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19 - Historical perspective of breeding giant pandas ex situ in China and high priorities for the future

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2009

Zhihe Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Anju Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Foundation
Rong Hou
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Jishan Wang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Guanghan Li
Affiliation:
Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Foundation
Lisong Fei
Affiliation:
Chengdu Zoo
Qiang Wang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Zoo
Kati I. Loeffler
Affiliation:
National Zoological Park
David E. Wildt
Affiliation:
National Zoological Park
Terry L. Maple
Affiliation:
Center for Conservation & Behaviour
Rita Mcmanamon
Affiliation:
Zoo Atlanta
Susie Ellis
Affiliation:
Conservation International
David E. Wildt
Affiliation:
Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington DC
Anju Zhang
Affiliation:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Hemin Zhang
Affiliation:
Wildlife Conservation and Research Center for Giant Pandas
Donald L. Janssen
Affiliation:
Zoological Society of San Diego
Susie Ellis
Affiliation:
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
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Summary

INTRODUCTION

The giant panda is one of the national treasures of China. Many factors, related primarily to increased human activity, have caused a marked decline and geographic fragmentation of the wild population. To preserve this endangered species, the Chinese government, in partnership with many nongovernmental organisations (inside and outside China), has invested significant human and material resources to benefit in situ conservation. These collective efforts have resulted in the establishment of more than 40 nature reserves in southwest China in the provinces of Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi.

Giant pandas have been sporadically maintained in captivity since the Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 226) (see Chapter 1). However, it was not until the 1940s that there was serious interest in exhibiting the species in China. It took more than 20 years of giant panda husbandry experience to produce the first cub in captivity, at the Beijing Zoo in 1963. Much progress has been made in the subsequent years in understanding basic giant panda biology and making it possible for the species to reproduce consistently in captivity. This chapter reviews the brief history and significance of ex situ breeding efforts for the giant panda.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EX SITU BREEDING PROGRAMMES FOR THE GIANT PANDA

The giant panda is particularly vulnerable to external pressures, in part because of an inherently slow rate of reproduction.

Type
Chapter
Information
Giant Pandas
Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Management
, pp. 455 - 468
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

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References

Bloomsmith, M. A., Jones, M. L., Snyder, R. J.et al. (2003). Positive reinforcement training to elicit voluntary movement of two giant pandas throughout their enclosure. Zoo Biology, 22, 323–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, J. (1990). Research and Progress in the Biology of the Giant Panda, Chengdu: SichuanPublishing House of Science and Technology, pp. 316–21.Google Scholar
Maple, T. L., Perkins, L. A., and Snyder, R. (1997). The role of environmental and social variables in the management of apes and pandas. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Protection of the Giant Panda, ed. Zhang, A. and He, G.. Chengdu: Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, pp. 23–8.
Xie, Z. and Gipps, J. (2002). The 2002 International Studbook for the Giant Panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Beijing: Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens.Google Scholar
Xie, Z. and Gipps, J.(2003). The 2003 International Studbook for the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Beijing: Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens.Google Scholar

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