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Chapter 11 - Renewable Energy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2012

Wim Turkenburg
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Doug J. Arent
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy laboratory
Ruggero Bertani
Affiliation:
Enel Green Power S.p.A.
Andre Faaij
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Maureen Hand
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Wolfram Krewitt
Affiliation:
German Air and Space Agency
Eric D. Larson
Affiliation:
Princeton University and Climate Central
John Lund
Affiliation:
Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology
Mark Mehos
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Tim Merrigan
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Catherine Mitchell
Affiliation:
University of Exeter
José Roberto Moreira
Affiliation:
Biomass Users Network
Wim Sinke
Affiliation:
Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
Virginia Sonntag-O'Brien
Affiliation:
REN21
Bob Thresher
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Wilfried van Sark
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Eric Usher
Affiliation:
United Nations Environment Programme
Dan Bilello
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Helena Chum
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Diana Kraft
Affiliation:
REN21
Philippe Lempp
Affiliation:
German Development Ministry
Jeff Logan
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Lau Saili
Affiliation:
International Hydropower Association
Niels B. Schulz
Affiliation:
International Institute for Applied systems Analysis, Austria and Imperial College
Aaron Smith
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Richard Taylor
Affiliation:
International Hydropower Association
Craig Turchi
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Jürgen Schmid
Affiliation:
Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology
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Summary

Executive Summary

Renewable energy sources – including biomass, geothermal, ocean, solar, and wind energy, as well as hydropower – have a huge potential to provide energy services for the world. The renewable energy resource base is sufficient to meet several times the present world energy demand and potentially even 10 to 100 times this demand. This chapter includes an in-depth examination of technologies to convert these renewable energy sources to energy carriers that can be used to fulfill our energy needs, including their installed capacity, the amount of energy carriers they produced in 2009, the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major issues they may face relative to their sustainability or implementation.

Present uses of renewable energy

Since 1990 the energy provided from renewable sources worldwide has risen at an average rate of nearly 2% a year, but in recent years this rate has increased to about 5% annually (see Figure 11.1.) As a result, the global contribution of renewables has increased from about 74 EJ in 2005 to about 89 EJ in 2009 and represents now 17% of global primary energy supply (528 EJ, see Figure 11.2). Most of this renewable energy comes from the traditional use of biomass (about 39 EJ) and larger-scale hydropower (about 30 EJ), while other renewable technologies provided about 20 EJ.

Type
Chapter
Information
Global Energy Assessment
Toward a Sustainable Future
, pp. 761 - 900
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

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