Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-42xl8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-06T15:35:27.561Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 June 2019

Jesse L. Reynolds
University of California, Los Angeles
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
The Governance of Solar Geoengineering
Managing Climate Change in the Anthropocene
, pp. 233 - 259
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abate, Randall S. 2006. “Dawn of a New Era in the Extraterritorial Application of US Environmental Statutes: A Proposal for an Integrated Judicial Standard Based on the Continuum of Context.Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 31 no. 1:87137, Scholar
Abbott, Kenneth W., Keohane, Robert O., Moravcsik, Andrew, Slaughter, Anne-Marie, and Snidal, Duncan. 2000. “The Concept of Legalization.International Organization 54 no. 3:401–19, DOI:10.1162/002081800551271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adelman, Sam. 2017. “Geoengineering: Rights, Risks and Ethics.Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 8 no. 1:119–38, DOI:10.4337/jhre.2017.01.06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adger, Neil W., Pulhin, Juan M., Barnett, Jon, Dabelko, Geoffrey D., Hovelsrud, Grete K., Levy, Marc, et al. 2014. “Human Security.” In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Field, Christopher B., Barros, Vicente R., Dokken, David Jon, Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael D., Bilir, T. Eren. et al., 755–92. New York: Cambridge University Press, Scholar
Alexander, Lisa V., Allen, Simon K., Bindoff, Nathaniel L., Bréon, François-Marie, Church, John A., Cubasch, Ulrich et al. 2013. “Summary for Policymakers.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Stocker, Thomas F., Dahe, Q., Plattner, Gian-Kasper, Tignor, Melinda M. B., Allen, Simon K., Boschung, Judith et al., 329. New York: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.Google Scholar
Allen, Myles, Babiker, Mustafa, Chen, Yang, de Coninck, Heleen, Connors, Sarah, van Diemen, Renée et al. 2018. “Summary for Policymakers.” In Global Warming of 1.5 °C: An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 °C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty, edited by Masson-Delmotte, Valérie, Zhai, Panmao, Pörtner, Hans-Otto, Roberts, Debra, Skea, Jim, Shukla, Priyadarshi R. et al., 326. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Scholar
Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke, R. A. et al. 2003. “Abrupt Climate Change.Science 299 no. 5615:2005–10, DOI:10.1126/science.1081056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Law Institute. 2009. Restatement of the Law Third: Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. Vol. 1. St. Paul: American Law Institute.Google Scholar
American Meteorological Society Council. 2009. “AMS Policy Statement on Geoengineering the Climate System.” Accessed March 8, 2019. Scholar
Anderson, J. W. 1997. The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change: The Negotiations over Global Warming. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
Anshelm, Jonas, and Hansson, Anders. 2014. “Battling Promethean Dreams and Trojan Horses: Revealing the Critical Discourses of Geoengineering.Energy Research & Social Science 2:135–44, DOI:10.1016/j.erss.2014.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armeni, Chiara, and Redgwell, Catherine. 2015a. “Geoengineering under National Law: A Case Study of Germany.” Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Paper 24, accessed March 8, 2019. Scholar
Armeni, Chiara, and Redgwell, Catherine. 2015b. “Geoengineering under National Law: A Case Study of the United Kingdom.” Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Paper 23, accessed March 8, 2019. Scholar
Armeni, Chiara, and Redgwell, Catherine. 2015c. “International Legal and Regulatory Issues of Climate Geoengineering Governance: Rethinking the Approach.” Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Paper 21, accessed March 8, 2019. Scholar
Asilomar Scientific Organizing Committee. 2010. The Asilomar Conference Recommendations on Principles for Research into Climate Engineering Techniques. Washington, DC: Climate Institute, Scholar
Baatz, Christian. 2016. “Can We Have It Both Ways? On Potential Trade-Offs between Mitigation and Solar Radiation Management.Environmental Values 25 no. 1:2949, DOI:10.3197/096327115X14497392134847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, Bidisha. 2011. “The Limitations of Geoengineering Governance in a World of Uncertainty.Stanford Journal of Law, Science, and Policy 4 no. 1:1536, Scholar
Barrett, Scott. 1994. “Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements.Oxford Economic Papers 46 no. 4:878–94, Scholar
Barrett, Scott. 2007. Why Cooperate? The Incentive to Supply Global Public Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, Scott. 2008. “The Incredible Economics of Geoengineering.Environmental and Resource Economics 39 no. 1:4554, DOI:10.1007/s10640-007-9174-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, Scott. 2010. Written Statement, In Geoengineering: Parts I, II, and III. Hearing before the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session and Second Session, November 5, 2009, February 4, 2010, and March 18, 2010, 312–20, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Scholar
Barrett, Scott. 2014. “Solar Geoengineering’s Brave New World: Thoughts on the Governance of an Unprecedented Technology.Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 8 no. 2:249–69, DOI:10.1093/reep/reu011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baum, Seth D., Maher, Timothy M., Jr., and Haqq-Misra., Jacob 2012. “Double Catastrophe: Intermittent Stratospheric Geoengineering Induced by Societal Collapse.Environment, Systems and Decisions 33 no. 1:168–80, DOI:10.1007/s10669-012-9429-y.Google Scholar
Bellamy, Rob, Chilvers, Jason, Vaughan, Naomi E., and Lenton, Timothy M.. 2012. “A Review of Climate Geoengineering Appraisals.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 3 no. 6:597615, DOI:10.1002/wcc.197.Google Scholar
Bellamy, Rob, and Healey, Peter. 2018. “‘Slippery Slope’ or ‘Uphill Struggle’? Broadening out Expert Scenarios of Climate Engineering Research and Development.Environmental Science & Policy 83:110, DOI:10.1016/j.envsci.2018.01.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benedick, Richard Elliot. 1998. Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Benedick, Richard Elliot. 2011. “Considerations on Governance for Climate Remediation Technologies: Lessons from the ‘Ozone Hole.’” Stanford Journal of Law, Science, and Policy 4 no. 1:69, Scholar
Bennear, Lori S., and Wiener, Jonathan B.. 2019. “Adaptive Regulation: Instrument Choice for Policy Learning over Time.” Working paper, Scholar
Bickel, J. Eric, and Lane, Lee. 2010. “Climate Engineering.” In Smart Solutions to Climate Change: Comparing Costs and Benefits, edited by Lomborg, Bjorn, 951. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511779015.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biermann, F., Abbott, K., Andresen, S., Bäckstrand, K., Bernstein, S., Betsill, M. M. et al. 2012. “Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance.Science 335 no. 6074:1306–7, DOI:10.1126/science.1217255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bipartisan Policy Center’s Task Force on Climate Remediation Research. 2011. Geoengineering: A National Strategic Plan for Research on the Potential Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Consequences of Climate Remediation Technologies. Washington, DC: Bipartisan Policy Center, Scholar
Birnie, Patricia W., Boyle, Alan E., and Redgwell, Catherine. 2009. International Law and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Black, Henry Campbell. 1910. A Law Dictionary Containing Definitions of the Terms and Phrases of American and English Jurisprudence, Ancient and Modern. St. Paul, MN: West.Google Scholar
Blackstock, Jason J., Moore, Nigel, and Siebert, Clarisse Kehler. 2011. “Engineering the Climate: Research Questions and Policy Implications.UNESCO-SCOPE-UNEP Policy Brief 14, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Scholar
Bodansky, Daniel. 1996. “May We Engineer the Climate?Climatic Change 33 no. 3:309–21, DOI:10.1007/bf00142579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bodansky, Daniel. 2000. “What’s So Bad about Unilateral Action to Protect the Environment?European Journal of International Law 11 no. 2:339–47, DOI:10.1093/ejil/11.2.339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bodansky, Daniel. 2011. “Governing Climate Engineering: Scenarios for Analysis.” The Harvard Project on Climate Agreements Discussion Paper 1147, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1963397.Google Scholar
Bodansky, Daniel. 2012. “What’s in a Concept? Global Public Goods, International Law, and Legitimacy.European Journal of International Law 23 no. 3:651–68, DOI:10.1093/ejil/chs035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bodansky, Daniel. 2013. “The Who, What, and Wherefore of Geoengineering Governance.Climatic Change 121 no. 3:539–51, DOI:10.1007/s10584-013-0759-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bodle, Ralph. 2010. “Geoengineering and International Law: The Search for Common Legal Ground.Tulsa Law Review 46 no. 2:305–22, Scholar
Boucher, Olivier, Randall, David, Artaxo, Paulo, Bretherton, Christopher, Feingold, Graham, Forster, Piers et al. 2013. “Clouds and Aerosols.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Stocker, Thomas F., Qin, Dahe, Plattner, Gian-Kasper, Tignor, Melinda. M.B., Allen, Simon K., Boschung, Judith et al., 571657. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.016.Google Scholar
Boucher, Olivier, Forster, Piers M., Gruber, Nicolas, Ha-Duong, Minh, Lawrence, Mark G., Lenton, Timothy M. et al. 2014. “Rethinking Climate Engineering Categorization in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 5 no. 1:2335, DOI:10.1002/wcc.261.Google Scholar
Boyle, A. E. 2005. “Globalising Environmental Liability: The Interplay of National and International Law.Journal of Environmental Law 17 no. 1:326, DOI:10.1093/envlaw/eqi001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyle, Alan. 2012. “Law of the Sea Perspectives on Climate Change.The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 27 no. 4:831–8, DOI:10.1163/15718085-12341244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brent, Kerryn. 2018. “Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering and Strict Liability for Ultrahazardous Activities.” In Global Environmental Change and Innovation in International Law, edited by Jefferies, Cameron S. G., Craik, Neil, Seck, Sara L., and Stephens, Tim, 161–79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/9781108526081.010.Google Scholar
Brent, Kerryn, McGee, Jeffrey, and Maguire, Amy. 2015. “Does the ‘No-Harm’ Rule Have a Role in Preventing Transboundary Harm and Harm to the Global Atmospheric Commons from Geoengineering?Climate Law 5 no. 1:3563, DOI:10.1163/18786561-00501007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, Chad. 2018. “Is Solar Geoengineering a US National Security Risk?” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics, and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 178–81. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Brownlie, Ian. 1985. “The Rights of Peoples in Modern International Law.Bulletin of the Australian Society of Legal Philosophy 9 no. 2:104–19, Scholar
Brownsword, Roger. 2008. Rights, Regulation, and the Technological Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruintjes, Roelof. 2015. Report of the Expert Team on Weather Modification Meeting, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 1719 March 2015. World Meteorological Organization, Scholar
Buchanan, Allen. 2003. “Reforming the International Law of Humanitarian Intervention.” In Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas, edited by Holzgrefe, J. L. and Keohane, Robert O., 130–74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511494000.005.Google Scholar
Buck, Holly Jean. 2012. “Geoengineering: Re-Making Climate for Profit or Humanitarian Intervention?Development and Change 43 no. 1:253–70, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01744.x.Google ScholarPubMed
Buck, Holly Jean. 2013. “Climate Engineering: Spectacle, Tragedy, or Solution? A Content Analysis of News Media Framing.” In Interpretive Approaches to Global Climate Governance. (De)Constructing the Greenhouse, edited by Methmann, Chris, Rothe, Delf, and Stephen, Benjamin, 166–80. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Budyko, Mikhail I. 1977. Climatic Changes. Translated by AGU Translation Board. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bunzl, Martin. 2011. “Geoengineering Harms and Compensation.Stanford Journal of Law, Science, and Policy 4 no. 1:6975, Scholar
Burns, Elizabeth T., Flegal, Jane A., Keith, David W., Mahajan, Aseem, Tingley, Dustin, and Wagner, Gernot. 2016. “What Do People Think When They Think about Solar Geoengineering? A Review of Empirical Social Science Literature, and Prospects for Future Research.Earth’s Future 4 no. 11:536–42, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000461.Google Scholar
Burns, William C. G. 2011. “Climate Geoengineering: Solar Radiation Management and Its Implications for Intergenerational Equity.Stanford Journal of Law, Science, and Policy 4 no. 1:3755, Scholar
Burns, William C.G. 2016. “The Paris Agreement and Climate Geoengineering Governance: The Need for a Human Rights-Based Component.CIGI Paper 111, Centre for International Governance Innovation, Scholar
Burton, Ian. 1994. “Deconstructing Adaptation … and Reconstructing.” Delta 5 no. 1:1415.Google Scholar
Bykvist, Krister. 2009. “Preference Formation and Intergenerational Justice.” In Intergenerational Justice, edited by Gosseries, Axel and Meyer, Lukas H., 301–23. Oxford: Oxford University Press, DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.001.0001.Google Scholar
Cairns, Rose C. 2014. “Climate Geoengineering: Issues of Path-Dependence and Socio-Technical Lock-In.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 5 no. 5:649–61, DOI:10.1002/wcc.296.Google Scholar
Cairns, Rose C. 2016. “Climates of Suspicion: ‘Chemtrail’ Conspiracy Narratives and the International Politics of Geoengineering.The Geographical Journal 182 no. 1:7084, DOI:10.1111/geoj.12116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cairns, Rose C., and Nightingale, Paul. 2014. “The Security Implications of Geoengineering: Blame, Imposed Agreement and the Security of Critical Infrastructure.Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Paper 18, Scholar
Callies, Daniel Edward. 2018. “The Slippery Slope Argument against Geoengineering Research.” Journal of Applied Philosophy. Online ahead of print:113, DOI:10.1111/japp.12345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campos, Nauro F., and Giovannoni, Francesco. 2007. “Lobbying, Corruption and Political Influence.Public Choice 131 no. 1:121, DOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9102-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carrico, Amanda R., Truelove, Heather Barnes, Vandenbergh, Michael P., and Dana, David. 2015. “Does Learning about Climate Change Adaptation Change Support for Mitigation?Journal of Environmental Psychology 41:1929, DOI:10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cascio, Jamais. 2009. Hacking the Earth: Understanding the Consequences of Geoengineering. Scholar
Chalecki, Elizabeth L., and Ferrari, Lisa L.. 2018. “A New Security Framework for Geoengineering.Strategic Studies Quarterly 12 no. 2:82106, Scholar
Chavez, Anthony E. 2015. “Exclusive Rights to Saving the Planet: The Patenting of Geoengineering Inventions.Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property 13 no. 1: article 1, Scholar
Chemnick, Jean. 2019. “U.S. Blocks U.N. Resolution on Geoengineering.” E&E News, March 15, 2019, Scholar
Chhetri, Netra, Chong, Dan, Conca, Ken, Falk, Richard, Gillespie, Alexander, Gupta, Aarti et al. 2018. Governing Solar Radiation Management. Forum for Climate Engineering Assessment, DOI:10.17606/M6SM17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chris, Robert. 2015. Systems Thinking for Geoengineering Policy: How to Reduce the Threat of Dangerous Climate Change by Embracing Uncertainty and Failure. London: Earthscan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Alma, and Siegelman, Peter. 2010. “Testing for Adverse Selection in Insurance Markets.Journal of Risk and Insurance 77 no. 1:3984, DOI:10.1111/j.1539-6975.2009.01337.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coleman, Jules L. 1995. “The Practice of Corrective Justice.Arizona Law Review 37 no. 1:1531, Scholar
Collingridge, David. 1980. The Social Control of Technology. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Colyvan, Mark, Cox, Damian, and Steele, Katie. 2010. “Modelling the Moral Dimension of Decisions.Noûs 44 no. 3:503–29, DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0068.2010.00754.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Contreras, Jorge L. 2015. “Patent Pledges.Arizona State Law Journal 47 no. 3:543608, Scholar
Corner, Adam, and Pidgeon, Nick. 2014. “Like Artificial Trees? The Effect of Framing by Natural Analogy on Public Perceptions of Geoengineering.Climatic Change 130 no. 3:425–38, DOI:10.1007/s10584-014-1148-6.Google Scholar
Corry, Olaf. 2017. “The International Politics of Geoengineering: The Feasibility of Plan B for Tackling Climate Change.Security Dialogue 48 no. 4:297315, DOI:10.1177/0967010617704142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and World Health Organization. 2016. International Ethical Guidelines for Health-Related Research Involving Humans. Geneva: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, Scholar
Craik, Neil. 2015. “International EIA Law and Geoengineering: Do Emerging Technologies Require Special Rules?Climate Law 5 no. 2–4:111–41, DOI:10.1163/18786561-00504002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, Neil, Blackstock, Jason J., and Hubert, Anna-Maria. 2013. “Regulating Geoengineering Research through Domestic Environmental Protection Frameworks: Reflections on the Recent Canadian Ocean Fertilization Case.Carbon & Climate Law Review 7 no. 2:117–24, DOI:10.21552/CCLR/2013/2/253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crutzen, Paul J. 2002. “Geology of Mankind.Nature 415 no. 6867:23, DOI:10.1038/415023a.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crutzen, Paul J. 2006. “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?Climatic Change 77 no. 3:211–20, DOI:10.1007/s10584-006-9101-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, Charles L., Sillmann, Jana, Bronaugh, David, Alterskjaer, Kari, Cole, Jason N. S., Ji, Duoying et al. 2014. “A Multi-Model Examination of Climate Extremes in an Idealized Geoengineering Experiment.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 no. 7:3900–23, DOI:10.1002/2013JD020648.Google Scholar
Dalby, Simon. 2015. “Geoengineering: The Next Era of Geopolitics?Geography Compass 9 no. 4:190201, DOI:10.1111/gec3.12195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalby, Simon. 2017. “Anthropocene Formations: Environmental Security, Geopolitics and Disaster.Theory, Culture & Society 34 no. 2–3:233–52, DOI:10.1177/0263276415598629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dari-Mattiacci., Giuseppe. 2009. “Negative Liability.The Journal of Legal Studies 38 no. 1:2159, DOI:10.1086/596197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dave, Dhaval, and Kaestner, Robert. 2009. “Health Insurance and Ex Ante Moral Hazard: Evidence from Medicare.International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 9 no. 4:367–90, DOI:10.1007/s10754-009-9056-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, Gareth. 2008. “Law and Policy Issues of Unilateral Geoengineering: Moving to a Managed World.” In Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, edited by Ruiz Fabri, Hélène, Wolfrum, Rüdiger, and Gogolin, Jana, 627–40. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
Davies, Gareth. 2010. “Framing the Social, Political, and Environmental Risks and Benefits of Geoengineering: Balancing the Hard-to-Imagine against the Hard-to-Measure.Tulsa Law Review 46 no. 2:261–82, Scholar
Davies, Gareth. 2013. “Privatisation and De-Globalisation of the Climate.Carbon & Climate Law Review 7 no. 3:187–93, DOI:10.21552/CCLR/2013/3/263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, William Daniel. 2009. “What Does “Green” Mean?: Anthropogenic Climate Change, Geoengineering, and International Environmental Law.” Georgia Law Review 43 no. 3:901–51, Scholar
de Coninck, Heleen, Revi, Aromar, Mustafa, Babiker, Bertoldi, Paolo, Buckeridge, Marcos, Cartwright, Anton et al. 2018. “Strengthening and Implementing the Global Response.” In Global Warming of 1.5 °C: An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 °C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty, edited by Masson-Delmotte, Valérie, Zhai, Panmao, Pörtner, Hans-Otto, Roberts, Debra, Skea, Jim, Shukla, Priyadarshi R. et al., 313–42. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Scholar
Dellink, Rob, Chateau, Jean, Lanzi, Elisa, and Bertrand, Magné. 2016. “Long-Term Economic Growth Projections in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways.Global Environmental Change 42:200–14, DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.06.004.Google Scholar
Dilling, Lisa, and Hauser, Rachel. 2013. “Governing Geoengineering Research: Why, When and How?Climatic Change 121 no. 3:553–65, DOI:10.1007/s10584-013-0835-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobbs, Dan, Hayden, Paul, and Bublick, Ellen. 2015. Hornbook on Torts. St. Paul, MN: West.Google Scholar
Drabiak-Syed, Katherine. 2010. “Lessons from Havasupai Tribe V. Arizona State University Board of Regents: Recognizing Group, Cultural, and Dignity Harms as Legitimate Risks Warranting Integration into Research Practice.Journal of Health & Biomedical Law 6 no. 2:175225, Scholar
Du, Haomiao. 2017. An International Legal Framework for Geoengineering: Managing the Risks of an Emerging Technology. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dykema, John A., Keith, David W., Anderson, James G., and Weisenstein, Debra. 2014. “Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment: A Small-Scale Experiment to Improve Understanding of the Risks of Solar Geoengineering.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 no. 2031: article 20140059, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2014.0059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eastham, Sebastian D., Weisenstein, Debra K., Keith, David W., and Barrett, Steven R. H.. 2018. “Quantifying the Impact of Sulfate Geoengineering on Mortality from Air Quality and UV-B Exposure.Atmospheric Environment 187: 424–34, DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.05.047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckersley, Robyn. 2017. “Geopolitan Democracy in the Anthropocene.Political Studies 65 no. 4:983–99, DOI:10.1177/0032321717695293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edenhofer, Ottmar, Pichs-Madruga, Ramon, Sokona, Youba, Field, Christopher, Barros, Vicente, Stocker, Thomas F. et al. 2012. IPCC Expert Meeting on Geoengineering, Lima, Peru, 20–22 June 2011 Meeting Report. Potsdam, Germany: IPCC Working Group III Technical Support Unit, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Scholar
Emmerling, Johannes, and Tavoni, Massimo. 2017a. “Geoengineering and Climate Change Mitigation: Trade-Offs and Synergies as Foreseen by Integrated Assessment Models.” In Climate Justice and Geoengineering: Ethics and Policy in the Atmospheric Anthropocene, edited by Preston, Christopher J., 175–88. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Emmerling, Johannes, and Tavoni, Massimo. 2017b. “Quantifying Non-Cooperative Climate Engineering.Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Working Paper 058–2017, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3090312.Google Scholar
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. 2012. “SPICE Update.” Scholar
Evans, Laurel, Milfont, Taciano L., and Lawrence, Judy. 2014. “Considering Local Adaptation Increases Willingness to Mitigate.Global Environmental Change 25:6975, DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.12.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairbrother, Malcolm. 2016. “Geoengineering, Moral Hazard, and Trust in Climate Science: Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Britain.Climatic Change 139 no. 3–4:477–89, DOI:10.1007/s10584-016-1818-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faure, Michael, and Peeters, Marjan, eds. 2011. Climate Change Liability. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Field, Christopher B., Barros, Vicente R., Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael D., van Aalst, Maarten K., Neil Adger, W. et al. 2014. “Technical Summary.” In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Field, Christopher B., Barros, Vicente R., Dokken, David Jon, Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael D., Bilir, T. Eren et al., 3594. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107415379.004.Google Scholar
Fleming, James R. 2007. “The Climate Engineers.” Wilson Quarterly, Spring 2007, 4660, Scholar
Foley, Rider W., Guston, David H., and Sarewitz, Daniel. 2018. “Towards the Anticipatory Governance of Geoengineering.” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 223–43. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Folke, Carl, Hahn, Thomas, Olsson, Per, and Norberg, Jon. 2005. “Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems.Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30 no. 1:441–73, DOI:10.1146/ Scholar
Foray, Dominique. 2004. The Economics of Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortune. 2018. “Global 500.” Scholar
Forum for Climate Engineering Assessment. n.d., accessed March 8, 2019. “Who We Are.” Scholar
Fountain, Henry. 2012. “A Rogue Climate Experiment Has Ocean Experts Outrages.” New York Times, October 19, 2012, A1, Scholar
Fragnière, Augustin, and Gardiner, Stephen M.. 2016. “Why Geoengineering Is Not ‘Plan B’” In Climate Justice and Geoengineering, edited by Preston, Christopher J., 1532. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Franckx, Erik, ed. 2001. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction: The Work of the ILA Committee on Coastal State Jurisdiction Relating to Marine Pollution (1991–2000). The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
Frank, Veronica. 2007. The European Community and Marine Environmental Protection in the International Law of the Sea: Implementing Global Obligations at the Regional Level. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frumhoff, Peter C., and Stephens, Jennie C.. 2018. “Towards Legitimacy of the Solar Geoengineering Research Enterprise.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 376 no. 2119: article 20160459, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2016.0459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galaz, Victor. 2014. Global Environmental Governance, Technology and Politics: The Anthropocene Gap. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardiner, Stephen M. 2010. “Is ‘Arming the Future’ with Geoengineering Really the Lesser Evil? Some Doubts about the Ethics of Intentionally Manipulating the Climate System.” In Climate Ethics: Essential Readings, edited by Gardiner, Stephen M., Caney, Simon, Jamieson, Dale, and Shue, Henry, 284312. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gardiner, Stephen M., and Fragnière., Augustin 2018. “The Tollgate Principles for the Governance of Geoengineering: Moving Beyond the Oxford Principles to an Ethically More Robust Approach.Ethics, Policy & Environment 21 no. 2:143–74, DOI:10.1080/21550085.2018.1509472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghosh, Arunabha. 2018. “Environmental Institutions, International Research Programmes, and Lessons for Geoengineering Research.” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics, and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 199213. London: Earthscan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ginzky, Harald, and Frost, Robyn. 2014. “Marine Geo-Engineering: Legally Binding Regulation under the London Protocol.Carbon & Climate Law Review 8 no. 2:8296, Scholar
Glienke, Susanne, Irvine, Peter J., and Lawrence, Mark G.. 2015. “The Impact of Geoengineering on Vegetation in Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP).Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 no. 19:10196–213, DOI:10.1002/2015JD024202.Google Scholar
Goeschl, Timo, Heyen, Daniel, and Juan, Moreno-Cruz. 2013. “The Intergenerational Transfer of Solar Radiation Management Capabilities and Atmospheric Carbon Stocks.Environmental and Resource Economics 56 no. 1:85104, DOI:10.1007/s10640-013-9647-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goeschl, Timo, and Pfrommer, Tobias. 2015. “Learning by Negligence: Torts, Experimentation, and the Value of Information,Department of Economics Discussion Paper 598, University of Heidelberg, DOI:10.11588/heidok.00019197.Google Scholar
Gore, Al. 1992. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Govindasamy, Bala, and Caldeira, Ken. 2000. “Geoengineering Earth’s Radiation Balance to Mitigate CO2-Induced Climate Change.Geophysical Research Letters 27 no. 14:2141–4, DOI:10.1029/1999GL006086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, John D., and Wiener, Jonathan Baert, eds. 1995. Risk vs. Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Great Barrier Reef Foundation. 2018. “Reef ‘Sun Shield’ Trials Show Promise to Prevent Coral Bleaching.” Scholar
Green, Jessica F. 2014. Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gunningham, Neil, Kagan, Robert A., and Thornton, Dorothy. 2004. “Social License and Environmental Protection: Why Businesses Go beyond Compliance.Law and Social Inquiry 29 no. 2:307–41, DOI:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00338.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guzman, Andrew T. 2008. How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, Benjamin. 2012. “The World That Would Have Been: Moral Hazard Arguments against Geoengineering.” In Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management, edited by Preston, Christopher J., 113–32. Lanham, MD: Lexington.Google Scholar
Halstead, John. 2018. “Stratospheric Aerosol Injection Research and Existential Risk.Futures 102:6377, DOI:10.1016/j.futures.2018.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, Clive. 2013. Earthmasters: The Dawn of the Age of Climate Engineering. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Hansson, Sven Ove. 2006. “Informed Consent out of Context.Journal of Business Ethics 63 no. 2:149–54, DOI:10.1007/s10551-005-2584-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harding, Anthony, and Moreno-Cruz, Juan B.. 2016. “Solar Geoengineering Economics: From Incredible to Inevitable and Half-Way Back.Earth’s Future 4 no. 12:569–77, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000462.Google Scholar
Harvard’s Solar Geoengineering Research Program. n.d., accessed March 8, 2019. “About Us.” Scholar
Hauser, Rachel. 2013. “Using Twentieth-Century US Weather Modification Policy to Gain Insight into Global Climate Remediation Governance Issues.Weather, Climate, and Society 5 no. 2:180–93, DOI:10.1175/WCAS-D-11-00011.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herter, Christian. 1971. “Memorandum of C. Herter, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Environmental Affairs.” In Administration of the National Environmental Policy Act: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, Second Session, 551. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Hester, Tracy. 2018. “Liability and Compensation.” In Climate Engineering and the Law: Regulation and Liability for Solar Radiation Management and Carbon Dioxide Removal, edited by Gerrard, Michael B. and Hester, Tracy, 224–68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/9781316661864.005.Google Scholar
Heutel, Garth, Moreno-Cruz, Juan, and Ricke, Katharine. 2016. “Climate Engineering Economics.Annual Review of Resource Economics 8 no. 3:99118, DOI:10.3386/w21711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heutel, Garth, Moreno-Cruz, Juan, and Shayegh, Soheil. 2018. “Solar Geoengineering, Uncertainty, and the Price of Carbon.Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 87:2441, DOI:10.1016/j.jeem.2017.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyen, Daniel. 2016. “Strategic Conflicts on the Horizon: R&D Incentives for Environmental Technologies.Climate Change Economics 7 no. 4: article 1650013, DOI:10.1142/s2010007816500135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyen, Daniel, Wiertz, Thilo, and Irvine, Peter James. 2015. “Regional Disparities in SRM Impacts: The Challenge of Diverging Preferences.Climatic Change 133 no. 4:557–63, DOI:10.1007/s10584-015-1526-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyward, Clare. 2013. “Situating and Abandoning Geoengineering: A Typology of Five Responses to Dangerous Climate Change.PS: Political Science and Politics 46 no. 1:23–7, DOI:10.1017/S1049096512001436.Google Scholar
Heyward, Clare. 2014. “Benefiting from Climate Geoengineering and Corresponding Remedial Duties: The Case of Unforeseeable Harms.Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 no. 4:405–19, DOI:10.1111/japp.12075.Google Scholar
Heyward, Clare, and Rayner, Steve. 2015. “Uneasy Expertise: Geoengineering, Social Science, and Democracy in the Anthropocene.” In Policy Legitimacy, Science and Political Authority: Knowledge and Action in Liberal Democracies, edited by Heazle, Michael and Kane, John, 101–21. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Honegger, Matthias, Derwent, Henry, Harrison, Nicholas, Michaelowa, Axel, and Stefan, Schäfer. 2018. Carbon Removal and Solar Geoengineering: Potential Implications for Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. New York: Carnegie Climate Geoengineering Governance Initiative, Scholar
Horton, Joshua B. 2011. “Geoengineering and the Myth of Unilateralism: Pressures and Prospects for International Cooperation.Stanford Journal of Law, Science, and Policy 4 no. 1:5669, Scholar
Horton, Joshua B. 2015. “The Emergency Framing of Solar Geoengineering: Time for a Different Approach.The Anthropocene Review 2 no. 2:147–51, DOI:10.1177/2053019615579922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horton, Joshua B., and Keith, David W.. 2019. “Solar Geoengineering and Parametric Insurance: A Proposal to Facilitate Agreement on Deployment.” Climate Policy, forthcoming.Google Scholar
Horton, Joshua B., Parker, Andrew, and Keith, David. 2015. “Liability for Solar Geoengineering: Historical Precedents, Contemporary Innovations, and Governance Possibilities.New York University Environmental Law Journal 22 no. 3:225–73, Scholar
Horton, Joshua B., and Reynolds, Jesse L.. 2016. “The International Politics of Climate Engineering: A Review and Prospectus for International Relations.International Studies Review 18 no. 3:438–61, DOI:10.1093/isr/viv013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horton, Joshua B., Reynolds, Jesse L., Buck, Holly Jean, Callies, Daniel, Schäfer, Stefan, Keith, David W., and Rayner, Steve. 2018. “Solar Geoengineering and Democracy.Global Environmental Politics 18 no. 3:524, DOI:10.1162/glep_a_00466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, David J., and Richardson, Lilliard E.. 2007. “Risk Compensation or Risk Reduction? Seatbelts, State Laws, and Traffic Fatalities.Social Science Quarterly 88 no. 4:913–36, DOI:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2007.00510.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubert, Anna-Maria. 2011. “The New Paradox in Marine Scientific Research: Regulating the Potential Environmental Impacts of Conducting Ocean Science.Ocean Development and International Law 42 no. 4:329–55, DOI:10.1080/00908320.2011.619368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubert, Anna-Maria. 2017. “Code of Conduct for Responsible Geoengineering Research.” Scholar
Hubert, Anna-Maria, and Reichwein, David. 2015. “An Exploration of a Code of Conduct for Responsible Scientific Research Involving Geoengineering: Introduction, Draft Articles and Commentaries.” IASS Working Paper, Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, DOI:10.2312/iass.2015.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulme, Mike. 2009. Why We Disagree about Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and Opportunity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulme, Mike. 2014. Can Science Fix Climate Change? A Case against Climate Engineering. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Huttunen, Suvi, Skytén, Emmi, and Hildén., Mikael 2015. “Emerging Policy Perspectives on Geoengineering: An International Comparison.The Anthropocene Review 2 no. 1:1432, DOI:10.1177/2053019614557958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, DOI:10.17226/1605Google Scholar
Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals. 2014. “Views about Geoengineering: Key Findings from Public Discussion Groups.” Scholar
Intellectual Ventures. 2009. “Intellectual Ventures’ Answers about Geoengineering,” Press release, October 23, 2009. Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2013. “Principles Governing IPCC Work.” Scholar
International Association Synthetic Biology. 2009. The IASB Code of Conduct for Best Practices in Gene Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: International Association Synthetic Biology, Scholar
International Civil Aviation Organization. 2008. Environmental Protection, Volume II: Aircraft Engine Emissions. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. Montréal: International Civil Aviation Organization.Google Scholar
International Council on Human Rights Policy. 2011. Beyond Technology Transfer: Protecting Human Rights in a Climate-Constrained World. Geneva: International Council on Human Rights Policy.Google Scholar
International Energy Agency. 2015. Energy and Climate Change: World Energy Outlook Special Report. Paris: International Energy Agency Scholar
International Energy Agency, and International Renewable Energy Agency. 2017. Perspectives for the Energy Transition: Investment Needs for a Low-Carbon Energy System, Scholar
International Institute for Sustainable Development. 1998. “Report of Cop-4.” Earth Negotiations Bulletin, November 16, 1998, Scholar
Irvine, Peter, Emanuel, Kerry, He, Jie, Horowitz, Larry W., Vecchi, Gabriel, and Keith, David. 2019. “Halving Warming with Idealized Solar Geoengineering Moderates Key Climate Hazards.” Nature Climate Change. Online ahead of print: 1–7, DOI:10.1038/s41558-019-0398-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irvine, Peter J., Kravitz, Ben, Lawrence, Mark G., and Helene, Muri. 2016. “An Overview of the Earth System Science of Solar Geoengineering.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 7 no. 6:815–33, DOI:10.1002/wcc.423.Google Scholar
Izrael, Y., Zakharov, V., Petrov, N., Ryaboshapko, A., Ivanov, V., Savchenko, A. et al. 2009. “Field Studies of a Geo-Engineering Method of Maintaining a Modern Climate with Aerosol Particles.Russian Meteorology and Hydrology 34 no. 10:635–8, DOI:10.3103/s106837390910001x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaeger, Jill. 1988. Developing Policies for Responding to Climatic Change: A Summary of the Discussions and Recommendations of the Workshops Held in Villach (28 September-2 October 1987) and Bellagio (9–13 November 1987) under the Auspices of the Beijer Institute, Stockholm. World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, Scholar
Jamieson, Dale. 1996. “Ethics and Intentional Climate Change.Climatic Change 33 no. 3:323–36, DOI:10.1007/bf00142580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jinnah, Sikina. 2018. “Why Govern Climate Engineering? A Preliminary Framework for Demand-Based Governance.” International Studies Review 20 no. 2:272–82, DOI:10.1093/isr/viy022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Eric E. 2008. “The Black Hole Case: The Injunction against the End of the World.Tennessee Law Review 76 no. 4:819908, Scholar
Jones, Gregory N. 1991. “Weather Modification: The Continuing Search for Rights and Liabilities.Brigham Young University Law Review no. 2:1163–99, Scholar
Kahan, Dan M., Jenkins-Smith, Hank, Tarantola, Tor, Silva, Carol L., and Braman, Donald. 2015. “Geoengineering and Climate Change Polarization: Testing a Two-Channel Model of Science Communication.Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science 658 no. 1:192222, DOI:10.1177/0002716214559002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kane, Sally, and Shogren, Jason F.. 2000. “Linking Adaptation and Mitigation in Climate Change Policy.Climatic Change 45 no. 1:75102, DOI:10.1023/a:1005688900676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kates, Robert W. 1997. “Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation.Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 39 no. 9:2933, DOI:10.1080/00139159709604767.Google Scholar
Keith, David. 2013. A Case for Climate Engineering. Cambridge, MA: Boston Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keith, David, and Dykema, John. 2018. “Why We Chose Not to Patent Solar Geoengineering Technologies.” Scholar
Keith, David W. 2000. “Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect.Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25 no. 1:245–84, DOI:10.1146/ Scholar
Keith, David W. 2010. “Photophoretic Levitation of Engineered Aerosols for Geoengineering.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 no. 38:16428–31, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1009519107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keith, David W., and Dowlatabadi, Hadi. 1992. “A Serious Look at Geoengineering.EOS 73 no. 27:289, 9293, DOI:abs/10.1029/91EO00231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keith, David W., and Irvine, Peter J.. 2016. “Solar Geoengineering Could Substantially Reduce Climate Risks: A Research Hypothesis for the Next Decade.Earth’s Future 4 no. 11:549–59, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000465.Google Scholar
Keith, David W., Wagner, Gernot, and Zabel, Claire L.. 2017. “Solar Geoengineering Reduces Atmospheric Carbon Burden.Nature Climate Change 7 no. 9:617–19, DOI:10.1038/nclimate3376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keith, David W., Weisenstein, Debra K., Dykema, John A., and Keutsch, Frank N.. 2016. “Stratospheric Solar Geoengineering without Ozone Loss.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 no. 52:14910–14, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1615572113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kellogg, William W., and Schneider, Stephen H.. 1974. “Climate Stabilization: For Better or for Worse?Science 186 no. 4170:1163–72, DOI:10.1126/science.186.4170.1163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kempner, Joanna, Merz, Jon F., and Bosk, Charles L.. 2011. “Forbidden Knowledge: Public Controversy and the Production of Nonknowledge.Sociological Forum 26 no. 3:475500, DOI:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2011.01259.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 2015. “The Global Politics of Climate Change: Challenge for Political Science.PS: Political Science & Politics 48 no. 1:1926, DOI:10.1017/S1049096514001541.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O., and Nye, Joseph S. Jr.. 2011. Power and Interdependence. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Longman.Google Scholar
Klepper, Gernot, and Rickels, Wilfried. 2014. “Climate Engineering: Economic Considerations and Research Challenges.Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 8 no. 2:270–89, DOI:10.1093/reep/reu010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klimont, Z., Smith, S. J., and Cofala, J.. 2013. “The Last Decade of Global Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide: 2000–2011 Emissions.Environmental Research Letters 8 no. 1:014003, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kössler, Georg P. 2012. Geo-Engineering: Gibt Es Wirklich Einen Plan(Eten) B? Berlin: Heinrich Böll Foundation, Scholar
Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Robock, Alan, Rasch, Philip J., Ricke, Katharine L., Cole, Jason N. S. et al. 2014. “A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering.Environmental Research Letters 9 no. 7:074013, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/074013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krieger, Martin H. 1973. “What’s Wrong with Plastic Trees? Rationales for Preserving Rare Natural Environments Involve Economic, Societal, and Political Factors.Science 179 no. 4072:446–55, DOI:10.1126/science.179.4072.446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kruger, Tim. 2018. “A Commentary on the Oxford Principles.” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 190–8. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Lasswell, Harold D. 1936. Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Latham, John, Gadian, Alan, Fournier, Jim, Parkes, Ben, Wadhams, Peter, and Chen, Jack. 2014. “Marine Cloud Brightening: Regional Applications.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 no. 2031: article 20140053, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2014.0053.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lederer, Markus, and Kreuter, Judith. 2018. “Organising the Unthinkable in Times of Crises: Will Climate Engineering Become the Weapon of Last Resort in the Anthropocene?Organization 25 no. 4:472–90, DOI:10.1177/1350508418759186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lefale, Penehuro F., and Anderson, Cheryl Lea. 2018. “Climate Engineering and Small Island States: Panacea or Catastrophe?” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 159–63. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Lefeber, René. 2012. “Climate Change and State Responsibility.” In International Law in the Era of Climate Change, edited by Rayfuse, Rosemary and Scott, Shirley V., 321–49. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, DOI:10.4337/9781781006085.Google Scholar
Lempert, Robert J., and Prosnitz, Don. 2011. Governing Geoengineering Research: A Political and Technical Vulnerability Analysis of Potential Near-Term Options. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, Scholar
Lessig, Lawrence. 2009. Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace. 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Liebowitz, Stan J., and Margolis, Stephen E.. 2013. “The Troubled Path of the Lock-In Movement.Journal of Competition Law and Economics 9 no. 1:125–52, DOI:10.1093/joclec/nhs034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Albert. 2013. “Does Geoengineering Present a Moral Hazard?Ecology Law Quarterly 40 no. 3:673712, DOI:10.15779/Z38JP1J.Google Scholar
Lin, Albert. 2016. “The Missing Pieces of Geoengineering Research Governance.Minnesota Law Review 100 no. 6:2509–76, Scholar
Lin, Albert. 2018. “US Law.” In Climate Engineering and the Law, edited by Gerrard, Michael B. and Hester, Tracy, 154223. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/9781316661864.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Jolene. 2014. “Geoengineering: An ASEAN Position.” In Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, edited by Kheng-Lian, Koh, Kelman, Ilan, Kibugi, Robert, and Eisma Osorio, Rose-Liza, 191212. Singapore: World Scientific, DOI:10.1142/9789814689748_0008.Google Scholar
Lind, Michael. 2013. “Democracy, Hacked.” New York Times, February 10, 2013, BR11, Scholar
Liu, Zhe, and Chen, Ying. 2013. “Geoengineering: Ethical Considerations and Global Governance.Chinese Journal of Urban and Environmental Studies 01 no. 01: article 1350006, DOI:10.1142/S2345748113500061.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Ian D., and Oppenheimer, Michael. 2014. “On the Design of an International Governance Framework for Geoengineering.Global Environmental Politics 14 no. 2:4563, DOI:10.1162/GLEP_a_00228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lockley, Andrew, and Coffman, D’Maris. 2016. “Distinguishing Morale Hazard from Moral Hazard in Geoengineering.Environmental Law Review 18 no. 3:194204, DOI:10.1177/1461452916659830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lohmann, Ulrike, and Gasparini, Blaž. 2017. “A Cirrus Cloud Climate Dial?Science 357 no. 6348:248–9, DOI:10.1126/science.aan3325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Long, Jane C. S., and Scott, Dane. 2013. “Vested Interests and Geoengineering Research.Issues in Science and Technology 29 no. 3:4552, Scholar
Long, Jane C. S., and Shepherd, John G.. 2014. “The Strategic Value of Geoengineering Research.” In Global Environmental Change, edited by Freedman, Bill, 757–70. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-5784-4_24.Google Scholar
Lord, Richard, Goldberg, Silke, Rajamani, Lavanya, and Brunnée, Jutta, eds. 2011. Climate Change Liability: Transnational Law and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maas, Achim, and Comardicea, Irina. 2013. “Climate Gambit: Engineering Climate Security Risks?” In Backdraft: The Conflict Potential of Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, edited by Dabelko, Geoffrey D., Herzer, Lauren, Null, Schuyler, Parker, Meaghan, and Sticklor, Russell, 3748. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.Google Scholar
Maas, Achim, and Scheffran, Jürgen. 2012. “Climate Conflicts 2.0? Climate Engineering as Challenge for International Peace and Security.” Sicherheit und Frieden 30 no. 4:193200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacCracken, Michael. 2006. “Geoengineering: Worthy of Cautious Evaluation?Climatic Change 77 no. 3:235–43, DOI:10.1007/s10584-006-9130-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacMartin, Douglas G., and Kravitz, Ben. 2019. “The Engineering of Climate Engineering.Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems 2: online ahead of print: 123, DOI:10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacMartin, Douglas G., Ricke, Katharine L., and Keith, David W.. 2018. “Solar Geoengineering as Part of an Overall Strategy for Meeting the 1.5°C Paris Target.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 376 no. 2119: article 20160454, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2016.0454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahoney, James. 2000. “Path Dependence in Historical Sociology.Theory and Society 29 no. 4:507–48, DOI:10.1023/a:1007113830879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maler, Karl-Göran. 1989. “The Acid Rain Game.” In Studies in Environmental Science, edited by Folmer, H. and van lerland, E., 231–52. Amsterdam: Elsevier, DOI:10.1016/S0166-1116(08)70035-9.Google Scholar
Manoussi, Vassiliki, and Xepapadeas, Anastasios. 2015. “Cooperation and Competition in Climate Change Policies: Mitigation and Climate Engineering When Countries Are Asymmetric.Environmental and Resource Economics 66 no. 4:605–27, DOI:10.1007/s10640-015-9956-3.Google Scholar
Marine Cloud Brightening for the Great Barrier Reef. n.d., accessed January 22, 2019. Scholar
Marine Cloud Brightening for the Great Barrier Reef. n.d. “Intellectual Property.” accessed January 22, 2019. Scholar
Markusson, Nils, Ginn, Franklin, Ghaleigh, Navraj Singh, and Scott, Vivian. 2014. “‘In Case of Emergency Press Here’: Framing Geoengineering as a Response to Dangerous Climate Change.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 5 no. 2:281–90, DOI:10.1002/wcc.263.Google Scholar
Marshall, Michael. 2012. “Independent Geoengineer’s Ocean Field Test Condemned.” New Scientist, October 17, 2012, Scholar
McClellan, Justin, Keith, David W., and Apt, Jay. 2012. “Cost Analysis of Stratospheric Albedo Modification Delivery Systems.Environmental Research Letters 7 no. 3:034019, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCormack, Caitlin G., Born, Wanda, Irvine, Peter J., Achterberg, Eric P., Amano, Tatsuya, Ardron, Jeff et al. 2016. “Key Impacts of Climate Engineering on Biodiversity and Ecosystems, with Priorities for Future Research.Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 13 no. 2–4:103–28, DOI:10.1080/1943815X.2016.1159578.Google Scholar
McDonald, Matt. 2018. “Climate Change and Security: Towards Ecological Security?International Theory 10 no. 2:153–80, DOI:10.1017/S1752971918000039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKenzie, Richard B., and Tullock, Gordon. 1981. The New World of Economics: Explorations into the Human Experience. Homewood, IL: R. D. Irwin.Google Scholar
McKinnon, Catriona. 2019. “Sleepwalking into Lock-In? Avoiding Wrongs to Future People in the Governance of Solar Radiation Management Research.” Environmental Politics 28 no. 3: 441–59, DOI:10.1080/09644016.2018.1450344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaren, Duncan. 2016. “Mitigation Deterrence and the ‘Moral Hazard.’” Earth’s Future 4 no. 12:596602, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNutt, Marcia. 2016. “Climate Intervention: Possible Impacts on Global Security and Resilience.Engineering 2 no. 1:50–1, DOI:10.1016/j.eng.2016.01.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, A. M., Keith, David W., and Sharp, J. D.. 2011. “Public Understanding of Solar Radiation Management.Environmental Research Letters 6 no. 4: article 044006, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merges, Robert P., and Nelson, Richard R.. 1990. “On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope.Columbia Law Review 90 no. 4:839916, DOI:10.2307/1122920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merk, Christine, and Pönitzsch., Gert 2017. “The Role of Affect in Attitude Formation toward New Technologies: The Case of Stratospheric Aerosol Injection.Risk Analysis 37 no. 12:2289–304, DOI:10.1111/risa.12780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merk, Christine, Pönitzsch, Gert, Kniebes, Carola, Rehdanz, Katrin, and Schmidt, Ulrich. 2015. “Exploring Public Perceptions of Stratospheric Sulfate Injection.Climatic Change 130 no. 2:299312, DOI:10.1007/s10584-014-1317-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merk, Christine, Pönitzsch, Gert, and Rehdanz, Katrin. 2016. “Knowledge about Aerosol Injection Does Not Reduce Individual Mitigation Efforts.Environmental Research Letters 11 no. 5: article 054009, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merk, Christine, Pönitzsch, Gert, and Rehdanz, Katrin. 2019. “Do Climate Engineering Experts Display Moral-Hazard Behaviour?Climate Policy 19 no. 2: 231–43, DOI:10.1080/14693062.2018.1494534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michaelson, Jay. 1998. “Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project.Stanford Environmental Law Journal 17 no. 1:73140, Scholar
Millard-Ball, Adam. 2012. “The Tuvalu Syndrome: Can Geoengineering Solve Climate’s Collective Action Problem?Climatic Change 110 no. 3–4:1047–66, DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0102-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno-Cruz, Juan B. 2015. “Mitigation and the Geoengineering Threat.Resource and Energy Economics 41:248–63, DOI:10.1016/j.reseneeco.2015.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno-Cruz, Juan B., and Keith, David W.. 2013. “Climate Policy under Uncertainty: A Case for Solar Geoengineering.Climatic Change 121 no. 3:431–44, DOI:10.1007/s10584-012-0487-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan, M. Granger, Nordhaus, Robert R., and Gottlieb, Paul. 2013. “Needed: Research Guidelines for Solar Radiation Management.” Issues in Science and Technology 29 no. 3:3744, Scholar
Moriyama, Ryo, Sugiyama, Masahiro, Kurosawa, Atsushi, Masuda, Kooiti, Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro, and Ishimoto, Yuki. 2016. “The Cost of Stratospheric Climate Engineering Revisited.Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 22 no. 8:1207–28, DOI:10.1007/s11027-016-9723-y.Google Scholar
Morrow, David R. 2014a. “Why Geoengineering Is a Public Good, Even If It Is Bad.Climatic Change 123 no. 2:95100, DOI:10.1007/s10584-013-0967-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, David R. 2014b. “Ethical Aspects of the Mitigation Obstruction Argument against Climate Engineering Research.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 no. 2031: article 20140062, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2014.0062.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrow, David R. 2014c. “Starting a Flood to Stop a Fire? Some Moral Constraints on Solar Radiation Management.Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 no. 2:123–38, DOI:10.1080/21550085.2014.926056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, David R., Kopp, Robert E., and Oppenheimer, Michael. 2009. “Toward Ethical Norms and Institutions for Climate Engineering Research.Environmental Research Letters 4 no. 4: article 045106, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, David R., Kopp, Robert E., and Oppenheimer, Michael. 2013. “Political Legitimacy in Decisions about Experiments in Solar Radiation Management.” In Climate Change Geoengineering, edited by Burns, William C. G. and Strauss, Andrew L., 146–67. New York: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139161824.009.Google Scholar
Morton, Oliver. 2015. The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, Oliver. 2018. “Nitrogen Geoengineering.” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics, and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 34–7. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Mueller, Dennis C. 2003. Public Choice III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nash, Jonathan Remy. 2009. “The Curious Legal Landscape of the Extraterritoriality of US Environmental Laws.Virginia Journal of International Law 50 no. 4:9971020, Scholar
National Research Council, Committee on Geoengineering Climate. 2015a. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, DOI:10.17226/18805.Google Scholar
National Research Councils, Committee on Geoengineering Climate. 2015b. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, DOI:10.17226/18988.Google Scholar
Necheles, Ella, Burns, Lizzie, and Keith, David. 2018. “Funding for Solar Geoengineering from 2008 to 2018.” Scholar
Nicholson, Simon, Jinnah, Sikina, and Gillespie, Alexander. 2018. “Solar Radiation Management: A Proposal for Immediate Polycentric Governance.Climate Policy 18 no. 3:322–34, DOI:10.1080/14693062.2017.1400944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nordhaus, William D. 2008. A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph S. 2018a. “Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict.Cyber Security: A Peer-Reviewed Journal 1 no. 4:331–42, Scholar
Nye, Joseph S. 2018b. “Notes on Insights from Other Regimes: Cyber.” In Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering, 55–9. Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. Scholar
Oldham, P., Szerszynski, B., Stilgoe, J., Brown, C., Eacott, B., and Yuille, A.. 2014. “Mapping the Landscape of Climate Engineering.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 no. 2031: article 20140065, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2014.0065.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olson, Robert L. 2011. Geoengineering for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Scholar
Owen, Richard. 2014. “Solar Radiation Management and the Governance of Hubris.” In Geoengineering of the Climate System, edited by Hester, R. E. and Harrison, R. M., 212–48. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI:10.1039/9781782621225-00212.Google Scholar
Parker, A., Horton, J. B., and Keith, D. W.. 2018. “Stopping Solar Geoengineering through Technical Means: A Preliminary Assessment of Counter‐Geoengineering.Earth’s Future 6 no. 8:1058–65, DOI:10.1029/2018EF000864.Google Scholar
Parker, Andy. 2014. “Governing Solar Geoengineering Research as It Leaves the Laboratory.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 no. 2031: article 20140173, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2014.0173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, Andy, and Irvine, Peter J.. 2018. “The Risk of Termination Shock from Solar Geoengineering.Earth’s Future 6 no. 3:456–67, DOI:10.1002/2017EF000735.Google Scholar
Parkes, B., Challinor, A., and Nicklin, K.. 2015. “Crop Failure Rates in a Geoengineered Climate: Impact of Climate Change and Marine Cloud Brightening.Environmental Research Letters 10 no. 8: article 084003, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/084003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parson, Edward A. 2003. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parson, Edward A. 2014. “Climate Engineering in Global Climate Governance: Implications for Participation and Linkage.Transnational Environmental Law 3 no. 1:89110, DOI:10.1017/S2047102513000496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parson, Edward A. 2015. “Expertise and Evidence in Public Policy: In Defence of (a Little) Technocracy.” In A Subtle Balance: Expertise, Evidence, and Democracy in Public Policy and Governance, 1970–2010, edited by Parson, Edward A., 4250. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
Parson, Edward A. 2017a. “Starting the Dialogue on Climate Engineering Governance: A World Commission.” Fixing Climate Governance Series Policy Brief8, Centre for International Governance Innovation, Scholar
Parson, Edward A. 2017b. “Climate Policymakers and Assessments Must Get Serious about Climate Engineering.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 no. 35:9227–30, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1713456114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parson, Edward A., and Ernst, Lia N.. 2013. “International Governance of Climate Engineering.Theoretical Inquiries in Law 14 no. 1:307–38, DOI:10.1515/til-2013-015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parson, Edward A., and Herzog, Megan M.. 2016. “Moratoria for Global Governance and Contested Technology: The Case of Climate Engineering.” UCLA Public Law & Legal Theory Series, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law, Scholar
Parson, Edward A., and Keith, David W.. 2013. “End the Deadlock on Governance of Geoengineering Research.Science 339 no. 6125:1278–9, DOI:10.1126/science.1232527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parthasarathy, Shobita, Avery, Christopher, Hedberg, Nathan, Mannisto, Jessie, and Maguire, Molly. 2010. “A Public Good? Geoengineering and Intellectual Property.” 1011, University of Michigan Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, Scholar
Pasztor, Janos, Scharf, Cynthia, and Schmidt, Kai-Uwe. 2017. “How to Govern Geoengineering?Science 357 no. 6348:231, DOI:10.1126/science.aan6794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peltzman, Sam. 1975. “The Effects of Automobile Safety Regulation.Journal of Political Economy 83 no. 4:677725, DOI:10.2307/1830396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, Ronen. 2005. “The Role of Retributive Justice in the Common Law of Torts: A Descriptive Theory.Tennessee Law Review 73 no. 2:177236, Scholar
Pew Research Center. n.d. “Political Issue Priorities.” accessed March 13, 2019. Scholar
Pfrommer, Tobias. 2018. “A Model of Solar Radiation Management Liability.” Department of Economics Discussion Paper, University of Heidelberg, DOI:10.11588/heidok.00023978.Google Scholar
Pfrommer, Tobias, Goeschl, Timo, Proelss, Alexander, Carrier, Martin, Lenhard, Johannes, Martin, Henrike, Niemeier, Ulrike, and Schmidt, Hauke. 2019. “Establishing Causation in Climate Litigation: Admissibility and Reliability.Climatic Change 152 no. 1: 6784, DOI:10.1007/s10584-018-2362-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pidgeon, Nick, Parkhill, Karen, Corner, Adam, and Vaughan, Naomi. 2013. “Deliberating Stratospheric Aerosols for Climate Geoengineering and the SPICE Project.Nature Climate Change 3 no. 5:451–7, DOI:10.1038/nclimate1807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pielke, Roger A., Jr. 1998. “Rethinking the Role of Adaptation in Climate Policy.Global Environmental Change 8 no. 2:159–70, DOI:10.1016/s0959-3780(98)00011-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pielke, Roger A. 2010. The Climate Fix: What Scientists and Politicians Won’t Tell You about Global Warming. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Pielke, Roger, Jr., Prins, Gwyn, Rayner, Steve, and Sarewitz, Daniel. 2007. “Lifting the Taboo on Adaptation.Nature 445 no. 7128:597–8, DOI:10.1038/445597a.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porat, Ariel. 2009. “Private Production of Public Goods: Liability for Unrequested Benefits.Michigan Law Review 108 no. 2:189227, Scholar
Posner, Eric A., and Sykes, Alan O.. 2013. Economic Foundations of International Law. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.Google Scholar
Preston, Christopher J., ed. 2017. Climate Justice and Geoengineering: Ethics and Policy in the Atmospheric Anthropocene. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Proctor, Jonathan, Hsiang, Solomon, Burney, Jennifer, Burke, Marshall, and Schlenker, Wolfram. 2018. “Estimating Global Agricultural Effects of Geoengineering Using Volcanic Eruptions.Nature 560 no. 7719:480–3, DOI:10.1038/s41586-018-0417-3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qu, Jingwen, and Delfino Silva, Emilson Caputo. 2015. “Strategic Effects of Future Environmental Policy Commitments: Climate Change, Solar Radiation Management and Correlated Air Pollutants.Journal of Environmental Management 151:2232, DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.11.033.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quaas, Johannes, Quaas, Martin F., Boucher, Olivier, and Rickels, Wilfried. 2016. “Regional Climate Engineering by Radiation Management: Prerequisites and Prospects.Earth’s Future 4 no. 12:618–25, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000440.Google Scholar
Quaas, Martin F., Quaas, Johannes, Rickels, Wilfried, and Boucher, Olivier. 2017. “Are There Reasons against Open-Ended Research into Solar Radiation Management? A Model of Intergenerational Decision-Making under Uncertainty.Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 84:117, DOI:10.1016/j.jeem.2017.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabitz, Florian. 2016. “Going Rogue? Scenarios for Unilateral Geoengineering.Futures 84 no. A:98107, DOI:10.1016/j.futures.2016.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabitz, Florian. 2019. “Governing the Termination Problem in Solar Radiation Management.” Environmental Politics 28 no. 3: 502–22, DOI:10.1080/09644016.2018.1519879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rahman, A. Atiq, Artaxo, Paulo, Asrat, Asfawossen, and Parker, Andy. 2018. “Developing Countries Must Lead on Solar Geoengineering Research.Nature 556 no. 7699:22–4, DOI:10.1038/d41586-018-03917-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rayner, Steve. 1991. “The Greenhouse Effect in the US: The Legacy of Energy Abundance.” In Energy Policies and the Greenhouse Effect, edited by Grubb, Michael, 233–78. Dartmouth: Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
Rayner, Steve. 2015. “To Know or Not to Know? A Note on Ignorance as a Rhetorical Resource in Geoengineering Debates.” In Routledge International Handbook of Ignorance Studies, edited by Gross, Matthias and McGoey, Linsey, 308–17. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rayner, Steve, Heyward, Clare, Kruger, Tim, Pidgeon, Nick, Redgwell, Catherine, and Savulescu, Julian. 2013. “The Oxford Principles.Climatic Change 121 no. 3:499512, DOI:10.1007/s10584-012-0675-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rayner, Steve, Redgwell, Catherine, Savulescu, Julian, Pidgeon, Nick, and Kruger, Tim. 2010. “Memorandum Submitted by Tim Kruger et al (Geo 07a), the Regulation of Geoengineering, Science and Technology Committee, House of Commons (UK).” Scholar
Rees, Jospeh. 1994. Hostages of Each Other: The Transformation of Nuclear Safety since Three Mile Island. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reichwein, David, Hubert, Anna-Maria, Irvine, Peter J., Benduhn, Francois, and Lawrence, Mark G.. 2015. “State Responsibility for Environmental Harm from Climate Engineering.Climate Law 5 no. 2–4:142–81, DOI:10.1163/18786561-00504003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revelle, Roger, Broecker, Wallace, Craig, Harmon, Keeling, C. D., and Smagorinsky, J.. 1965. “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.” In Restoring the Quality of Our Environment, President’s Science Advisory Committee, 111–33. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2011. “The Regulation of Climate Engineering.” Law, Innovation and Technology 3 no. 1:113–36, DOI:10.5235/175799611796399821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2014a. “The International Regulation of Climate Engineering: Lessons from Nuclear Power.Journal of Environmental Law 26 no. 2:269–89, DOI:10.1093/jel/equ006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2014b. “Response to Svoboda and Irvine.Ethics, Policy & Environment 17 no. 2:183–5, DOI:10.1080/21550085.2014.926080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2015a. “A Critical Examination of the Climate Engineering Moral Hazard and Risk Compensation Concern.The Anthropocene Review 2 no. 2:174–91, DOI:10.1177/2053019614554304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2015b. “An Economic Analysis of Liability and Compensation for Harm from Large-Scale Field Research in Solar Climate Engineering.Climate Law 5 no. 24:182–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2017. “Solar Climate Engineering, Law, and Regulation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Law, Regulation, and Technology, 799822. Oxford: Oxford University Press, DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199680832.013.71.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2018a. “Why the UNFCC and CBD Should Refrain from Regulating Solar Climate Engineering.” In Geoengineering Our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, edited by Blackstock, Jason J. and Low, Sean, 137–41. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2018b. “Governing Experimental Responses: Negative Emissions Technologies and Solar Climate Engineering.” In Governing Climate Change: Polycentricity in Action?, edited by Jordan, Andrew, Huitema, Dave, Asselt, Harro Van, and Forster, Johanna, 285302. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/9781108284646.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L. 2018c. “International Law.” In Climate Engineering and the Law: Regulation and Liability for Solar Radiation Management and Carbon Dioxide Removal, edited by Gerrard, Michael B. and Hester, Tracy, 57153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, DOI:10.1017/9781316661864.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L., Contreras, Jorge L., and Sarnoff, Joshua D.. 2017. “Solar Climate Engineering and Intellectual Property: Toward a Research Commons.Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 18 no. 1:1110, Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L., Contreras, Jorge L., and Sarnoff, Joshua D.. 2018. “Intellectual Property Policies for Solar Geoengineering.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 9 no. 2: article e512, DOI:10.1002/wcc.512.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L., and Fleurke, Floor. 2013. “Climate Engineering Research: A Precautionary Response to Climate Change?Carbon & Climate Law Review 7 no. 2:101–7, DOI:10.21552/CCLR/2013/2/251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L., Parker, Andy, and Irvine, Peter. 2016. “Five Solar Geoengineering Tropes That Have Outstayed Their Welcome.Earth’s Future 4 no. 12:562–8, DOI:10.1002/2016EF000416.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Jesse L., and Wagner, Gernot. 2018. “Governance of Highly Decentralized Nonstate Actors: The Case of Solar Geoengineering.” Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs Discussion Paper, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard, Scholar
Ricke, Katharine L., Moreno-Cruz, Juan B., and Caldeira, Ken. 2013. “Strategic Incentives for Climate Geoengineering Coalitions to Exclude Broad Participation.Environmental Research Letters 8 no. 1:article 014021, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, John A. 1977. “The Scientist’s Rights to Research: A Constitutional Analysis.Southern California Law Review 51 no. 6:1203–79, Scholar
Robock, Alan. 2008. ”20 Reasons Why Geoengineering May Be a Bad Idea.Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 64 no. 2:1418, DOI:10.2968/064002006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robock, Alan, Marquardt, Allison, Kravitz, Ben, and Stenchikov, Georgiy. 2009. “Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Stratospheric Geoengineering.Geophysical Research Letters 36 no. 19: article L19703, DOI:10.1029/2009gl039209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rockström, Johan, Steffen, Will, Noone, Kevin, Persson, Åsa, Chapin, F. Stuart, Lambin, Eric F. et al. 2009. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.Nature 461 no. 7263:472–5, DOI:10.1038/461472a.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russell, Lynn M., Sorooshian, Armin, Seinfeld, John H., Albrecht, Bruce A., Nenes, Athanasios, Ahlm, Lars et al. 2013. “Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 no. 5:709–29, DOI:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00015.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samset, B. H., Sand, M., Smith, C. J., Bauer, S. E., Forster, P. M., Fuglestvedt, J. S. et al. 2018. “Climate Impacts from a Removal of Anthropogenic Aerosol Emissions.Geophysical Research Letters 45 no. 2:1020–9, DOI:10.1002/2017GL076079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandler, Todd. 1997. Global Challenges: An Approach to Environmental, Political, and Economic Problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandler, Todd. 2017. “Collective Action and Geoengineering.The Review of International Organizations 13 no. 1:105–25, DOI:10.1007/s11558-017-9282-3.Google Scholar
Sandman, Peter M. 1993. Responding to Community Outrage: Strategies for Effective Risk Communication. Farifax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sands, Philippe, and Peel, Jacqueline. 2012. Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saxler, Barbara, Siegfried, Jule, and Proelss, Alexander. 2015. “International Liability for Transboundary Damage Arising from Stratospheric Aerosol Injections.Law, Innovation and Technology 7 no. 1:112–47, DOI:10.1080/17579961.2015.1052645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schäfer, Stefan, Lawrence, Mark, Stelzer, Harald, Born, Wanda, Low, Sean, Aaheim, Asbjørn et al. 2015. The European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EUTRACE): Removing Greenhouse Gases from the Atmosphere and Reflecting Sunlight Away from Earth. Potsdam, Germany: European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering, Scholar
Scheffran, Jürgen. 2013. “Energy, Climate Change and Conflict: Securitization of Migration, Mitigation and Geoengineering.” In International Handbook of Energy Security, edited by Dyer, Hugh and Trombetta, Maria Julia, 319–44. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, DOI:10.4337/9781781007907.Google Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C. 1983. “Climatic Change: Implications for Welfare and Policy.” In Changing Climate: Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, edited by Nierenberg, William A., Brewer, Peter G., Machta, Lester, Nordhaus, William D., Revelle, Roger R., Schelling, Thomas C. et al., 449–97. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, DOI:10.17226/18714.Google Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C. 1996. “The Economic Diplomacy of Geoengineering.Climatic Change 33 no. 3:303–7, DOI:10.1007/bf00142578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C. 2006. “An Astonishing Sixty Years: The Legacy of Hiroshima.The American Economic Review 96 no. 4:929–37, DOI:10.1257/aer.96.4.929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim. 2011. “Geoengineering: The Good, the MAD, and the Sensible.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 no. 51:20277–8, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1115966108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schipper, E. Lisa, F. 2006. “Conceptual History of Adaptation in the UNFCCC Process.Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 15 no. 1:8292, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9388.2006.00501.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Stephen H. 1996. “Geoengineering: Could – or Should – We Do It?Climatic Change 33 no. 3:291302, DOI:10.1007/bf00142577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrijver, Nico. 2008. Sovereignty over Natural Resources: Balancing Rights and Duties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schütte, Georg. 2014. “Speech by State Secretary Dr Georg Schütte, Federal Ministry of Education and Research, at the International Conference on ‘Climate Engineering – Critical Global Discussions’ of the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies Berlin, 18 August 2014.” Scholar
Science Media Center. 2012. “Expert Reaction to Decision Not to Launch the 1 km Balloon as Part of the SPICE Geoengineering Research Project,” Press release, May 16, 2012. Scholar
Scotchmer, Suzanne. 1991. “Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law.Journal of Economic Perspectives 5 no. 1:2941, DOI:10.1257/jep.5.1.29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Karen N. 2013. “International Law in the Anthropocene: Responding to the Geoengineering Challenge.Michigan Journal of International Law 34 no. 2:309–58, Scholar
Seitz, Russell. 2011. “Bright Water: Hydrosols, Water Conservation and Climate Change.Climatic Change 105 no. 3:365–81, DOI:10.1007/s10584-010-9965-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selected International Legal Materials.” 1990. American University Journal of International Law and Policy 5 no. 2:513634, Scholar
Seneviratne, Sonia I., Phipps, Steven J., Pitman, Andrew J., Hirsch, Annette L., Davin, Edouard L., Donat, Markus G. et al. 2018. “Land Radiative Management as Contributor to Regional-Scale Climate Adaptation and Mitigation.Nature Geoscience 11 no. 2:8896, DOI:10.1038/s41561-017-0057-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shavell, Steven. 2007a. Economic Analysis of Accident Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Shavell, Steven. 2007b. “Liability for Accidents.” In Handbook of Law and Economics, edited by Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell, Steven, 139–82. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
Shepherd, John, Caldeira, Ken, Haigh, Joanna, Keith, David, Launder, Brian, Mace, Georgina et al. 2009. Geoengineering the Climate: Science, Governance and Uncertainty. London: The Royal Society, Scholar
Sjöberg, Lennart. 2000. “Factors in Risk Perception.Risk Analysis 20 no. 1:112, DOI:10.1111/0272-4332.00001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, Wake, and Wagner, Gernot, 2018. “Stratospheric Aerosol Injection Tactics and Costs in the First 15 Years of Deployment.Environmental Research Letters 13 no. 12: 124001, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/aae98d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative. 2011. Solar Radiation Management: The Governance of Research. Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative, Scholar
SPICE. n.d., accessed March 14, 2019. “What Is Geoengineering?” Scholar
Stilgoe, Jack. 2015. Experiment Earth: Responsible Innovation in Geoengineering. London: Earthscan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stilgoe, Jack. 2018. “Geoengineering.” In Companion to Environmental Studies, edited by Castree, Noel, Hulme, Mike, and Proctor, James D., 679–83. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stilgoe, Jack, Watson, Matthew, and Kuo, Kirsty. 2013. “Public Engagement with Biotechnologies Offers Lessons for the Governance of Geoengineering Research and Beyond.PLoS Biology 11 no. 11: article e1001707, DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stirling, Andy. 2014. “Emancipating Transformations: From Controlling ‘the Transition’ to Culturing Plural Radical Progress.Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Paper 12, Scholar
Stott, Peter A., Christidis, Nikolaos, Otto, Friederike E. L., Sun, Ying, Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul, van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan et al. 2016. “Attribution of Extreme Weather and Climate-Related Events.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 7 no. 1:2341, DOI:10.1002/wcc.380.Google ScholarPubMed
Sugiyama, Masahiro, and Sugiyama, Taishi. 2010. Interpretation of CBD COP10 Decision on Geoengineering, SERC Discussion Paper Serc10013. Socio-Economic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Scholar
Sunstein, Cass R. 2005. Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sütterlin, Bernadette, and Siegrist, Michael. 2017. “Public Perception of Solar Radiation Management: The Impact of Information and Evoked Affect.Journal of Risk Research 20 no. 10:1292–307, DOI:10.1080/13669877.2016.1153501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svoboda, Toby. 2017. The Ethics of Climate Engineering: Solar Radiation Management and Non-Ideal Justice. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svoboda, Toby, Buck, Holly Jean, and Suarez, Pablo. 2019. “Forum: Climate Engineering and Human Rights.” Environmental Politics 28 no. 3: 397–416, DOI:10.1080/09644016.2018.1448575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svoboda, Toby, and Irvine, Peter J.. 2014. “Ethical and Technical Challenges in Compensating for Harm due to Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering.Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 no. 2:157–74, DOI:10.1080/21550085.2014.927962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szerszynski, Bronislaw, Kearnes, Matthew, Macnaghten, Phil, Owen, Richard, and Stilgoe, Jack. 2013. “Why Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering and Democracy Won’t Mix.Environment and Planning A 45:2809–16, DOI:10.1068/a45649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Talbot, Bernard. 1980. “Introduction to Recombinant DNA Research, Development and Evolution of the NIH Guidelines, and Proposed Legislation.The University of Toledo Law Review 12 no. 4:804–14, Scholar
Teller, Edward, Hyde, Roderick, and Wood, Lowell. 1997. “Global Warming and Ice Ages: I. Prospects for Physics-Based Modulation of Global Change.” UCRL-JC-128715, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Scholar
Tilmes, S., Sanderson, B. M., and O'Neill, B. C.. 2016. “Climate Impacts of Geoengineering in a Delayed Mitigation Scenario.” Geophysical Research Letters 43 no. 15: 8222–9, DOI:10.1002/2016GL070122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tingley, Dustin, and Wagner, Gernot. 2017. “Solar Geoengineering and the Chemtrails Conspiracy on Social Media.Palgrave Communications 3 no. 1: article 12, DOI:10.1057/s41599-017-0014-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tol, Richard S. J. 2016. “Distributional Implications of Geoengineering.” In Climate Justice and Geoengineering: Ethics and Policy in the Atmospheric Anthropocene, edited by Preston, Christopher J., 189200. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Trachtman, Joel P. 2008. The Economic Structure of International Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tribe, Laurence H. 1974. “Ways Not to Think about Plastic Trees: New Foundations for Environmental Law.Yale Law Journal 83 no. 7:1315–48, Scholar
United Nations. 2018. “Secretary-General’s Remarks on Climate Change [as Delivered].” Scholar
United Nations. n.d., accessed March 14, 2019. “Have Your Say.” Scholar
United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs. 2010. The Law of the Sea: Marine Scientific Research: A Revised Guide to the Implementation of the Relevant Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. New York: United Nations, Scholar
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2010. “Geoengineering: The Way Forward?” Scholar
United Nations Environment. 2018. The Emissions Gap Report 2018. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), DOI:20.500.11822/26895.Google Scholar
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. n.d., accessed March 14, 2019. “What Do Adaptation to Climate Change and Climate Resilience Mean?” Scholar
Urpelainen, Johannes. 2012. “Geoengineering and Global Warming: A Strategic Perspective.International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 12 no. 4:375–89, DOI:10.1007/s10784-012-9167-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valencia, Mark J., and Akimoto, Kazumine. 2006. “Guidelines for Navigation and Overflight in the Exclusive Economic Zone.Marine Policy 30 no. 6:704–11, DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2005.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Hooydonk, Eric. 2014. “The Law of Unmanned Merchant Shipping: An Exploration. ”The Journal of International Maritime Law 20 no. 6:403–23, Scholar
van Vuuren, Detlef P., Edmonds, Jae, Kainuma, Mikiko, Riahi, Keywan, Thomson, Allison, Kathy Hibbard, et al. 2011. “The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview.Climatic Change 109 no. 1–2:531, DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vanderheiden, Steve. 2008. Atmospheric Justice: A Political Theory of Climate Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaughan, Naomi, and Lenton, Timothy. 2011. “A Review of Climate Geoengineering Proposals.Climatic Change 109 no. 3–4:791825, DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0027-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vergne, Jean-Philippe, and Durand, Rodolphe. 2010. “The Missing Link between the Theory and Empirics of Path Dependence: Conceptual Clarification, Testability Issue, and Methodological Implications.Journal of Management Studies 47 no. 4:736–59, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00913.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verlaan, Philomène A. 2007. “Experimental Activities That Intentionally Perturb the Marine Environment: Implications for the Marine Environmental Protection and Marine Scientific Research Provisions of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.Marine Policy 31 no. 2:210–16, DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2006.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verlaan, Philomène A. 2009. “Geo-Engineering, the Law of the Sea, and Climate Change.Carbon & Climate Law Review 3 no. 4:446–58, DOI:10.21552/CCLR/2009/4/115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar