Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-5rzhg Total loading time: 1.851 Render date: 2021-11-27T11:24:35.440Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 27 - Toxicology of the Elder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 July 2020

Kim A. Collins
LifePoint Inc, South Carolina
Roger W. Byard
University of Adelaide
Get access


The older adult population is growing in all regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), by the year 2050 there will be a global population of 2 billion that are 60 years of age and older [1]. In part, earlier detection of clinical disease, better access to treatment options, and advances in pharmaceutical development have fostered this evolution.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


World Health Organization (2018) Ageing and Health. (accessed June 28, 2018).Google Scholar
Hunt, R.H., Camilleri, M., Crowe, S.E., et al. (2015) The stomach in health and disease. Gut, 64, 16501668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krasinski, S.D., Russell, R.M., Samloff, I.M., et al. (1986) Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population. Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 34, 800806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winek, C.L. and Carfagna, M. (1987) Comparison of plasma, serum, and whole blood ethanol concentrations. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 11, 267268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cockcroft, D.W. and Gault, M.H. (1976) Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron, 16, 3141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masnoon, N., Shakib, S., Kalisch-Ellett, L. and Caughey, G.E. (2017) What is polypharmacy? A systematic review of definitions. BMC Geriatrics, 17, 230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
By the American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel (2015) American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63, 22272246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geriatrics Care (2018) Geriatric Resources. Online events. Updates – Geriatrics Care Online. (accessed June 28, 2018).Google Scholar
Yap, A.F., Thirumoorthy, T. and Kwan, Y.H. (2016) Medication adherence in the elderly. Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7, 6467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nguyen, P.V.-Q. and Spinelli, C. (2016) Prescribing cascade in an elderly woman. Canadian Pharmacists Journal, 149, 122124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rochon, P.A. and Gurwitz, J.H. (1997) Optimising drug treatment for elderly people: the prescribing cascade. BMJ, 315, 10961099.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Locquet, M., Honvo, G., Rabenda, V., et al. (2017) Adverse health events related to self-medication practices among elderly: a systematic review. Drugs & Aging, 34, 359365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WebMD. Drug Interaction Checker – Find Interactions Between Medications. (accessed 28, June 2018).Google Scholar Drug Interactions Checker – For Drugs, Food & Alcohol. (June 28, 2018).Google Scholar
American Psychological Association. Elder Abuse. (June 28, 2018).Google Scholar
Simone, L., Wettstein, A., Senn, O., Rosemann, T. and Hasler, S. (2016) Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse. Swiss Medical Weekly, 146, w14273.Google ScholarPubMed
Klausz, G., Kass, K., Sótonyi, P. and Róna, K. (2006) [Hair analysis of abused and therapeutic drugs in forensic toxicology]. Orvosi Hetilap, 147, 21812186.Google Scholar
Byard, R.W. and Musgrave, I. Herbal medicines and forensic investigations. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology, 2010; 6: 8182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikolaou, P., Papoutsis, I., Dona, A., Spiliopoulou, C. and Athanaselis, S. (2013) Toxicological analysis of formalin-fixed or embalmed tissues: a review. Forensic Science International, 233, 312319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krashin, D., Murinova, N., Jumelle, P. and Ballantyne, J. (2015) Opioid risk assessment in palliative medicine. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 14, 10231033.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, B., King, T., Pestaner, J.P. and Smialek, J.E. (2001) Palliative pain therapy at the end of life and forensic medicine issues. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 22, 6264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andresen, B.D., Alcaraz, A. and Grant, P.M. (2005) The application of pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) forensic analyses to tissue samples from an ‘Angel of Death’ investigation. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50, 215219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, D.S., Braithwaite, R.A. and Hale, K.A. (2000) Estimating antemortem drug concentrations from postmortem blood samples: the influence of postmortem redistribution. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 53, 282285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats