Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c4f8m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-23T23:48:08.104Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 July 2021

Alex Keena
Virginia Commonwealth University
Michael Latner
California Polytechnic State University
Anthony J. McGann McGann
University of Strathclyde
Charles Anthony Smith
University of California, Irvine
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Gerrymandering the States
Partisanship, Race, and the Transformation of American Federalism
, pp. 209 - 226
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abramowitz, Alan I., Alexander, Brad, and Gunning, Matthew. 2006. Incumbenc., Redistricting, and the Decline of Competition in US House Election. The Journal of Politics 68 (1): 7588.Google Scholar
ACEEE. 2018, June 23. The State Energy Efficiency Scorecard [Text]. Retrieved September 27, 2019, from American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy website: Scholar
Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties?: The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. 1st Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Alexeev, Boris, and Mixon, Dustin G.. 2018. Partisan Gerrymandering with Geographically Compact Districts. Journal of Applied Probability 17 (4): 1046–59. Scholar
Altman, Micah. 1998. Modeling the Effects of Mandatory District Compactness on Partisan Gerrymanders. Political Geography 17 (8): 9891012.Google Scholar
Altman, Micah, Amos, Brian, McDonald, Michael P., and Smith, Daniel A.. 2015. Revealing Preferences: Why Gerrymanders Are Hard to Prove, and What to Do about It. Social Science Research Network.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altman, Micah, MacDonald, Karin, and McDonald, Michael. 2005. From Crayons to Computers: The Evolution of Computer Use in Redistricting. Social Science Computer Review 23 (3): 334–46.Google Scholar
Altman, Micah, and McDonald, Michael P.. 2011a. BARD: Better Automated Redistricting. Journal of Statistical Software 42 (4): 128.Google Scholar
Altman, Micah, and McDonald, Michael P.. 2011b. Redistricting Principles for the Twenty-First Century. Case Western Reserve Law Review 62: 1179.Google Scholar
Altman, Micah, and McDonald, Michael P.. 2013. A Half-Century of Virginia Redistricting Battles: Shifting from Rural Malapportionment to Voting Rights to Public Participation. University of Richmond Law Review 47: 771831.Google Scholar
Altman, Micah, and McDonald, Michael P.. 2014. Redistricting by Formula: An Ohio Reform Experiment. Scholar
Altman, Micah, and McDonald, Michael P.. 2015. Paradoxes of Political Reform: Congressional Redistricting in Florida. In Jigsaw Puzzle Politics in the Sunshine State, edited by McKee, S. C.. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Jonathan, Rodden. 2011. Washington Data Files. Harvard Dataverse.Google Scholar
Ansolabehere, , Stephen, , and Palmer, Maxwell. 2016. A two-hundred year statistical history of the gerrymander. Ohio State Law Journal 77: 741.Google Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Maxwell, Palmer, and Lee, Amanda. 2014. Precinct-Level Election Data. Harvard Dataverse V1. Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Nathaniel, Persily, and Stewart, Charles III. 2013. Regional Differences in Racial Polarization in the 2012 Presidential Election: Implications for the Constitutionality of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act, Harvard Law Review Forum 126: 205-220.Google Scholar
Arrington, Theodore S. 2016. A Practical Procedure for Detecting a Partisan Gerrymander. Election Law Journal 15 (4): 385402.Google Scholar
Barreto, Matt A., Dunn, Chad, Waknin, Sonni, Cohen, Michael, Latner, Michael S., and Sanchez, Gabriel. 2020. Analysis of H.R.1 and the Immediate Need for Expanded Access to Vote-by-Mail. UCLA Latino Policy and Politics Initiative, A Joint Project with the Union of Concerned Scientists and The University of New Mexico Center for Social Policy. Scholar
Bawn, Kathleen, Cohen, Martin, Karol, David, Masket, Seth, Noel, Hans, and Zaller, John. 2012. A Theory of Political Parties: Groups, Policy Demands and Nominations in American Politics. Perspectives on Politics 10 (3): 571–97.Google Scholar
Bentele, Keith G., and O’Brien, Erin E.. 2013. Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies. Perspectives on Politics 11 (4): 1088–116. Scholar
Bernstein, Mira, and Duchin, Moon. 2017. A Formula Goes to Court: Partisan Gerrymandering and the Efficiency Gap. Notices of the AMS 64 (9): 1020–24.Google Scholar
Best, Robin E., Donahue, Shawn J., Krasno, Jonathan, Magleby, Daniel B., and McDonald, Michael D.. 2018. Considering the Prospects for Establishing a Packing Gerrymandering Standard. Election Law Journal 17 (1): 1-20.Google Scholar
Bhatt, Chintan B., and Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.. 2018. Medicaid Expansion and Infant Mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 108 (4): 565–67. Scholar
Bilal, Usama, Knapp, Emily A., and Cooper, Richard S.. 2018. Swing Voting in the 2016 Presidential Election in Counties Where Midlife Mortality Has Been Rising in White Non-Hispanic Americans. Social Science & Medicine (1982) 197: 3338. Scholar
Blake, Aaron. 2020. Analysis: Trump Unleashed a Torrent of Voter Fraud Disinformation at the Debate. Washington Post, October 1, 2020. Scholar
Bor, Jacob. 2017. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election. American Journal of Public Health 107 (10): 1560–62. Scholar
Bowen, Daniel C. 2010. District Characteristics and the Representational Relationship. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Iowa.Google Scholar
Boyce, John R., and Bischak, Diane P.. 2002. The Role of Political Parties in the Organization of Congress. Journal of Law Economics & Organization 18 (1): 138.Google Scholar
Bradlee, Dave. 2014. Dave’s Redistricting App. www.davesredistricting.orgGoogle Scholar
Brams, Steven J. 2020. Making Partisan Gerrymandering Fair: One Old and Two New Methods. Social Science Quarterly 101: 6872.Google Scholar
Brennan Center for Justice. 2012. Election 2012: Voting Laws Roundup. Retrieved February 5, 2019, from Scholar
Brennan Center for Justice. 2018. Automatic Voter Registration and Modernization in the States | Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from Scholar
Brians, Craig Leonard, and Grofman, Bernard. 2001. Election Day Registration’s Effect on U.S. Voter Turnout. Social Science Quarterly 82 (1): 170–83. Scholar
Browning, Robert X., and King, Gary. 1987. Seats, Votes, and Gerrymandering: Estimating Representation and Bias in State Legislative Redistricting. Law & Policy 9: 305–22. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9930.1987.tb00413.xGoogle Scholar
Bullock, Charles S., and Gaddie, Ronald K.. 1993. Changing from Multimember to Single-Member Districts: Partisan, Racial, and Gender Consequences. State and Local Government Review 25: 155–63.Google Scholar
Burden, Barry C., and Snyder, Rochelle. 2020. Explaining Uncontested Seats in Congress and State Legislatures. American Politics Research (forthcoming). doi:10.1177/1532673X20960565Google Scholar
Butler, David, , and Bruce, E. Cain. 1992. Congressional Redistricting: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives, New Topics in Politics. New York, Toronto: Macmillan Pub. Co.; Maxwell Macmillan Canada.Google Scholar
Cain, Bruce E., Tam Cho, Wendy K., Liu, Yan Y., and Zhang, Emily R.. 2018. Reasonable Bias Approach to Gerrymandering: Using Automated Plan Generation to Evaluate Redistricting Proposals. William & Mary Law Review 59 (5): 1521–58.Google Scholar
Canon, David T. 1999. Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Carney, Eliza Newlin. 2015, March 16. Standing Together against Any Action. CQ Weekly Report 2015: 3740.Google Scholar
Carson, James L., and Crespin, Michael H.. 2004. The Effect of State Redistricting Methods on Electoral Competition in United States House Races. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 4 (4): 455–69.Google Scholar
Carson, Jamie L., Crespin, Michael H., and Williamson, Ryan D.. 2014. Reevaluating the Effects of Redistricting on Electoral Competition, 1972–2012. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 14 (2): 165–77.Google Scholar
Caughey, Devin, Tausanovitch, Chris, and Christopher Warshaw, . 2017. Partisan Gerrymandering and the Political Process: Effects on Roll-Call Voting and State Policies. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 16 (4): 453–69. Scholar
Chen, Jowei. 2017. The Impact of Political Geography on Wisconsin Redistricting: An Analysis of Wisconsin’s Act 43 Assembly Districting Plan. Election Law Journal 16 (4): 417–42.Google Scholar
Chen, Jowei, and Cottrell, David. 2016. Evaluating Partisan Gains from Congressional Gerrymandering: Using Computer Simulations to Estimate the Effect of Gerrymandering in the US House. Electoral Studies 44: 329–40. [Computer simulations to show that much of the bias is geographic.]Google Scholar
Chen, Jowei, and Rodden, Jonathan. 2013a. Unintentional Gerrymandering: Political Geography and Electoral Bias in Legislatures. Quarterly Journal of Political Science 8: 239–69.Google Scholar
Chen, Jowei, and Rodden, Jonathan. 2013b. Report on Computer Simulations of Florida Congressional Districting Plans. Unpublished working paper.Google Scholar
Chen, Jowei, and Rodden, Jonathan. 2015. Cutting Through the Thicket: Redistricting Simulations and the Detection of Partisan Gerrymanders. Election Law Journal 14 (4): 331–45.Google Scholar
Cirincione, Carmen, Darling, Thomas A., and O’Rourke, Timothy G.. 2000. Assessing South Carolina’s 1990 Congressional Districting. Political Geography 19: 189211.Google Scholar
Clayton, Dewey M. 2004. African Americans and the Politics of Congressional Redistricting. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
Corriher, Billy, and Kennedy, Liz. 2017. Distorted Districts, Distorted Laws. Retrieved July 26, 2018, from Center for American Progress website: Scholar
Cottrell, David. 2019. Using Computer Simulations to Measure the Effect of Gerrymandering on Electoral Competition in the US Congress. Legislative Studies Quarterly 44 (3): 487514.Google Scholar
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1993. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House, California Series on Social Choice and Political Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 2005. Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S. House of Representatives. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Curiel, John A. and Steelman, Tyler. 2018. Redistricting Out Representation: Democratic Harms in Splitting Zip Codes. Election Law Journal 17 (4): 328–53.Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert A. 2003. How Democratic Is the American Constitution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Daley, David. 2017. Ratf**ked: Why Your Vote Doesn’t Count. New York: Liveright.Google Scholar
Daley, David. 2019. How Gerrymandering Leads to Radical Abortion Laws. The New Republic, May 14, 2019. Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. 2004. Democratic Challenges, Democratic Choices: The Erosion of Political Support in Advanced Industrial Democracies, Comparative Politics. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dancey, Logan, and Sheagley, Geoffrey. 2017. Partisanship and Perceptions of Party-Line Voting in Congress. Political Research Quarterly 71 (1): 3245.Google Scholar
Derfner, Armand. 1972. Multi-Member Districts and Black Voters. National Black Law Journal 2 (2): 120–28.Google Scholar
Dimanchev, Emil G., Paltsev, Sergey, Yuan, Mei, Rothenberg, Daniel, Tessum, Christopher W., Marshall, Julian D., and Selin., Noelle E. 2019. Health Co-Benefits of Sub-National Renewable Energy Policy in the US. Environmental Research Letters 14 (8): 085012. Scholar
Donnovan, Todd (ed.). 2017. Changing How America Votes. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Dow, Jay K. 2017. Electing the House: The Adoption and Performance of the US Single-Member District Electoral System. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Engstrom, Erik J. 2006. Stacking the States, Stacking the House: The Partisan Consequences of Congressional Redistricting in the 19th Century. The American Political Science Review 100 (3): 419–27.Google Scholar
Engstrom, Erik J. 2013. Partisan Gerrymandering and the Construction of American Democracy. Illustrated Edition. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Engstrom, Richard L. 2020. Partisan Gerrymandering: Weeds in the Political Thicket. Social Science Quarterly 101: 2336.Google Scholar
Epperly, Brad, Witko, Christopher, Strickler, Ryan, and White, Paul. 2019. Rule by Violence, Rule by Law: Lynching, Jim Crow, and the Continuing Evolution of Voter Suppression in the U.S. Perspectives on Politics 114. Scholar
Erikson, Robert S. 1972. Malapportionment, Gerrymandering, and Party Fortunes in Congressional Elections. American Political Science Review 66 (4): 1234–45.Google Scholar
Fairvote, , 2019. Where Ranked Choice Voting Is Used. Accessed November 17, 2019, Scholar
Fields, Reginald. 2010, November 3. Republican John Kasich Victorious in Ohio; Jobs Message Overcomes Wall Street Baggage. The Plain Dealer. Accessed September 9, 2019, Scholar
Foa, Roberto Stefan, and Mounk, Yascha. 2016. The Danger of Deconsolidation: The Democratic Disconnect. Journal of Democracy 27 (3): 57.Google Scholar
Forgette, Richard, and Platt, Glenn. 2005. Redistricting Principles and Incumbency Protection in the U.S. Congress. Political Geography 24 (8): 934–51.Google Scholar
Fraga, Bernard. 2016. Redistricting and the Causal Impact of Race on Voter Turnout. Journal of Politics 78 (1): 1934.Google Scholar
Frederick, Brian. 2008. Constituency Population and Representation in the US House. American Politics Research 36 (358): 27.Google Scholar
Friedman, John N., and Holden, Richard T.. 2009. The Rising Incumbent Reelection Rate: What’s Gerrymandering Got to Do with It? Journal of Politics 71 (2): 593611.Google Scholar
Gaddie, Keith. 2019, April. Applied Fair Division Systems for Redistricting. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Gardner, Amy, and Dawsey, Josh. 2020, August 3. As Trump Leans into Attacks on Mail Voting, GOP Officials Confront Signs of Republican Turnout Crisis. Washington Post. Scholar
Gelman, Andrew. 2009. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans Vote the Way They Do – Expanded Edition. Expanded edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gelman, Andrew, and King, Gary. 1990. Estimating the Electoral Consequences of Legislative Redistricting. Journal of the American Statistical Association 85 (410): 274–82.Google Scholar
Gelman, Andrew, and King, Gary. 1994a. Enhancing Democracy through Legislative Redistricting. American Political Science Review 88 (3): 541–59.Google Scholar
Gelman, Andrew, and King, Gary. 1994b. A Unified Method of Evaluating Electoral Systems and Redistricting Plans. American Journal of Political Science 38 (2): 514–54.Google Scholar
Gerber, Elisabeth, Morton, R. Rebecca, and Rietz, Thomas A.. 1998. Minority Representation in Multimember Districts. American Political Science Review 92 (1): 127–44.Google Scholar
Gerring, , John, , Strom, C. Thacker, and Rodrigo, Alfaro. 2012. Democracy and Human Development. Journal of Politics 74(1): 1-17.Google Scholar
Goedert, Nicholas. 2014a. Redistricting, Risk, and Representation: How Five State Gerrymanders Weathered the Tides of the 2000s. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 13 (3): 406–18. Scholar
Goedert, Nicholas. 2014b. Gerrymandering or Geography? How Democrats Won the Popular Vote but Lost the Congress in 2012. Research & Politics 1 (1): 18. doi:10.1177/2053168014528683Google Scholar
Goedert, Nicholas. 2017. The Pseudoparadox of Partisan Mapmaking and Congressional Competition. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 17 (1): 4775. Scholar
Goedert, Nicholas. 2020Ground War: Court, Commissions, and the Fight Over Partisan Gerrymanders [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of Political Science, Virginia Tech.Google Scholar
Goldman, Lee, Lim, Maribel P., Chen, Qixuan, Jin, Peng, Muennig, Peter, and Vagelos, Andrew. 2019. Independent Relationship of Changes in Death Rates with Changes in US Presidential Voting. Journal of General Internal Medicine 34 (3): 363–71.–018-4568-6Google Scholar
Golshan, Tara. 2018. Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker Signs into Law Sweeping Bills Stripping Powers from the Democrats. Vox. December 4, 2018. Scholar
Gordon, Sarah H., Huberfeld, Nicole, and Jones, David K.. 2020. What Federalism Means for the US Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Health Forum 1 (5): e200510. Scholar
Green, Rebecca. 2018. Redistricting Transparency. William & Mary Law Review 59 (5): 1787–836.Google Scholar
Grofman, Bernard. 2018. Crafting a Judicially Manageable Standard for Partisan Gerrymandering: Five Necessary Elements. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 17 (2): 117–36.Google Scholar
Grofman, Bernard. 1981. Alternatives to Single-Member Plurality Districts: Legal and Empirical Issues. Policy Studies Journal 9: 6, doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1981.tb00992.xGoogle Scholar
Grofman, Bernard, and Brunell, Thomas. 2005. The Art of the Dummymander: The Impact of Recent Redistrictings on the Partisan Makeup of Southern House Seats. In Redistricting in the New Millennium, edited by Galderisi, Peter F.. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 183200.Google Scholar
Grofman, Bernard, and Cervas, Jonathan R.. 2018. Gerrymandering: Lessons from League of Women Voters v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2018). Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 17 (4):264–85. Scholar
Grofman, , Bernard, , and Davidson, Chandler. 1992. Controversies in Minority Voting: The Voting Rights Act in Perspective. The Bookings Institution: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Grofman, , Bernard, , and Handley, Lisa. 1991. The impact of the Voting Rights Act on black representation in southern state legislatures. Legislative Studies Quarterly 16(1): 111-128Google Scholar
Grofman, Bernard, and King, Gary. 2007. The Future of Partisan Symmetry as a Judicial Test for Partisan Gerrymandering after LULAC v. Perry. Election Law Journal 6 (1): 235.Google Scholar
Grofman, BernardKoetzle, William, and Brunell, Thomas. 1997. An Integrated Perspective on the Three Potential Sources of Partisan Bias: Malapportionment, Turnout Differences, and the Geographic Distribution of Party Vote Shares. Electoral Studies 16 (4): 457–70.Google Scholar
Grossman, Daniel S., and Slusky, David J.G.. 2017. The Effect of an Increase in Lead in the Water System on Fertility and Birth Outcomes: The Case of Flint, Michigan. Scholar
Grossman, Matt, and Hopkins, David A.. 2016. Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Asymmetric Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. Scholar
Guest, Olivia, Kanayet, Frank J., and Love, Bradley C.. 2019. Gerrymandering and Computational Redistricting. Journal of Computational Social Science 2 (2): 119–31.Google Scholar
Guttmacher Institute. 2018. Policy Trends in the States, 2017. Guttmacher Institute. January 2, 2018. Scholar
Hajnal, Zoltan L. 2020. Dangerously Divided: How Race and Class Shape Winning and Losing in American Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Haselswerdt, Jake. 2017. Expanding Medicaid, Expanding the Electorate: The Affordable Care Act‘s Short-Term Impact on Political Participation. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 42 (4); 667–95. Scholar
Hasen, Richard. 2018. Race or Party, Race as Party, or Party All the Time: Three Uneasy Approaches to Conjoined Polarization in Redistricting and Voting Cases. William and Mary Law Review 59: 1837, Scholar
Hayes, Danny, and McKee., Seth C. 2012. The Intersection of Redistricting, Race, and Participation. American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 115–30.Google Scholar
Henderson, John A., Hamel, Brian T., and Goldzimer, Aaron M.. 2018. Gerrymandering Incumbency: Does Nonpartisan Redistricting Increase Electoral Competition? Journal of Politics 80 (3): 1011–16.Google Scholar
Herron, Michael C., and Smith, Daniel A.. 2014. Race, Party, and the Consequences of Restricting Early Voting in Florida in the 2012 General Election. Political Research Quarterly 67 (3): 646–65. Scholar
Hill, , Kevin, A. 1995. Does the creation of majority black districts aid Republicans? An analysis of the 1992 congressional elections in eight southern states. The Journal of Politics 57(2): 384-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, Steven. 2013. How the Voting Rights Act Hurts Democrats and Minorities. The Atlantic. Accessed February 8, 2019. Scholar
Hirsch, Sam. 2003. The United States House of Unrepresentatives: What Went Wrong in the Latest Round of Congressional Redistricting. Election Law Journal 2 (2):179216.Google Scholar
Hollingsworth, Alex, Soni, Aparna, Carroll, Aaron E., Cawley, John, and Simon, Kosali. 2019. Gains in Health Insurance Coverage Explain Variation in Democratic Vote Share in the 2008-2016 Presidential Elections. PLOS ONE 14 (4): e0214206. Scholar
Hood, M. V., III, and McKee, Seth C.. 2008. Gerrymandering on Georgia’s Mind: The Effects of Redistricting on Vote Choice in the 2006 Midterm Election. Social Science Quarterly 89: 6077. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00521.xGoogle Scholar
Hood, M. V., III, and McKee, Seth C.. 2010. Stranger Danger: Redistricting, Incumbent Recognition, and Vote Choice. Social Science Quarterly 91: 344–58.Google Scholar
Hood, M. V., III, and McKee, Seth C.. 2013. Unwelcome Constituents: Redistricting and Countervailing Partisan TidesState Politics & Policy Quarterly 13 (2): 203–24.Google Scholar
Hopkins, Dan. 2018, August 21. What We Know About Voter ID Laws. Retrieved September 27, 2019, from FiveThirtyEight website: Scholar
Ingraham, Christopher. 2014. America’s Most Gerrymandered Congressional Districts. The Washington Post, May 15, 2014.Google Scholar
Jackman, Molly. 2013. ALEC’s Influence over Lawmaking in State Legislatures. Brookings (blog). Scholar
Johnston, Ron, Manley, David, Jones, Kelvyn, and Rohla, Ryne. 2020. The Geographical Polarization of the American Electorate: A Country of Increasing Electoral Landslides?. GeoJournal 85: 187204.–018-9955-3Google Scholar
Jones, Jeffrey. 2010, September 1. Americans Give GOP Edge on Most Election Issues. Gallup. Accessed September 9, 2010, Scholar
Kaiser Family Foundation. 2014. States’ Positions in the Affordable Care Act Case at the Supreme Court. KFF (blog). August 27, 2014. Scholar
Kaminski, Marek M. (1999). How Communism Could Have Been Saved: Formal Analysis of Electoral Bargaining in Poland in 1989. Public Choice 98 (1): 83109.Google Scholar
Kaminski, Marek M. (2002). Do Parties Benefit from Electoral Manipulation? Electoral Laws and Heresthetics in Poland, 1989–93. Journal of Theoretical Politics 14 (3): 325–58.Google Scholar
Kaminski, Marek M., and Nalepa, Monika A.. 2004. Poland: Learning to Manipulate Electoral Rules. In The Handbook of Electoral System Choice, edited by Colomer., Josep M. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 369–81. Scholar
Katz, Jonathan N., King, Gary, and Rosenblatt, Elizabeth. 2020. Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Evaluations of Partisan Fairness in District-Based Democracies. American Political Science Review 114 (1): 164–78.Google Scholar
Kaufman, Aaron, King, Gary, and Komisarchik, Mayya. Forthcoming. How to Measure Legislative District Compactness If You Only Know It When You See It. American Journal of Political Science.Google Scholar
Keena, Alex. 2019a. Who Needs the Wealthy? The Effects of Size Scaling on Money in Senate Elections. Congress & the Presidency 46 (2): 235–52.Google Scholar
Keena, Alex. 2019b. The GOP’s “Supply-Side” Abortion Bans Won’t Work and Will Have Dire Consequences for Women’s Health. USAPP (blog). May 23, 2019. Scholar
King, Gary. 1990. Electoral Responsiveness and Partisan Bias in Multiparty Democracies. Legislative Studies Quarterly XV: 159–81.Google Scholar
Klain, Maurice. 1955. A New Look at the Constituencies: The Need for a Recount and a Reappraisal. American Political Science Review 49 (12): 1105–19.Google Scholar
Klarner, Carl. 2018. State Legislative Election Returns, 1967–2016,, Harvard Dataverse, V3, UNF:6:pV4h1CP/B8pHthjjQThTTw== [fileUNF]Google Scholar
Knight, , Jack, and James, Johnson. 2011. The Priority of Democracy: Political Consequences of Pragmatism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kovalov, Maksym. 2014. Electoral Manipulations and Fraud in Parliamentary Elections: The Case of Ukraine. East European Politics and Societies 28 (4): 781807. Scholar
Krasno, Jonathan, Magleby, Daniel B., McDonald, Michael D., Donahue, Shawn, and Best, Robin E.. 2019. Can Gerrymanders Be Detected? An Examination of Wisconsin’s State Assembly. American Political Research 47 (5):1162–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ladewig, Jeffrey W. 2018. “Appearances Do Matter”: Congressional District Compactness and Electoral Turnout. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 17 (2): 137–50. Scholar
Landau, Zeph, Reid, O., and Yershov, I., 2009. A Fair Division Solution to the Problem of Redistricting. Social Choice and Welfare 32 (3): 479–92.Google Scholar
Landau, Zeph, and Su, Frances Edward. 2010. Fair Division and Redistricting. In The Mathematics of Decisions, Elections, and Games, edited by Crisman, Karl-Dieter and Jones, Michael A.. Providence, RI: Contemporary Mathematics, 17–36, 624.Google Scholar
Latner, Michael. 2019. Let’s Stop Letting Minority Rule Give Us Science Fiction Abortion Laws. Union of Concerned Scientists. June 3, 2019. Scholar
Latner, Michael, Keena, Alex, Smith, Charles Anthony, and McGann, Anthony. 2020. How Gerrymandering in the States Could Lead to President Trump’s Re-Election. USAPP (blog). August 12, 2020. Scholar
Lee, Frances E., and Oppenheimer, Bruce I. 1999. Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Legal Information Institute. 2012. NFIB v Sebelius. LII / Legal Information Institute. Scholar
Leighley, Jan E., and Nagler., Jonathan 2013. Who Votes Now?: Demographics, Issues, Inequality, and Turnout in the United States. 1st Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Li, Quan, Pomante, Michael J., and Schraufnagel, Scot. 2018. Cost of Voting in the American States. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 17 (3): 234–47. Scholar
Lublin, David. 1997. The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Lublin, David. 1999. Racial Redistricting and African-American Representation: A Critique of “Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?”. American Political Science Review 93(1): 183–86.Google Scholar
Lyons, Michael, and Galderisi, Peter F.. 1995. Incumbency, Reapportionment, and U.S. House RedistrictingPolitical Research Quarterly 48 (4): 857–71.Google Scholar
Magleby, Daniel B., and Mosesson, Daniel B.. 2018. A New Approach for Developing Neutral Redistricting Plans. Political Analysis 26 (2): 147–67.Google Scholar
Makse, Todd. 2012. Strategic Constituency Manipulation in State Legislative Redistricting. Legislative Studies Quarterly 37: 225–50. doi:10.1111/j.1939-9162.2012.00044.xGoogle Scholar
Makse, Todd. 2014. The Redistricting Cycle, Partisan Tides, and Party Strength in State Legislative Elections. State Politics and Policy Quarterly 14 (3): 342–63.Google Scholar
Masket, Seth E., Winburn, Jonathan, and Wright., Gerald C. 2012. The Gerrymanderers Are Coming! Legislative Redistricting Won’t Affect Competition or Polarization Much, No Matter Who Does It. Political Science & Politics 45 (1): 3943.Google Scholar
Massey, Douglas S., and Denton, Nancy A.. 1988. The Dimensions of Residential Segregation. Social Forces 67 (2): 281315.Google Scholar
Mayhew, David R. 2014. Placing Parties in American Politics: Organization, Electoral Settings, and Government Activity in the Twentieth Century. Placing Parties in American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Scholar
McCarthy, Ryan, Derek, Willis, and Lai, Jonathan. 2020. Pennsylvania’s Rejection of 372,000 Ballot Applications Bewilders Voters and Strains Election Staff. ProPublica. October 15, 2020. Scholar
McDonald, Michael P. 2004. A Comparative Analysis of Redistricting Institutions in the United States, 2001–02. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 4 (4): 371–95.Google Scholar
McDonald, Michael P. 2009. Voter Preregistration Programs. George Mason University. Scholar
McDonald, Michael P. 2013. Geography Does Not Necessarily Lead to Pro-Republican Gerrymandering. Huffington Post. Scholar
McDonald, Michael D., and Best, Robin E.. 2015. Unfair Partisan Gerrymanders in Politics and Law: A Diagnostic Applied to Six Cases. Election Law Journal 14 (4): 312–30.Google Scholar
McDonald, Michael P., Shino, Enrijeta, and Smith, Daniel A.. 2015. Convenience Voting and Turnout: Reassessing the Effects of Election Reforms . Prepared for the New Research on Election Administration and Reform Conference at MIT, June 8, 2015.Google Scholar
McElwain, Kenneth Mori. 2018. Manipulating Electoral Rules to Manufacture Single-Party Dominance. Critical Readings on the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan September: 430–59. Scholar
McGann, Anthony J., Smith, Charles A., Latner, Michael, and Keena., J. Alex 2015. A Discernable and Manageable Standard for Partisan Gerrymandering. Election Law Journal 14 (4): 295311.Google Scholar
McGann, Anthony J., Smith, Charles Anthony, Latner, Michael, and Keena, Alex. 2016. Gerrymandering in America: The House of Representatives, the Supreme Court and the Future of Popular Sovereignty. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
McGhee, Eric. 2014. Measuring Partisan Bias in Single‐Member District Electoral Systems. Legislative Studies Quarterly 39 (1): 5585.Google Scholar
McKee, Seth C., Teigen, Jeremy M., and Turgeon., Mathieu 2006. The Partisan Impact of Congressional Redistricting: The Case of Texas, 2001–2003. Social Science Quarterly 87: 308–17. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.2006.00382.xGoogle Scholar
Michener, Jamila. 2016. Race, Poverty, and the Redistribution of Voting Rights. Poverty & Public Policy 8 (2):106–28 doi: 10.1002/pop4.137Google Scholar
Miller, , Peter, , and Bernard, Grofman2013. Redistricting Commissions in the Western United StatesU.C. Irvine Law Review 3: 637.Google Scholar
Miller, Sarah, Johnson, Norman, and Wherry, Laura R.. 2019. Medicaid and Mortality: New Evidence from Linked Survey and Administrative Data. Working Paper 26081. Working Paper Series. National Bureau of Economic Research. Scholar
Moomaw, Graham. 2020. Virginia Democratic Party Urges Voters to Defeat Redistricting Reform Amendment. Virginia Mercury. June 24, 2020. Accessed October 16, 2020.Google Scholar
Muennig, Peter A., Reynolds, Megan, David, S. Fink, Zafar, Zafari, and Geronimus, Arline T.. 2018, November. America’s Declining Well- Being, Health, and Life Expectancy: Not Just a White Problem. American Journal of Public Health 108 (12): 1626–631. Scholar
Murphy, Chad, and Yoshinaka, Antoine. 2009. Are Mapmakers Able to Target and Protect Congressional Incumbents? The Institutional Dynamics of Electoral Competition.” American Politics Research 37 (6): 955–82.Google Scholar
Nagle, John F. 2019. What Criteria Should Be Used for Redistricting Reform? Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 18 (1): 6377. Scholar
Nakao, Keisuke. 2011. Racial Redistricting for Minority Representation Without Partisan Bias: A Theoretical Approach. Economics & Politics 23 (1): 132–51.Google Scholar
NCSL. 2020. Absentee and Mail Voting Policies in Effect for the 2020 Election. National Conference of State Legislatures. Scholar
NEJM. 2020. Dying in a Leadership Vacuum. New England Journal of Medicine 383 (15): 1479–80. Scholar
Niemi, R. G., and Abramowitz, A. I. 1994. Partisan redistricting and the 1992 congressional elections. The Journal of Politics 56(3): 811-817.Google Scholar
Niemi, Richard G., and Jackman, Simon. 1991. Bias and Responsiveness in State Legislative Districting. Legislative Studies Quarterly 16 (2): 183202.Google Scholar
Norris, Pippa. 2011. Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Oliver, J. Eric. 2000. City Size and Civic Involvement in Metropolitan America. American Political Science Review 94 (June): 361–73.Google Scholar
Ollove, Michael. 2020. How Misinformation, Federalism and Selfishness Hampered America’s Virus Response. Pew Stateline. July 18, 2020. Scholar
Oppenheimer, Bruce I. 1996. The Representational Experience: The Effect of State Population on Senator-Constituency Linkages. American Journal of Political Science 40 (4): 1280–99.Google Scholar
Overby, L. Marvin, and Cosgrove., Kenneth M. 1996. Unintended Consequences? Racial Redistricting and the Representation of Minority Interests. The Journal of Politics 58 (2): 540–50.Google Scholar
Owen, Guillermo, and Grofman, Bernard. 1988. Optimal Partisan Gerrymandering. Political Geography 7 (1): 522.Google Scholar
Oxfam America. 2020. The Best and Worst States to Work in America – during COVID-19. /explore/issues/economic-well-being/covid-map/Google Scholar
Pacheco, Julianna, and Fletcher, Jason 2015. Incorporating Health into Studies of Political Behavior: Evidence for Turnout and Partisanship. Political Research Quarterly 68 (1): 104–16. Scholar
Parsons, G. Michael. 2020. Gerrymandering & Justiciability: The Political Question Doctrine After Rucho v. Common Cause. Indiana Law Journal 95(4): 1295-1364.Google Scholar
Pegden, Wesley, Procaccia, Ariel D., and Yu, Dingli. 2017. A Partisan Districting Protocol with Provably Nonpartisan Outcomes. ArXiv. Accessed at Scholar
Perkins, Alec. 2014. FairDistrict.US 2014 [cited November 6, 2014]. Available from Scholar
Petrocik, , John, R., and Scott, W. Desposato. 1998. The partisan consequences of majority-minority redistricting in the South, 1992 and 1994. The Journal of Politics 60 (3): 613-633.Google Scholar
Pew Research Center. 2020. Americans’ Views of Government: Low Trust, but Some Positive Performance Ratings. Scholar
Pildes, , Richard, H. 2004. Forward: The Constitutionalization of Democratic Politics. Harvard Law Review 118 (1): 28-154.Google Scholar
Powell, R. J., Clark, J. T., and Dube, M. P. 2020. Partisan Gerrymandering, Clustering, or Both? A New Approach to a Persistent Question. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 19(1), 79-100.Google Scholar
Pritchard, Anita. 1992. Changes in Electoral Structures and the Success of Women Candidates: The Case of Florida. Social Science Quarterly 73: 6270.Google Scholar
The Public Mapping Project, Michael Altman, Michael P. McDonald, and Azavea. 2014. District Builder. www.publicmapping.orgGoogle Scholar
Reddick, Malia, and Kourlis, Rebecca Love. 2014. Choosing Judges: Judicial Nominating Commissions and the Selection of Supreme Court Justices. Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System. Scholar
Rhola, Ryne, Johnson, Ron, Jones, Kelvyn, and Manley, David. 2018. Spatial Scale and the Geographical Polarization of the American Electorate. Political Geography 65: 117–22. Scholar
Rodden, Johnathan A. 2019. Why Cities Lose: The Deep Roots of the Urban-Rural Political Divide. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Rosenbaum, Jason. Missourians Scrap Clean Missouri Redistricting Plan, Pass Amendment 3. November 4, 2020. St. Louis Public Radio. Accessed March 1, 2021. Scholar
Rosentiel, Tom. 2010. A Clear Rejection of the Status Quo, No Consensus about Future Policies. Pew Research Center (blog). November 3, 2010. Scholar
Rove, Karl. The GOP Targets State Legislatures. March 4, 2010. Wall Street Journal. Accessed September 9, 2019, Scholar
Santucci, Jack. 2017. Party Splits, Not Progressives: The Origins of Proportional Representation in American Local Government. American Politics Research 45: 3, Scholar
Santucci, Jack. 2018. Maine Ranked-choice Voting as a Case of Electoral System Change. Representation 54 (3): 297311.Google Scholar
Schattschneider, Elmer E., and Adamany, David. 1975. The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. 1st Edition. Hinsdale, IL: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Scheiber, Stuart. 2013. Can Gerrymandering Be Solved with Cut-and-Choose? October 28. Accessed at Scholar
Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Brady, Henry E., and Verba, Sidney. 2018. Unequal and Unrepresented: Political Inequality and the People’s Voice in the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Schlozman, Kay Lehman, S. Verba, and Brady, Henry E.. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Seabrook, Nicholas R. 2017. Drawing the Lines: Constraints on Partisan Gerrymandering in US Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Martin. 1965. Stability and Change in Judicial Decision-Making: Incrementalism or Stare Decisis. Law in Transition Quarterly 2 (3): 134–57Google Scholar
Sherstyuk, Katerina. 1998 . How to Gerrymander: A Formal Analysis. Public Choice 95: 2749.Google Scholar
Smirnov, Oleg, and Smith, Charles Anthony. 2013. Drift, Draft, or Drag: How U.S. Supreme Court Justices React to New Members. The Justice System Journal 34 (2): 228–45.Google Scholar
Spicuzza, Mary, and Hall, Dee J.. 2010, November 3. Walker Defeats Barrett to win Governor’s Race. Wisconsin State Journal. Accessed September 9, 2010,–11df-83c9–001cc4c002e0.htmlGoogle Scholar
Stephanopoulos, Nicholas O., and McGhee, Eric M.. 2015. Partisan Gerrymandering and the Efficiency Gap. University of Chicago Law Review 82: 831900.Google Scholar
Stephanopoulos, Nicholas O., and McGhee, Eric M.. 2018. The Measure of a Metric: The Debate over Quantifying Partisan Gerrymandering. Stanford Law Review 70: 1503–68.Google Scholar
Stephanopoulos, Nicholas O. and Warshaw., Christopher 2020. The Impact of Partisan Gerrymandering on Political Parties. Legislative Studies Quarterly 45(4): 609–43. doi:10.1111/lsq.12276Google Scholar
Stewart, Emily. 2018. State Legislatures Democrats Have Flipped so Far in the 2018 Elections. Vox. November 7, 2018. Scholar
Sund, Reijo, Lahtinen, Hannu, Wass, Hanna, Mattila, Mikko, and Martikainen, Pekka. 2017. How Voter Turnout Varies between Different Chronic Conditions? A Population-Based Register Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 71 (5): 475–79. Scholar
Swasey, Benjamin. 2020. Map: Mail-In Voting Rules By State – And The Deadlines You Need. NPR.Org. October 14, 2020. Scholar
Tam Cho, Wendy K., and Liu, Yan Y.. 2016. Toward a Talismanic Redistricting Tool: A Computational Method for Identifying Extreme Redistricting Plans. Election Law Journal 15 (4):351–66.Google Scholar
Tam, Cho, Wendy, K and Liu, Yan Y.. 2018. Sampling from Complicated and Unknown Distributions: Monte Carlo and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Redistricting. Physica 506 :170-178.Google Scholar
Tan, Netina, and Grofman, Bernard. 2018. Electoral Rules and Manufacturing Legislative Supermajority: Evidence from Singapore. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 56 (3): 273–97. Scholar
Taylor, Steven L., Shugart, Matthew S., Lijphart, Arend, and Groftman, Bernard. 2014. A Different Democracy: American Government in a Thirty-One Country Perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Thoet, Alison. 2017. What North Carolina’s Power-Stripping Laws Mean for New Gov. Roy Cooper. PBS NewsHour. January 3, 2017. Scholar
Trounstine, Jessica, and Valdini, Melody E.. 2008. The Context Matters: The Effects of Single-Member versus At-Large Districts on City Council Diversity. American Journal of Political Science 52 (3): 554–69.Google Scholar
Tucker-Foltz, Jamie. 2018. A Cut-And-Choose Mechanism to Prevent Gerrymandering. ArXiv. Accessed at Scholar
Tufte, Edward R. 1973. The Relationship between Seats and Votes in Two-Party Systems. American Political Science Review 67 (2): 540–54.Google Scholar
UCLA Voting Rights Project, Voting Rights Lab, and Union of Concern Scientists. 2020. Protecting Public Health in the 2020 Election. Scholar
Union of Concerned Scientists. 2017. Benefits of Renewable Energy Use. Scholar
United Health Foundation. 2018. America’s Health Rankings | AHR. Retrieved February 6, 2019, from America’s Health Rankings website: Scholar
Veomett, Ellen. 2018. Efficiency Gap, Voter Turnout, and the Efficiency Principle. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 17 (4): 249–63. Scholar
Vickrey, William. 1961. On the Prevention of Gerrymandering. Political Science Quarterly 76(1): 105–10.Google Scholar
Wang, Samuel S.-H. 2016. Three Tests for Practical Evaluation of Partisan Gerrymandering. Stanford Law Review 68: 1263–320.Google Scholar
Warrington, Gregory S. 2018. Quantifying Gerrymandering Using the Vote Distribution. Election Law Journal 17(1): 39-57.Google Scholar
Warrington, Gregory S. 2019. A comparison of partisan-gerrymandering measures. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 18(3): 262–81.Google Scholar
Wasfy, Jason H., Stewart, Charles III, and Bhambhani, Vijeta. 2017. County Community Health Associations of Net Voting Shift in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. PLOS ONE 12 (10): e0185051. Scholar
Washington, E. (2012). Do Majority-Black Districts Limit Blacks’ Representation? The Case of the 1990 Redistricting. The Journal of Law and Economics 55 (2): 251–74.Google Scholar
Waymer, Damion, and Heath, Robert L.. 2016. Black Voter Dilution, American Exceptionalism, and Racial Gerrymandering: The Paradox of the Positive in Political Public Relations. Journal of Black Studies 47 (7): 635–58.Google Scholar
Weeks, Linton. 2010. 10 Takeaways from The 2010 Midterms. NPR.Org. November 3, 2010. Scholar
Weiser, Wendy. 2020. To Protect Democracy, Expand Vote by Mail | Brennan Center for Justice. June 30, 2020. Scholar
Welch, Susan, and Studlar, Donley T.. 1990. Multimember Districts and the Representation of Women: Evidence from Britain and the United States. The Journal of Politics 52 (2): 391412.Google Scholar
Whitby, Kenny J. 2000. The Color of Representation: Congressional Behavior and Black Interests. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
White, Laurel. 2020. Wisconsin Supreme Court Upholds GOP-Backed Lame-Duck Laws Limiting Power Of Governor, AG. Wisconsin Public Radio. July 9, 2020. Scholar
Wolf, Stephen. 2015. What If We Had Non-Gerrymandered Redistricting Nationwide? The Daily Kos, August 6, 2012 [cited July 21, 2015]. Available from Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Rosenstone, Steven J.. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Woodward, Kelly. 2020. Ohioans Should Fill Their Absentee Ballot Request Carefully, Or Risk Having It Rejected. October 6, 2020. Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats