Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-dc8c957cd-mgc9c Total loading time: 1.645 Render date: 2022-01-27T06:40:37.368Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 35 - The Legal Regulation of the Consequences of Aging

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 July 2020

Kim A. Collins
LifePoint Inc, South Carolina
Roger W. Byard
University of Adelaide
Get access


A variety of legal consequences have the potential to flow from persons reaching their senior years. Growing knowledge about the vulnerability of aging persons to be the subject of predation, cruelty, substandard care, and neglect is resulting in the formulation of prophylactic measures directed toward improving the safety of persons from what has become known as elder abuse.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Newbury, M.. Historical Child Sexual Abuse Investigations: A Case for Law Reform. Current Issues in Criminal Justice 2014. 26(1): 4354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly, D.A.. Remembering Historical Child Sexual Abuse. Criminal Law Quarterly 2014: 438480.Google Scholar
Shead, K.. Responding to Historical Child Sexual Abuse: A Prosecution Perspective on Current Challenges and Future Directions. Current Issues in Criminal Justice 2014. 26(1): 5573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roebuck, J.. When Does Old Sage Begin?: The Evolution of the English Definition. Journal of Social History 1979. 12(3): 416428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thane, P.. The Muddled History of Retiring at 60 and 65. New Society 1978. 45(826): 234236.Google Scholar
Thane, P.. History and the Sociology of Ageing. Social History of Medicine 1989. 2(1): 9396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gorman, M.. Development and the Rights of Older People. In: Randel, J, et al., Eds. The Ageing and Development Report: Poverty, Independence and the World’s Older People. London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.,1999: pp. 321.Google Scholar
Blackham, A.. Why Mandatory Retirement Ages Should Be a Thing of the Past.” The Conversation. April 9, 2018: Scholar
Stolle, D.P.. Professional Responsibility in Elder Law: A Synthesis of Preventive Law and Therapeutic Jurisprudence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 1996. 14: 459478.3.0.CO;2-V>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Helewitz, J.A.. Elder Law. Boston, Cengage Learning, 2001.Google Scholar
Lewis, R.. Elder Law in Australia. LexisNexis Butterworths, 2004.Google Scholar
Numhauser-Henning, A.. Elder Law: Evolving European Perspectives. Edward Elgar, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, R.J.. Law and Aging: Essentials of Elder Law. Prentice Hall PTR, 2004.Google Scholar
McCullagh, R. and Wilde, P.. Retirement Village Law in NSW. Thomson Reuters, 2013.Google Scholar
Ashton, G., Ashton, G.R. and Bielanska, C.. Elderly People and the Law. 2nd edn. Jordans, 2014.Google Scholar
Field, S.. The Concept of Elder Law. Australian Law Reform Commission Journal 2002. 81: 20.Google Scholar
Gallo, N.R.. Elder Law. Cengage Learning, 2008.Google Scholar
Diesfeld, K.J. and McIntosh, I. (ed). Elder Law in New Zealand. Wellington: Thomson Reuters.Google Scholar
Phelan, A.. International Perspectives on Elder Abuse. Routledge, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mewhinney, K.. The Human Touch: Clinical Teaching of Elder Law. Stetson Law Review 2011. 40: 151235.Google Scholar
Reaves, C.C.. My Approach to Teaching Elder Law. Stetson Law Review 2007. 40: 301331.Google Scholar
Frolik, E.. The Developing Field of Elder Law: A Historical Perspective. Elder Law Journal 1993. 1: 112.Google Scholar
Frolik, E.. The Developing Field of Elder Law Redux: Ten Years Later. Elder Law Journal 2010. 10: 117.Google Scholar
Wexler, D.B. and Winick, B. J.. Law in a Therapeutic Key: Developments in Therapeutic Jurisprudence. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Acierno, R., Hernandez, M.A., Amstadter, A.B., et al. Prevalence and Correlates of Emotional, Physical, Sexual and Financial Abuse and Potential Neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study. American Journal of Public Health 2010. 100(2): 292–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. The Toronto Declaration on the Global Prevention of Elder Abuse. 2002: Scholar
Carney, A.. Elder Abuse: Forensic, Legal and Medical Aspects. Elsevier, 2019.Google Scholar
Summers, R.W. and Hoffman, A.H.. Elder Abuse: A Public Health Perspective. American Public Health Association, 2006.Google Scholar
Dong, X.. Elder Abuse: Research, Practice and Policy. Springer, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, D.. Organizational Structures of Elder Abuse Reporting Systems. Administration of Social Work 2011. 35(5): 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, K. and Presnell, S.E.. Elder Homicide. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2007. 27: 183187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, K. and Presnell, S.E.. Elder Neglect and Pathophysiology of Aging. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2007. 28: 157162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Donder, L., De Witte, N., Brosens, D, Dierckx, E. and Verte, D.. Learning to Detect and Prevent Elder Abuse: The Need for a Valid Risk Assessment Instrument. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science. 2015. 191: 14831488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaspiew, R., Carson, R., Rhoades, H.. Elder Abuse: Understanding Issues, Frameworks and Responses. Sydney: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2016.Google Scholar
Ananias, J., Strydom, H.. Factors Contributing to Elder Abuse and Neglect in the Informal Caregiving Setting. Social Work 2014. 50(2): 268284.Google Scholar
Australian Law Reform Commission. Elder Abuse – A National Legal Response, Final Report. ALRC 131. 2017. Scholar
Mackay, R. and Brookbanks, W. (eds.). Fitness to Plead: International and Comparative Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freckelton, I. and Selby, H. Expert Evidence: Law, Practice, Procedure and Advocacy, 6th edn. Sydney: Thomson Reuters, 2018.Google Scholar
Dusky v. United States 362 US 402; 4 L Ed 2d 824; 80 S Ct 788 (1960).Google Scholar
Drope v. Missouri 420 US 162; 43 L Ed 2d 103; 95 S Ct 896 (1975)Google Scholar
R v.Pritchard (1836) 7 C & P 103; 173 ER 135.Google Scholar
R v.Presser [1958] VR 45.Google Scholar
Bedard, R., Metzger, L. and Williams, B.. Ageing Prisoners: An Introduction to Geriatric Health-care Challenges in Correctional Facilities. International Review of the Red Cross 2017. 98(903): 917-J.J.Google Scholar
State of Western Australia v. Huggins [2017] WASC 243.Google Scholar
Freckelton, I. and Karagiannakis, M.. Fitness to Stand Trial under International Criminal Law: The Historical Background. Journal of Law and Medicine 2014. 21: 748760.Google Scholar
Freckelton, I. and Karagiannakis, M.. Unfitness to Stand Trial under International Criminal Law: The Influential Decision of the International Criminal Tribunal of the Former Yugoslavia in Relation to Pavle Strugar and its Ramifications. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 2014. 21: 611621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prosecutor v. Strugar, IT-01–42-A, Appeals Chamber, Judgment, July 17, 2008.Google Scholar
Freckelton, I. and Karagiannakis, M.. Unfitness to Stand Trial Decision-making in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Journal of Law and Medicine 2014. 21: 813825.Google ScholarPubMed
Thirith, Ieng, Dossier No. 002/19–09-2007 ECCC-TC/SC (16), Supreme Court Chamber, December 14, 2012.Google Scholar
Kerbs, J.J. and Jolley, J.M.. Senior Citizens Behind Bars: Challenges for the Criminal Justice System. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2014.Google Scholar
Aday, R.H. and Krabill, J.K.. Aging Offenders in the Criminal Justice System. Age UK, “Retirement”: Scholar
Yarnell, S.C., Kirwin, P.D. and Zonana, H.V.. Geriatrics and the Legal System. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 2017. 45(2): 208217.Google ScholarPubMed
Stojkovic, S.. Elderly Prisoners: A Growing and Forgotten Group Within Correctional Systems Vulnerable to Elder Abuse 2007. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 2007. 19: 97117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jolley, J.M., Krebs, J.J., Kim, K. and Peterson, B.. Aging Behind Bars: Trends and Implications of Graying Prisoners in the Federal Prison System, 2014. Urban Institute: Scholar
Kerbs, J., Jolley, J.M. and Kanaboshi, N..The Interplay between Law and Social Science in the Age Segregation Debate. Journal of Crime & Justice 2015. 38(1): 7795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blowers, A.N., Jolley, J.M. and Kerbs, J.. The Age Segregation Debate. In Kerbs, J.J. and Jolley, J.M, Eds. Senior Citizens Behind Bars: Challenges for the Criminal Justice System. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2014,pp. 133–56.Google Scholar
Aday, R.H.. Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections. Westport CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.Google Scholar
Williams, B.A., Goodwin, J.S., Baillargeon, J., Ahalt, C., and Walter, L.C., Addressing the Aging Crisis in U.S. Criminal Justice Health Care. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 2012. 60: 11501156. http://doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03962.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olver, M.E., Nicholacichuk, T.P., Gu, D. and Wong, S.C.. Sex Offender Treatment Outcome, Actuarial Risk, and the Aging Sex Offender in Canadian Corrections: A Long-term Follow-up. Sex Abuse 2013. 25: 396422. http://doi:10.1177/1079063212464399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glover, I. and Branine, M.. Ageism in Work and Employment. London: Routledge, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Australian Human Rights Commission. Willing to Work: National Inquiry into Employment Discrimination Against Older Australians and Australians with Disability. 2016. Scholar
Lain, D.. The Consequences of Abolishing UK Mandatory Retirement Ages. Innovation in Aging 2017. 1(1): 278285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Round, A.. Extending Working Lives: A Devolved, Lifecourse Approach to Enabling Work Beyond State Pension Age. 2017. Manchester: Institute for Public Policy Research: Scholar
Trudeau: Canada’s Retirement Age to Shift from 65 to 67. BBC News article. March 17, 2016: Scholar
Australian Law Reform Commission. Grey Areas – Age Barriers to Work in Commonwealth Laws. DP 78: Scholar
Gibbons v.Wright (1954) 91 CLR 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Re Griffith; Easter v.Griffith (1995) 217 ALR 284.Google Scholar
PB v.BB [2015] NSWSC 1778.Google Scholar
Re Erdogan’s Application; Erdogan v. Ekic [2012] VSC 256.Google Scholar
Ranclaud v. Cabban [1988] NSW Conv R 55–385.Google Scholar
Goddard Elliott v. Fritsch [2012] VSC 87.Google Scholar
Barry, L.. Casenote: Goddard Elliott v Fritsch. Macquarie Law Journal 2012. 10: 105110.Google Scholar
Pates v. Craig and Public Trustee, Estate of Cole [1995] NSWSC 87.Google Scholar
Re Key [2010] 1 WLR 2020.Google Scholar
Nicholson v. Knaggs [2009] VSC 64.Google Scholar
Hobhouse v. Macarthur-Onslow [2016] NSWSC 1831.Google Scholar
Romascu v. Manolache [2011] NSWSC 1362.Google Scholar
Gray v. Taylor; The Estate of the Late Stanislaw Zajac [2017] NSWSC 487.Google Scholar
Dellios v. Dellios [2012]NSWSC 868.Google Scholar
Gordon, R.. The Emergence of Assisted (Supported) Decision-Making in the Canadian Law of Adult Guardianship and Substitute Decision-Making. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 2000. 23: 6177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burningham, S.. Developments in Canadian Adult Guardianship and Decision-Making. Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies. 2009. 18: 119155.Google Scholar
Purser, K., Magner, E.S. and Madison, J.. Competency and Capacity: The Legal and Medical Interface. Journal of Law and Medicine 2009. 16: 789802.Google ScholarPubMed
Banks v. Goodfellow (1870) LR 5 QB 549.Google Scholar
Purser, K.. Assessing Testamentary Capacity in the 21st Century: Is Banks v Goodfellow Still Relevant? University of New South Wales Law Journal 2015. 38(3): 854879.Google Scholar
Sharp v. Adam [2006] EWCA Civ 449.Google Scholar
Freckelton, I.. Assisted Dying: Learning from the International Experience. In Freckelton, I. and Peterson, K. (Eds.), Tensions and Traumas in Health Law. Sydney: The Federation Press, 2017: pp. 511533.Google Scholar
Willmott, L. and White, B.. Assisted Dying in Australia: A Values based Model for Reform. In Freckelton, I. and Peterson, K. (Eds.), Tensions and Traumas in Health Law. Sydney: The Federation Press, 2017: pp. 479510.Google Scholar
PBU & NRE v. Mental Health Tribunal [2018] VSC 564.Google Scholar
Freckelton, I.. Electro-convulsive Therapy and Human Rights. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 2019. 26: 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brank, E.M.. Elder Research: Filling an Important Gap in Psychology and Law. Behavioral Science and the Law 2007. 25(5): 701716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, S.L.. Understanding Elder Abuse: A Clinician’s Guide. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2017.Google Scholar
Love, H.. Aging Witnesses: Exploring Difference, Inspiring Change. International Journal of Evidence & Proof 2015. 19(4): 210227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barry, L.. Elder Mediation. Australasian Dispute Resolution Journal 2013. 24: 251258.Google Scholar
Barry, L.. Elder Mediation: What’s in a Name? Conflict Resolution Quarterly 2015. 34(4): 435442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royal Commission into Aged Care, Quality and Safety. Terms of reference. 2018: Scholar
Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety. Interim Report: Neglect, vol 1, pp. 1, 12. 2019. (accessed November 6, 2019).Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats