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22 - “Americans in America, One and Indivisible”

from Part IV - The Destruction of Slavery, 1865

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 January 2023

John C. Rodrigue
Affiliation:
Stonehill College, Massachusetts
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Summary

During fall 1865, Mississippi elects new government under Andrew Johnson’s policy, and governments in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana conduct elections and continue the process of Reconstruction. Louisiana Unionists organize into Republican party and advocate black suffrage. Mississippi is first former rebellious state to enact “black code” and to define freedom for the former slaves, prompting protests from black Mississippians, and it refuses to ratify Thirteenth Amendment. African American leaders in Arkansas hold convention in Little Rock calling for political and legal equality. Thirteenth Amendment becomes operative in early December 1865, as Thirty-Ninth Congress convenes. Fears of “Christmas Insurrection Scare” become manifest, though for different reasons, among both black and white Southerners.

Type
Chapter
Information
Freedom's Crescent
The Civil War and the Destruction of Slavery in the Lower Mississippi Valley
, pp. 437 - 456
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

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