Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-x2fsp Total loading time: 2.052 Render date: 2022-11-27T11:23:52.551Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 2 - Methods of Contraception

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2022

Johannes Bitzer
Affiliation:
University Women’s Hospital, Basel
Tahir A. Mahmood
Affiliation:
Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Further Reading

Trussell, J. Contraceptive efficacy. In Hatcher, R, Trussell, J, Nelson, A, et al. (Eds). Contraceptive Technology. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2011.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). Combined Hormonal Contraception. 2012. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/combined-hormonal-contraception/Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Family Planning: a Global Handbook for Providers. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44028/1/9780978856373_eng.pdf. Accessed August 10, 2018.Google Scholar
Roach, RE, Helmerhorst, FM, Lijfering, WM, Stijnen, T, Algra, A, Dekkers, OM. Combined oral contraceptives: the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD011054.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011054Google ScholarPubMed
Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet. 1996; 347:1713–27.Google Scholar
Marchbanks, PA, McDonald, JA, Wilson, HG et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 27; 346(26):2025–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Moreno, V, Bosch, FX, Muñoz, N, Meijer, CJ et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study Group. Lancet. 2002 Mar 30; 359(9312):1085–92.Google Scholar
Lopez, LM, Grimes, DA, Schulz, KF, Curtis, KM, Chen, M. Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD006033.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). Problematic Bleeding with Hormonal Contraception. 2015. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ceuguidanceproblematicbleedinghormonalcontraception/Google Scholar
Schaffir, J, Worly, BL, Gur, TL. Combined hormonal contraception and its effects on mood: a critical review. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2016 Oct; 21(5):347–55.Google ScholarPubMed
Gallo, MF, Grimes, DA, Schulz, KF, Helmerhorst, FM. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003; 2:CD003987.Google Scholar
Jensen, J, Speroff, L. Health benefits of oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol Clinics. 2000; 27: 705–21.Google ScholarPubMed
Hannaford, PC, Iversen, L, Macfarlane, TV, et al. Mortality among contraceptive pill users: cohort evidence from Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study. BMJ. 2010; 340:c927.Google ScholarPubMed
Proctor, ML, Roberts, H, Farquhar, CM. Combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2001; (2):CD002120.Google Scholar
Iyer, V, Farquhar, C, Jepson, R.: Oral contraceptive pills for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1999; 3: 3.Google Scholar
Goodman, NF, Cobin, RH Futterweit, W, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology and Androgen Excess and PCOS Society diseases state clinical review: Guide to best practices in the evaluation and treatment of PCO Syndrome – Part 1. Endocr Pract. 2015 Nov; 21(11):1291–300.Google Scholar
Arowojolu, AO, Gallo, MF, Lopez, LM, Grimes, DA, Garner, SE. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009 Jul; 8(3):CD004425. Review.Google Scholar
Moore, J, Kennedy, S, Prentice, A. Modern approach to combined oral contraceptives for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; 2:CD001019.Google Scholar
Pearlstein, TB, Bachmann, GA, Zacur, HA, Yonkers, KA. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with a new drosperinone-containing oral contraceptive formulation. Contraception. 2005; 72:414–21.Google ScholarPubMed
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/. Accessed 10.08. 2018.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016. 65(No. RR-4):166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). Progestogen-only Pills. 2015. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/cec-ceu-guidance-pop-mar-2015/.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/. Accessed August 10, 2018.Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep, 2016;65(No. RR-4):166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google ScholarPubMed
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. US Medical Eligibility Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use. 2016. www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/mmwr/mec/summary.html.Google Scholar
Samson, M, Porter, N, Orekoya, O, et al. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2016;155:312.Google ScholarPubMed
Curtis, KM, Martins, SL. Progestogen-only contraception and bone mineral density: a systematic review. Contraception 2006;73:470–87.Google ScholarPubMed
Mørch, L, Skovlund, C, Hannaford, P, et al. Contemporary contraception and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2017;377:2228–39.Google ScholarPubMed
Skovlund, CW, Mørch, LS, Kessing, LV, et al. Association of hormonal contraception with depression. JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73:1154–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Bitzer, J, Rapkin, A, Soares, CN. Managing the risks of mood symptoms with LNG-IUS: a clinical perspective. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2018 Oct;23(5):321–5.Google ScholarPubMed
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Heavy Menstrual Bleeding. 2007. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg44/evidence/full-guideline–195071293.Google Scholar
Darney, P, Patel, A, Rosen, K, Shapiro, LS, Kaunitz, AM. Safety and efficacy of a single-rod etonogestrel implant (Implanon): results from 11 international clinical trials. Fertil Steril 2009;91:1646–53.Google ScholarPubMed
Mansour, D et al. The effects of Implanon on menstrual bleeding patterns. European Journal Contracept Reproductive Health Care 2008;13(suppl1):1328.Google ScholarPubMed
Blumenthal, PD et al. Tolerability and clinical safety of Implanon. European Journal Contracept Reproductive Health Care 2008;13(suppl1):2936.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Pfizer Limited. Depo-Provera 150 mg/ml Injection. 2020. www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/6721/smpcGoogle Scholar
Pfizer Limited. SAYANA PRESS 104 mg/0.65 ml Suspension For Injection: Summary of Product Characteristics. 2020. www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/3148/smpc#grefGoogle Scholar
Bayer plc. Noristerat: Summary of Products Characteristics .2019. www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/35489/SPC#grefGoogle Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. Progestogen-Only Injectable Contraception. 2014. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/cec-ceu-guidance-injectables-dec-2014/Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-acting Reversible Contraception. 2005. www.nice.org.uk/pdf/CG030fullguidance.pdfGoogle Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. Overweight, Obesity & Contraception. 2019. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/fsrh-clinical-guideline-overweight-obesity-and-contracpetion/Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria For Contraceptive Use. UKMEC 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ukmec-2016-digital-version/Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. Problematic Bleeding with Hormonal Contraception. 2015. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/fsrh-guidance-contraception-for-women-aged-over-40-years–2017/Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Heavy Menstrual Bleeding. 2007. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg44/resources/guidance-heavy-menstrual-bleeding-pdfGoogle Scholar
European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology. Guideline on the management of women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2014; 29: 400–12.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. Intrauterine Contraception. FSRH, 2015. Available at www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance//documents/ceuguidanceintrauterinecontraception/Google Scholar
Trussell, J. Contraceptive efficacy. In Hatcher, R, Trussell, J, Nelson, A, et al. (Eds). Contraceptive Technology. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2011.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. Emergency Contraception. FSRH, 2017. Available at www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ceu-clinical-guidance-emergency-contraception-march–2017/Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. British National Formulary. Copper Intrauterine Devices. Available at https://bnf.nice.org.uk/drug/intra-uterine-contraceptive-devices-copper.htmlGoogle Scholar
Heinemann, K, Reed, S, Moehner, S, et al. Comparative contraceptive effectiveness of levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices: the European Active Surveillance Study for Intrauterine Devices. Contraception 2015; 91: 280–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. United Kingdom Medical Eligibility Criteria. FSRH, 2016. Available at www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ukmec-2016-digital-version/Google Scholar
British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. BASHH, 2018. Available atwww.bashhguidelines.org/media/1170/pid-2018.pdfGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

Wilkinson, D, Ramjee, G, Tholandi, M, Rutherford, G. Nonoxynol-9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of HIV infection by women from men, Cochrane Database SystRev. 2002; 4(CD003936).Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 3rd Ed. 2016, www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/SPR-3/en/Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Family planning: a global handbook for providers, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44028/1/9780978856373_eng.pdfGoogle Scholar
Black, A, Guilbert, E, Costescu, D, Dunn, S, Fisher, W, Kives, S. et al. Canadian Contraception Consensus Part 3, J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26(4):347–3.pdfGoogle Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, MMWR Recomm Rep 2016; 65(No. RR-4):1–66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1Google ScholarPubMed
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Barrier methods of birth control, www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/barrier-methods-of-birth-control-spermicide-condom-sponge-diaphragm-and-cervical-capGoogle Scholar
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Classifications for barrier methods, www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/mmwr/mec/appendixe.htmlGoogle Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. Clinical Guideline: Barrier methods for contraception and STI prevention (August 2012, amended October 2015), www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ceuguidancebarriermethodscontraceptionsdi/Google Scholar

Further Reading

Jennings, V, Polis, CB: Fertility awareness-based methods. In Hatcher, RA, Nelson, AL, Trussell, J, et al, Eds. Contraceptive Technology. 21st Ed. Ayer Company Publishers, 2018.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. 2018. ÉAvailable at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44028/1/9780978856373_eng.pdfGoogle Scholar
Wilcox, AJ, Dunson, D, Baird, DD: The timing of the “fertile window” in the menstrual cycle: day specific estimates from a prospective study. BMJ 2000;321:1259–62.Google ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 5th Ed. www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/familyplanning/MEC-5/en/Google Scholar
Black, A, Guilbert, E, Costescu, D, Dunn, S, Fisher, W, Kives, S. et al: Canadian Contraception Consensus Part 3. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;26(4):347–3.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). Fertility Awareness Methods. 2015. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/documents/ceuguidancefertilityawarenessmethods/Google Scholar
Frank-Herrmann, P, Heil, J, Gnoth, C et al: The effectiveness of a fertility awareness-based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Hum Reprod 2007 May;22(5):1310–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Dunson, DB, Sinai, I, Colombo, B: The relationship between cervical secretions and the daily probabilities of pregnancies: effectiveness of the 2-day algorithm. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2278–82.Google Scholar
Berglund Scherwitzl, E, Lundberg, O, Kopp-Kallner, H et al: Perfect use and typical use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app. Contraception 2017;96:420–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Urrutia, RP, Polis, CB: Fertility awareness-based methods for pregnancy prevention. BMJ 2019;366:I4245.Google ScholarPubMed
Urrutia, RP, Polis, CB, Jensen, ET et al: Effectiveness of fertility awareness-based methods for pregnancy prevention. Obstet Gynecol 2018;00:114.Google Scholar

Further Reading

United Nations. Levels and Trends of Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1988. New York: United Nations, 1992.Google Scholar
Ubeda, A, Labastida, R, Dexeus, S. Essure: a new device for hysteroscopic tubal sterilization in an outpatient setting. Fertil Steril 2004;82:196–9.Google Scholar
Bhiwandiwala, PP, Mumford, SD, Feldblum, PJ. A comparison of different laparoscopic sterilization occlusion techniques in 24,439 procedures. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144:319.Google ScholarPubMed
Davies, GC, Letchworth, AT Diamond, I. A comparison of Filshie and Hulka-Clemens clips used in sterilisation operation. J Obstet Gynecol 1990;10:251.Google Scholar
Hulka, JF. Methods of female sterilization. In Nichols, DH (Ed): Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993.Google Scholar
Westburg, J, Scott, F, Creinin, F. Safety outcomes of female sterilization by salpingectomy and tubal occlusion. Contraception 2017;95:505–8.Google Scholar
Curtis, K, Mohllajee, A, Peterson, H. Regret following female sterilization at a young age: a systematic review. Contraception 2006;73:205–10.Google Scholar
Cibula, D, Widschwendter, M, Majek, O, et al. Tubal ligation and the risk of ovarian cancer: review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2011;17:5567.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Dohle, GR, Diemer, T, Kopa, Z, Krausz, C, Giwercman, A, Jungwirth, A, et al. European Association of Urology guidelines on vasectomy. Eur Urol 2002;61:159–63.Google Scholar
Sharlip, ID, Belker, AM, Honig, S, Labrecque, M, Marmar, JL, Ross, LS, et al. Vasectomy: AUA guideline. J Urol 2012;188 (6 Suppl.): 2482–91.Google ScholarPubMed
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Male and Female Sterilisation (Evidence based Clinical Guideline Number 4). London: RCOG Press, 2004.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Benefits and risks of sterilization. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 46, September 2003 (replaces Technical Bulletin Number 222, April 1996). Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003;83:339–50.Google Scholar
The British Association of Urological Surgeons. Reversal of vasectomy: information about your procedure from BAUS. 2020: www.baus.org.uk/_userfiles/pages/files/Patients/Leaflets/Reversal%20of%20vasectomy.pdfGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

Bearak, J, Popinchalk, A, Alkema, L, et al. Global, regional, and subregional trends in unintended pregnancy and its outcomes from 1990 to 2014: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: e380e389.Google ScholarPubMed
Sundaram, A, Vaughan, B, Kost, K, et al. Contraceptive failure in the United States: estimates from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2017; 49: 716.Google ScholarPubMed
Wigginton, B, Harris, ML, Loxton, D, et al. Who takes responsibility for contraception, according to young Australian women? Sex Reprod Healthc 2018; 15: 29.Google ScholarPubMed
Sitruk-Ware, R and Nath, A. The use of newer progestins for contraception. Contraception 2010; 82: 410–17.Google Scholar
Roth, MY, Ilani, N, Wang, C, et al. Characteristics associated with suppression of spermatogenesis in a male hormonal contraceptive trial using testosterone and Nestorone(®) gels. Andrology 2013; 1: 899905.Google Scholar
Thirumalai, A, Ceponis, J, Amory, JK, et al. Effects of 28 days of oral dimethandrolone undecanoate in healthy men: a prototype male pill. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019; 104: 423–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Nieschlag, E, Kumar, N & Sitruk‐Ware, R. 7α‐methyl‐19‐nortestosterone (MENTR): the population council’s contribution to research on male contraception and treatment of hypogonadism. Contraception 2013; 87: 288– 95.Google ScholarPubMed
Wu, S, Yuen, F, Swerdloff, RS, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single dose novel oral androgen 11β-methyl-19-nortestosterone-17βdodecylcarbonate in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019; 104: 629–38.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Cleland, K, Zhu, H, Goldstuck, N, et al. The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception: a systematic review of 35 years of experience. Hum Reprod 2012; 27:1994.Google ScholarPubMed
Li, HW, Lo, SS, Ng, EH, Ho, PC. Efficacy of ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception and its effect on the subsequent bleeding pattern when administered before or after ovulation. Hum Reprod 2016; 31:1200.Google ScholarPubMed
Brache, V, Cochon, L, Deniaud, M, Croxatto, HB. Ulipristal acetate prevents ovulation more effectively than levonorgestrel: analysis of pooled data from three randomized trials of emergency contraception regimens. Contraception 2013; 88:611.Google ScholarPubMed
Gemzell-Danielsson, K, Berger, C, P G L L. Emergency contraception: mechanisms of action. Contraception 2013; 87:300.Google ScholarPubMed
Li, HWR, Resche-Rigon, M, Bagchi, IC, et al. Does ulipristal acetate emergency contraception (Ella®) interfere with implantation? Contraception 2019; 100:386.Google ScholarPubMed
Trussell, J, Cleland, K, Bimla Schwarz, E. Emergency contraception. In Contraceptive Technology, 21, Hatcher, RA, Nelson, AL, Trussell, J, Cwiak, C, Cason, P, Policar, MS, (Eds), Ayer Cmpany Publishers, Inc., New York, NY 2018. p.329–65.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. Emergency Contraception. Clinical Guideline. FSRH. 2017.Google Scholar
Piaggio, G, Kapp, N, von Hertzen, H. Effect on pregnancy rates of the delay in the administration of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a combined analysis of four WHO trials. Contraception 2011; 84:35.Google ScholarPubMed
Zhang, L, Chen, J, Wang, Y, et al. Pregnancy outcome after levonorgestrel-only emergency contraception failure: a prospective cohort study. Hum Reprod 2009; 24:1605.Google ScholarPubMed
Levy, DP, Jager, M, Kapp, N, Abitbol, JL. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception: postmarketing experience after use by more than 1 million women. Contraception 2014; 89:431.Google ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×