Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-k78ct Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-01T10:31:50.572Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

7 - Male reproductive biology in giant pandas in breeding programmes in China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2009

Jogayle Howard
Affiliation:
National Zoological Park
Zhihe Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Desheng Li
Affiliation:
China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda
Yan Huang
Affiliation:
China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda
Rong Hou
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Guanghan Li
Affiliation:
Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Foundation
Meijia Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Zhiyong Ye
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Jinguo Zhang
Affiliation:
Beijing Zoo
Shiqiang Huang
Affiliation:
Beijing Zoo
Rebecca Spindler
Affiliation:
Toronto Zoo
Hemin Zhang
Affiliation:
China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda
David E. Wildt
Affiliation:
National Zoological Park
David E. Wildt
Affiliation:
Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington DC
Anju Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Hemin Zhang
Affiliation:
Wildlife Conservation and Research Center for Giant Pandas
Donald L. Janssen
Affiliation:
Zoological Society of San Diego
Susie Ellis
Affiliation:
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
Get access

Summary

INTRODUCTION

The goal of the giant panda ex situ breeding programme is to produce healthy, genetically diverse and reproductively sound offspring. However, reproduction in this species has been poor, in part, due to lack of male libido or aggressive behaviours towards conspecific females. Although giant panda breeding facilities have made progress in producing more surviving young, only about 29% of captive male giant pandas have ever sired offspring (Lindburg et al., 1998), and most of these males were wild born. Of the 104 giant pandas in the ex situ population in China in 1996 (at the time of the first masterplanning meeting in China; Zheng et al., 1997; see also Chapter 2), there were 33 adult males of reproductive age (6–26 years old). Only five (15.2%) had ever mated naturally and sired young. This was the main reason for ‘male reproduction’ being a primary target of the Biomedical Survey conducted under the umbrella of the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) (see Chapter 2).

We had three goals, the first being to measure the presence or absence of any obvious physiological or anatomical abnormalities. The second was to learn more about species reproductive biology, specifically comparing males of different ages, successful versus unsuccessful breeders and wild-born versus captive born. Our approach also allowed a third opportunity: studies that would enhance our understanding on how better to use male gametes (sperm) to advance genetic management (see Chapter 21). In this case, our focus was on:

  1. sperm morphology and acrosomal integrity;

  2. testes development during the breeding season;

  3. […]

Type
Chapter
Information
Giant Pandas
Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Management
, pp. 159 - 197
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amann, R. P. (1986). Reproductive physiology and endocrinology of the dog. In Current Therapy in Theriogenology II, ed. Morrow, D. A.. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Co., pp. 532–8.Google Scholar
Andrews, J. C., Howard, J. G., Bavister, B. D. and Wildt, D. E. (1992). Sperm capacitation in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) as studied with a salt-stored zona pellucida penetration assay. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 31, 200–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barone, M. A., Roelke, M. E., Howard, J. G., Anderson, A. E. and Wildt, D. E. (1994). Reproductive characterization of male Florida panthers: comparative studies from Florida, Texas, Colorado, Chile and North American zoos. Journal of Mammology, 75, 150–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beyer, W. H. (1987). CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, 28th Edn. Boca Raton, FLCRC Press, p. 131.Google Scholar
Boatman, D. E., Andrews, J. C. and Bavister, B. D. (1988). A quantitative assay for capacitation: evaluation of multiple sperm penetration through the zona pellucida of salt-stored hamster eggs. Gamete Research, 19, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, D., Ye, Z. and Zhang, Z. (1984). Ultrastructure of giant panda spermatozoa. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 30, 301–4.Google Scholar
Chen, D., Shi, Q., Zhao, X.et al. (1989a). Studies of heterofertilization in vitro between giant panda and golden hamster. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 35, 276–380.Google Scholar
Chen, D., Song, X., Zhou, X. and Duan, C. (1989b). Study on in vitro sperm capacitation and egg penetration of giant panda. Science in China, 32, 435–41.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, D., Song, X., Feng, W.et al. (1992). Study on the thawing solutions of cryopreserved semen pellets in the giant panda. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 27–63.Google Scholar
Drobnis, E., Yudin, A., Cherr, G. and Katz, D. (1988). Hamster sperm penetration of the zona pellucida: kinematic analysis and mechanical implications. Developmental Biology, 130, 311–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durrant, B. S., Olson, M. A., Amodeo, D.et al. (2003). Vaginal cytology and vulvar swelling as indicators of impending estrus and ovulation in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Zoo Biology, 22, 313–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, W. and Zhang, A. (1988). Giant Panda Theriogenology and Assisted Reproduction. Chengdu: Publishing Company of Sichuan University, pp. 32–8.Google Scholar
Gao, G., Mazur, P. and Critser, J. (1997). Fundamental cryobiology of mammalian spermatozoa. In Reproductive Tissue Banking: Scientific Principles, ed. Karow, A. and Critser, J.. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 263–328.Google Scholar
Hammerstedt, R. H., Graham, J. K. and Nolan, J. P. (1990). Cryopreservation of mammalian sperm: what we ask them to survive. Journal of Andrology, 11, 73–88.Google Scholar
Howard, J. G. (1993). Semen collection and analysis in nondomestic carnivores. In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy III, ed. Fowler, M. E.. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Co., pp. 390–9.Google Scholar
Howard, J. G. (1999). Assisted reproductive techniques in nondomestic carnivores. In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy IV, ed. Fowler, M. and Miller, E.. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Co., pp. 449–57.Google Scholar
Howard, J. G., Bush, M. and Wildt, D. E. (1986). Semen collection, analysis and cryopreservation in nondomestic mammals. In Current Therapy in Theriogenology II, ed. Morrow, D.. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Co., pp. 1047–53.Google Scholar
Huang, Y., Wang, P., Zhang, G. et al. (2002). Use of artificial insemination to enhance propagation of giant pandas at the Wolong Breeding Center. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Conservation and Genetic Management of Wildlife, ed. N. Loskutoff, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, NE, pp. 172–9.
Ishikawa, A., Matsui, M., Tsuruga, H.et al. (1998). Electroejaculation and semen characteristics of the captive Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Research, 60, 965–8.Google Scholar
Lindburg, D. G., Huang, X. M. and Huang, S. Q. (1998). Reproductive performance of male giant panda in Chinese zoos. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Protection of the Giant Panda, Chengdu: Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, pp. 65–71.Google Scholar
Liu, W. (1981). A note on the artificial insemination of the giant panda. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 12, 73–6.Google Scholar
Mahi, C. A. and Yanagimachi, R. (1975). Induction of nuclear decondensation of mammalian spermatozoain vitro. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 44, 293–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mansfield, K. G. and Land, E. D. (2002). Cryptorchidism in Florida panthers: prevalence, features and influence of genetic restoration. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 38, 693–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masui, M., Hiramatsu, H., Nose, N.et al. (1989). Successful artificial insemination in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) at Ueno Zoo. Zoo Biology, 8, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, P. (1974). Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. American Journal of Physiology, 247, C125–C142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, H., Bush, M., Celma, M.et al. (1984). Artificial insemination in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Journal of Zoology (London), 203, 269–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, M. A., Huang, Y., Li, D.et al. (2003). Assessment of motility, acrosomal integrity and viability of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm following short-term storage at 4°C. Zoo Biology, 22, 529–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Platz, C., Wildt, D. E., Howard, J. G. and Bush, M. (1983). Electroejaculation and semen analysis and freezing in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 67, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pope, C., Zhang, Y. and Dresser, B. (1991). A simple staining method for evaluating acrosomal status of cat spermatozoa. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 22, 87–95.Google Scholar
Roelke, M. E., Martenson, J. S. and O'Brien, S. J. (1993). The consequences of demographic reduction and genetic depletion in the endangered Florida panther. Current Biology, 3, 340–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spindler, R. E., Huang, Y., Howard, J. G.et al. (2004). Acrosomal integrity and capacitation are not influenced by sperm cryopreservation in the giant panda. Reproduction, 127, 547–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, Q., Liu, H., Li, X.et al. (1996). The role of calcium and protein kinase C in the acrosome reaction of giant panda spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 46, 359–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wildt, D. E. and Swanson, W. F. (1998). Reproduction in cats. In Encyclopedia of Reproduction, ed. Knobil, E. and Neil, J.. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 497–510.Google Scholar
Wildt, D. E., Rall, W. F., Critser, J. K., Monfort, S. L. and Seal, U. S. (1997). Genome resource banks: ‘living collections’ for biodiversity conservation. BioScience, 47, 689–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanagimachi, R. (1994). Mammalian fertilization. In The Physiology of Reproduction, ed. Knobil, E. and Neil, J.. New York, NY: Raven Press, pp. 189–317.Google Scholar
Yanagimachi, R., Lopata, A., Odom, C. B.et al. (1979). Retention of biologic characteristics of zona pellucida in highly concentrated salt solution: the use of salt-stored eggs for assessing the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. Fertility and Sterility, 31, 562–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ye, Z. Y., He, G. X., Zhang, A. J.et al. (1991). Studies on the artificial pollination method of giant panda. Journal of Sichuan University (Natural Science), 28, 50–3.Google Scholar
Zhang, A. J., Ye, Z. Y., He, G. X.et al. (1991). Studies on conception effect of frozen semen in the giant panda. Journal of Sichuan University (Natural Science), 28, 54–9.Google Scholar
Zheng, S., Zhao, Q., Xie, Z., Wildt, D. E. and Seal, U. S. (1997). Giant Panda Captive Planning Management Workshop Report. Apple Valley, MN: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×