardiol Mexico 2001;71:20–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Özkan, M, Çakal, B, Karakoyun, S, Gürsoy, OM, et al. Thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis in pregnancy with low-dose, slow infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Circulation 2013;128:532–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campuzano, K, Roque, H, Bolnick, A, et al. Bacterial endocarditis complicating pregnancy: Case report and systematic review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003;268:251–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 120: Use of prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1472–83.PubMed
Basak, S, Solomonsz, FA, Anumba, DO. Infective endocarditis affecting the pulmonary valve in pregnant intravenous drug users. J Obstet Gynecol 2011;31:7880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weissmann-Brenner, A, Schoen, R, Divon, MY. Aortic dissection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:1110–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, C, Schroeder, F, Fletcher, SN, Bigham, C, et al. Type A aortic dissection in pregnancy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2012;21:75–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Immer, FF, Bansi, AG, Immer-Bansi, AS, et al. Aortic dissection in pregnancy: Analysis of risk factors and outcome. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;76:309–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kay, WA, Cook, SC, Daniels, CJ. Evaluation by MRA of aortic dilation late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Int J Cardiol 2013;167:2922–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchesne, LM, Connolly, HM, Ammash, NM, et al. Coarctation of the aorta: Outcome of pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1728–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDermott, CD, Sermer, M, Siu, SC, et al. Aortic dissection complicating pregnancy following prophylactic aortic root replacement in a woman with Marfan syndrome. Int J Cardiol 2007;120:427–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siu, S, Colman, JM. Cardiovascular problems and pregnancy: An approach to management. Cleveland Clin J Med 2004;71:977–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbas, AE, Lester, SJ, Connolly, H. Pregnancy and the cardiovascular system. Int J Cardiol 2005;98:179–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ladner, HE, Danielsen, B, Gilbert, WM. Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy and the puerperium: A population-based study. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:480–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roth, A, Elkayam, U. Acute myocardial infarction associated with pregnancy. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:751–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elkayam, U, Jalnapurka, S, Barakkat, MN, et al. Pregnancy-associated acute myocardial infarction: A review of contemporary experience in 150 cases between 2006 and 2011. Circulation 2014;129:1695–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hameed, AB, Tummala, PP, Godwin, TM, et al. Unstable angina during pregnancy in two patients with premature coronary atherosclerosis and aortic stenosis in association with familial hypercholesterolemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;182:1152–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agostoni, P, Gasparini, G, Destro, G. Acute myocardial infarction probably caused by paradoxical embolus in a pregnant woman. Heart 2004;90:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM), et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: The Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011;32:3147–97.
Garry, D, Leikin, E, Fleisher, AG, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy with subsequent medical and surgical management. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:802–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Tang, ATM, Cusimano, RJ. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection complicating midterm pregnancy. Ann Thorac Surg 2004;78:e35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drenthen, W, Pieper, PG, Roos-Hesselink, JW, et al. Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: A literature review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:2303–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Veldtman, GR, Connolly, HM, Grogan, M, et al. Outcomes of pregnancy in women with tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:174–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krieger, EV, Landzberg, MJ, Economy, KE, et al. Comparison of risk of hypertensive complications of pregnancy among women with versus without coarctation of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 2011;107:1529–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Assaidi, A, Sbragia, P, Fraisse, A. Transcatheter therapy for aortic coarctation with severe systemic hypertension during pregnancy. Cathet Cardiovasc Interv 2013;82:556–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Ishikawa, T. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy during pregnancy—is it safe and effective? Circ J 2013;77:1146–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tuzcu, V, Kilinc, OU. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation without using fluoroscopy in a pregnant patient. PACE 2012;35:e265–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, JD, Helms, A, Mangrum, M, et al. Ablation of incessant left atrial tachycardia without fluoroscopy in a pregnant woman. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2011;22:346–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szumowski, L, Szufladowicz, E, Orczykowski, M, et al. Ablation of severe drug-resistant tachyarrhythmia during pregnancy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2010;21:877–82.Google Scholar
Gupta, S, Ettles, DF, Robinson, GJ, et al. Inferior vena cava filter use in pregnancy: Preliminary experience. BJOG 2008;115:785–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gevaert, S, Van Belleghem, Y, Bouchez, S, et al. Acute and critically ill peripartum cardiomyopathy and “bridge to” therapeutic options: a single center experience with intra-aortic balloon pump, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. Critical Care 2011;15:R93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaRue, S, Shanks, A, Wang, I, et al. Left ventricular assist device in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:426–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Etz, C, Welp, H, Scheld, HH, et al. Near fatal infection of a patient with a left ventricular assist device due to unrecognized fetal death. Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg 2005;27:722–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sim, SS, Chou, HC, Chen, JW, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in maternal arrhythmic cardiogenic shock. Am J Emerg Med 2012;30:1012,e3–1012.e5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
John, AS, Connolly, HM, Hartzell, V, et al. Management of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy: A case series and review of the literature. Int J Cardiol 2012;155:177–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed