Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-dc8c957cd-jg5zz Total loading time: 2.192 Render date: 2022-01-29T11:19:58.073Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 10 - Forensic Entomology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 July 2020

Kim A. Collins
LifePoint Inc, South Carolina
Roger W. Byard
University of Adelaide
Get access


Forensic entomology is the use of arthropods as evidence in criminal or civil investigations. This field is well established within the forensic sciences with active practitioners and researchers located at many institutions throughout the world. In fact, a number of associations have been formed in recent years to serve as platforms for professional development in the field of forensic entomology.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Tomberlin, JK, Benbow, ME, eds. Forensic Entomology: International Dimensions and Frontiers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivers, DB, Dahlem, GA. The Science of Forensic Entomology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2014.Google Scholar
Haskell, NH, Williams, RE. Entomology & Death: A Procedural Guide. 2nd edn. Clemson, SC: East Park Printing; 2008.Google Scholar
Byrd, J, Castner, J, eds. Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, 2nd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2010.Google Scholar
Anderson, GS. Insect succession on carrion and its relationship to determining time since death. In Byrd, JH, Castner, JL, eds. Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, 1st edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001, pp. 143–76.Google Scholar
Tomberlin, JK, Mohr, R, Benbow, ME, Tarone, AM, VanLaerhoven, SL. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology. 2011;56:401–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, KGV. A Manual of Forensic Entomology New York: Comstock Publishing Associates; 1986.Google Scholar
Mann, RW, Bass, WM, Meadows, L. Time since death and decomposition of the human body: variables and observations in case and experimental field studies. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1990;35:103–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Catts, EP. Problems in estimating the postmortem interval in death investigations. Journal of Agricultural Entomology. 1992;9:245–55.Google Scholar
Lachs, MS, Pillemer, K. Abuse and neglect of elderly persons. New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;332:437–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patton, WS. Some notes on Indian Calliphorinae. Part VI. How to recognize the Indian myiasis-producing flies and their larvae, together with some notes on how to breed them and study their habits. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1922;9:548–57.Google Scholar
Sherman, RA. Wound myiasis in urban and suburban United States. Archives of International Medicine. 2000;160:2000–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomberlin, JK, Crippen, TL, Tarone, AM, et al. A review of bacterial interactions with blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 2017;110(1):1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bozzo, L, Lima, IA, de Almeida, OP, Scully, C. Oral myiasis caused by Sarcophagidae in an extraction wound. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1992;74:733–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, B. Two cases of human myiasis caused by Phaenicia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Chicago area hospitals. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1984;21(5):615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, ED. Intestinal canthariasis due to Tenebrio molitor. Journal of Parasitology. 1946;32(1):54–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mokhtar, AS, Sridhar, GS, Mahmud, R, et al. First case report of canthariasis in an infant caused by the larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2016;53(5):1234–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, X, Wang, LF, Feng, Y, et al. A case report: A rare case of infant gastrointestinal canthariasis caused by larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2016;5:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smadi, R, Amr, ZS, Katbeh-Bader, A, Obidat, N, Tawarah, M, Hasan, H. Facial myiasis and canthariasis associated with systemic lupus panniculitis: a case report. International Journal of Dermatology. 2014;53(11):1365–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Payne, JA. A summer carrion study of the baby pig Sus scrofa Linnaeus. Ecology. 1965;46:592602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bury, TL, Clegern, RW, Hart, WW. Two cases of phorid (Diptera: Phoridae) myiasis in Texas. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1979;15:122–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, TS, Rana, D. Urogenital myiasis caused by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae): a case report. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1989;26:228–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, TL, Chastain, DO. Facultative myiasis by Megaselia sp. (Diptera: Phoridae) in Texas: a case report. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1992;29:561–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wakid, MH. A laboratory-based study for first documented case of urinary myiasis caused by larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia. The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2008;46:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntington, TE, Voigt, DW, Higley, LG. Not the usual suspects: human wound myiasis by phorids. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2008;45:157–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nevill, EM, Schroonraad, JH, Swanepoel, KA. A case of nasal myiasis caused by the larvae of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston) 1893 (Diptera: Psychodidae). Tropical Diseases Bulletin. 1970;67:512–4.Google Scholar
Hyun, DY, Cain, MP, Blue-Hnidy, DE, Conway, JH. Urinary myiasis associated with ureteral stent placements. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2004;23:179–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Güven, E, Kar, S, Doğan, N, Karaer, Z. Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a woman. Turkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi. 2008;32:174–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Cicek, M, Diker, AI, Ipek, DN, Tekin, A. Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis. Turkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi. 2012;36:51–3.Google ScholarPubMed
El-Badry, AA, Salem, HK, Edmardash, YAEA. Human urinary myiasis due to larvae of Clogmia (Telmatoscopus) albipunctata Williston (Diptera: Psychodidae) first report in Egypt. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 2014;51:247.Google ScholarPubMed
Rasti, S, Dehghani, R, Khaledi, HN, Takhtfiroozeh, SM, Chimehi, E. Uncommon human urinary tract myiasis due to Psychoda sp. larvae, Kashan, Iran: a case report. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2016;11:417.Google ScholarPubMed
Wilson, EO. Division of labor in fire ants based on physical castes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 1978;51:615–36.Google Scholar
Porter, SD, Tschinkel, TR. Fire ant polymorphism (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): factors affecting worker size. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 1985;78:381–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinson, SB. Invasion of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) spread, biology, and impact. American Entomologist. 1997;43:2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puckett, RT, Harris, MK. Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), affect forager size ratios of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Texas. Environmental Entomology. 2010;39:1593–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moloney, S, Vanderwoude, C. Red imported fire ants: a threat to eastern Australia’s wildlife? Ecological Management & Restoration. 2002;3:167–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, JSC, Shen, C-H, Lee, H-J. Monogynous and polygynous red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in Taiwan. Environmental Entomology. 2006;35(1):167–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, R, Li, Y, Liu, N, Porter, SD. An overview of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mainland China. Florida Entomologist. 2007;90:723–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lard, C, Wiilis, DB, Salin, V, Robison, S. Economic assessments of red imported fire ant on Texas’ urban and agricultural sectors. 2002. Scholar
Jemal, A, Hugh-Jones, M. A review of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) and its impacts on plant, animal, and human health. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1993;17:1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, SF, deShazo, RD, Moffitt, JE, Williams, DF, Buhner, WA. Expanding habitat of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta): A public health concern. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2000;105:683–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
deShazo, RD, Williams, DF, Moak, ES. Fire ant attacks on residents in health care facilities: a report of two cases. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1999;131(6):424–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bay, DE, Harris, RL. Introduction to Veterinary Entomology (A Guide to Livestock Insects). Stonefly; 1988.Google Scholar
Fernandez, S, Fernandez, A, Armentia, A, Pineda, F. Allergy due to head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2006;61:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, GC, Olson, JK. Human Lice. Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension L-1315; 2007.Google Scholar
Pollack, RJ. Head Lice Information. Publication No 700 K, Harvard School of Public Health; 2000.Google Scholar
Lyon, WF. Human lice. Publication No HYG2094, Ohio State University Extension Service; 1996.Google Scholar
Blythe, ME, Al Ubaydi, F, Williams, JD, Smith, JM. Study of dust mites in three Birmingham hospitals. British Medical Journal. 1975;1:62–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Platts-Mills, TAE, de Weck, AL. Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1989;83:417–27.Google Scholar
Yonkosky, D, Ladia, L, Gackenheimer, L, Schultz, MW. Scabies in nursing homes: an eradication program with permethrin 5% cream. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1990;23:133–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Potter, MF. House Dust Mites. University of Kentucky: Cooperative Extension Bulletin ENTFACT – 646; 2010.Google Scholar
Jacobs, ST. Bird mites. Entomological Notes: Penn State Cooperative Extension Bulletin; 2010; Ph-9.Google Scholar
Ogg, B. What You Need to Know About Scabies. University of Nebraska Extension Bulletin #336; 2008.Google Scholar
Holness, DL, DeKoven, JG, Nethercott, JR. Scabies in chronic health care institutions. Archives of Dermatology. 1992;128:1257–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro, MC, Pepato, AD, De Matos, FP, Sverzut, CE, Abrahão, AAC, Trivellato, AE. Oral myiasis in an elderly patient. Gerodontology. 2012;29:e1136–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bablani, D, Desai, RN, Kulkarni, S, Shetty, S, Bansal, S, Popli, S. Oral myiasis in an elderly debilitated patient. European Geriatric Medicine. 2011;2:371–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, RD, Anderson, PC, Clark, DP. A case of human myiasis caused by Phormia regina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Missouri, USA. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1986;23(5):578–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Passos, MRL, Varella, RQ, Tavares, RR, et al. Vulvar myiasis during pregnancy. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002;10:153–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gabriel, JG, Marinho, SA, Verli, FD, Krause, RG, Yurgel, LS, Cherubini, K. Extensive myiasis infestation over a squamous cell carcinoma in the face. Case report. Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirgia Bucal. 2008;13:E9-11.Google Scholar
Corrêa, APS, Beneti, IM, Ribeiro, ED, Pereira, CCS, Souza, FA, Garcia, IR. Myiasis in elderly involving oral and nasal cavities: diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2015;26:989–90.Google ScholarPubMed
Salimi, M, Goodarzi, D, Karimfar, MH, Edalat, H. Human urogenital myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Markazi Province of Iran. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2010;4:72–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Mielke, U. Nosocomial myiasis. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1997;37:15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobson, JA, Kolts, RL, Conti, M, Burke, JP. Hospital-acquired myiasis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 1980;1:319–20.Google ScholarPubMed
Smith, DR, Clevenger, RR. Nosocomial nasal myiasis. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 1986;110(5):439–40.Google ScholarPubMed
Roche, S, Cross, S, Burgess, I, Pines, C, Cayley, AC. Cutaneous myiasis in an elderly debilitated patient. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1990;66:776–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Çiftçioğlu, APS, Altintas, K, Haberal, M. A case of human orotracheal myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Parasitology Research. 2015;83:34–6.Google Scholar
Josephson, RL, Krajden, S. An unusual nosocomial infection: nasotracheal myiasis. The Journal of Otolaryngology. 1993;22:46–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Kim, JS, Seo, PW, Kim, JW, et al. A nasal myiasis in a 76-year-old female in Korea. The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2009;47:405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Youssefi, MR, Rahimi, MT, Marhaba, Z. Occurrence of nasal nosocomial myiasis by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2012;7:104–8.Google Scholar
Thyssen, PJ, Nassu, MP, Costella, AMU, Costella, ML. Record of oral myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae): case evidencing negligence in the treatment of incapable. Parasitology Research. 2012;111:957–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mircheraghi, SF, Mircheraghi, SF, Ramezani Awal Riabi, H, Parsapour, A. Nasal nosocomial myiasis infection caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) following the septicemia: a case report. Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2016;11:284–9.Google Scholar
Najjari, M, Shafiei, R, Fakoorziba, MR. Nosocomial myiasis with Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in an ICU patient in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2014;17:523–5.Google Scholar
Liu, D, Greenberg, B. Immature stages of some flies of forensic importance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 1989;82(1):8093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szpila, K, Hall, MJR, Pape, T, Grzywacz, A. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2013;27(4):349–66.Google ScholarPubMed
Szpila, K, Hall, MJR, Sukontason, KL, Tantawi, TI. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part I: Chrysomyinae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2013;27(2):181–93.Google ScholarPubMed
Szpila, K, Pape, T, Hall, MJR, Mądra, A. Morphology and identification of first instars of European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part III: Calliphorinae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2014;28(2):133–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrd, JH, Lord, WD, Wallace, JR, Tomberlin, JK. Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. In Byrd, JH, Castner, JL, eds. Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, 2nd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2010, pp. 127–76.Google Scholar
Amendt, J, Campobasso, CP, Gaudry, E, Reiter, C, LeBlanc, HN, Hall, MJR. Best practice in forensic entomology: standards and guidelines. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2007;121(2):90104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats