Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-24T09:41:58.806Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Section 2 - Assessment and Therapeutic Approach

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 May 2023

Jane M. McCarthy
Affiliation:
Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust and University of Auckland
Regi T. Alexander
Affiliation:
Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust and University of Hertfordshire
Eddie Chaplin
Affiliation:
Institute of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Forensic Aspects of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A Clinician's Guide
, pp. 125 - 190
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Young, SJ, Adamou, M, Bolea, B, Gudjonsson, G, Müller, U, Pitts, M, et al. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ginsberg, Y, Hirvikoski, T, Lindefors, N. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2010; 10(1): 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC, Adler, L, Ames, M, Demler, O, Faraone, S, Hiripi, E, et al. The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine 2005; 35(2): 245–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, 2013.Google Scholar
Ustun, B, Adler, LA, Rudin, C, Faraone, SV, Spencer, TJ, Berglund, P, et al. The World Health Organization Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Screening Scale for DSM-5. JAMA Psychiatry 2017; 74(5): 520–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, S, González, RA, Mutch, L, Mallet-Lambert, I, O’Rourke, L, Hickey, N, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a brief screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK prison inmates. Psychological Medicine 2021; 46(7): 1449–58.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases 11th revision. 2022. Available at: www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases.Google Scholar
Kessler, RC, Green, JG, Adler, LA, Barkley, RA, Chatterji, S, Faraone, SV, et al. Structure and diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: analysis of expanded symptom criteria from the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry 2010; 67(11): 1168–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katzman, MA, Bilkey, TS, Chokka, PR, Fallu, A, Klassen, LJ. Adult ADHD and comorbid disorders: clinical implications of a dimensional approach. BMC Psychiatry 2017; 17(1): 302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, D, Cherbuin, N, Butterworth, P, Anstey, KJ, Easteal, S. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults. PLOS One 2012 ;7(2): e31500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Storebø, OJ, Simonsen, E. The association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD): a review. Journal of Attention Disorders 2016; 20(10): 815–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mordre, M, Groholt, B, Kjelsberg, E, Sandstad, B, Myhre, AM. The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: a 30 years follow-up study using official crime records. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, S, Thome, J. ADHD and offenders. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2011; 12(sup1): 124–8.Google Scholar
Shiroma, EJ, Ferguson, PL, Pickelsimer, EE. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in an offender population: a meta-analysis. Journal of Correctional Health Care 2010; 16(2): 147–59.Google Scholar
Baranyi, G, Scholl, C, Fazel, S, Patel, V, Priebe, S, Mundt, AP. Severe mental illness and substance use disorders in prisoners in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies. Lancet Global Health 2019; 7(4): e461–71.Google Scholar
McGough, JJ, Smalley, SL, McCracken, JT, Yang, M, Del’Homme, M, Lynn, DE, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from multiplex families. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 162(9): 1621–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1621.Google Scholar
Sandstrom, A, Perroud, N, Alda, M, Uher, R, Pavlova, B. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in people with mood disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica; 2021; 143(5): 380–91.Google Scholar
Lichtenstein, P, Halldner, L, Zetterqvist, J, Sjölander, A, Serlachius, E, Fazel, S, et al. Medication for attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder and criminality. New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 367(21): 2006–14.Google Scholar
Hollis, C, Chen, Q, Chang, Z, Quinn, PD, Viktorin, A, Lichtenstein, P, et al. Methylphenidate and the risk of psychosis in adolescents and young adults: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry; 2019 6(8): 651–8.Google Scholar
Kooij, JJS, Bijlenga, D, Salerno, L, Jaeschke, R, Bitter, I, Balázs, J, et al. Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. European Psychiatry 2019; 56: 1434.Google Scholar
Young, S, Khondoker, M, Emilsson, B, Sigurdsson, JF, Philipp-Wiegmann, F, Baldursson, G, et al. Cognitive–behavioural therapy in medication-treated adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid psychopathology: a randomized controlled trial using multi-level analysis. Psychological Medicine 2015; 45(13): 2793–804.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. British National Formulary 2021. Available at: hhtps://bnf.nice.org.uk.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline [NG87]. 2018. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng87.Google Scholar
Chaplin, E, Rawat, A, Perera, B, McCarthy, J, Courtenay, K, Forrester, A, et al. Prisoners with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: co-morbidities and service pathways. International Journal of Prisoner Health 2021; 18(3): 245–58.Google Scholar

References

King, C, Murphy, G. A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2014; 44(1): 2717–33.Google Scholar
Baird, G, Simonoff, E, Pickles, A, Chandler, S, Loucas, T, Meldrum, D, et al. Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet 2006; 368: 210–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodbury-Smith, M. Conceptualising social and communication vulnerabilities among detainees in the criminal justice system. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2020; 100: 103611.Google Scholar
Lord, C, Rutter, M, DiLavore, P, Risi, S, Gotham, K, Bishop, S. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – second edition (ADOS 2). Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1fbb/3f886a582ec19c0db48721a6dc8241a8ce78.pdf.Google Scholar
Grochowska, A. P02-62: autism spectrum disorder and ethnicity in a forensic psychiatric assessment. European Psychiatry 2010; 25(S1): DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-9338(10)70676-3.Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Risk assessment of offenders with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2013; 4(2): 3341.Google Scholar
Shine, J, Cooper-Evans, S. Developing an autism specific framework for forensic case formulation. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2016; 7(3): 127–39.Google Scholar
Im, D. Trauma as a contributor to violence in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the Academy of Psychiatry 2016; 44(2): 184–92.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, M. Callous/unemotional traits and Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003; 42(9): 1011.Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Brief communication: Hare PCL-R profiles of male patients with Asperger’s syndrome detained in high security psychiatric care. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2007; 18(1): 120–6.Google Scholar
Hare, R. The Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Multi-Health Systems Inc., 2003.Google Scholar
Rogers, J, Viding, E, Blair, J, Frith, U, Happé, F. Autism spectrum disorder and psychopathy: shared cognitive underpinnings or double hit? Psychological Medicine 2006; 36: 1789–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frick, P, Hare, RD. The Anti-Social Process Screening Device. Multi-Health Systems Inc., 2001.Google Scholar
Bjørkly, S. Risk and dynamics of violence in Asperger’s syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behaviour 2009; 14: 306–12.Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Interviewing individuals with an autism spectrum disorder in forensic settings. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 2019; 17(4): 310–20.Google Scholar
Haw, C, Radley, J, Cooke, L. Characteristics of male autistic spectrum patients in low security: are they different from non-autistic low secure patients? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2013; 4: 2432.Google Scholar
Esan, F, Chester, V, Gunaratna, IJ, Hoare, S, Alexander, ST. The clinical, forensic and treatment outcome factors of patients with autistic spectrum disorder treated in a forensic intellectual disability service. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2015; 28: 193200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillberg, C, Billstedt, E. Autism and Asperger syndrome: coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2000; 102(5): 321–30.Google Scholar
Matson, J, Rieske, R, Williams, L. The relationship between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an overview. Research in developmental Disabilities 2013; 34(9): 2475–84.Google Scholar
Matson, J, Shoemaker, M. Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2009; 30(6): 1107–14.Google Scholar
Joshi, G, Wozniak, J, Petty, C, Martelon, M, Fried, R, Bolfek, A, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in a clinically referred population of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a comparative study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2013; 43(6): 1314–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, A, Murphy, C, Wilson, E, Gillan, N, Brown, C, Robertson, D, et al. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: a clinic report. Autism 2016; 20(5): 623–7.Google Scholar
Spain, D, O’Neil, L, Harwood, L, Chaplin, E. Psychological interventions for adults with ASD: clinical approaches. Advances in Autism 2016; 2(1): 2430.Google Scholar
Higgs, T, Carter, A. Autism spectrum disorder and sexual offending: responsivity in forensic interventions. Aggression and Violent Behaviour 2015; 22: 112–19.Google Scholar
Robertson, C, McGillivray, J. Autism behind bars: a review of the research literature and discussion of key issues. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2015; 2(6), 719–36.Google Scholar
Sex Offender Treatment Services Collaborative – Intellectual Disabilities (SOTSEC-ID). Effectiveness of group cognitive behavioural treatment for men with intellectual disabilities at risk of sexual offending. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2010; 23: 537–51.Google Scholar
Haaven, J. Suggested treatment outline using the old me/new me model. In Blasingame, G, ed., Practical Treatment Strategies for Forensic Clients with Severe and Sexual Behaviour Problems Among Persons with Developmental Disabilities. Wood N Barnes/Safer Society Press, 2006: 85114.Google Scholar
Heaton, K, Murphy, G. Men with intellectual disabilities who have attended sex offender treatment groups: a follow up. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2013; 26(5): 489500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, D, Mullens, H. Examining the experiences and quality of life of patients with an autism spectrum disorder detained in high secure psychiatric care. Advances in Autism 2017; 3(1): 314.Google Scholar
Melvin, C, Langdon, P, Murphy, G. Treatment effectiveness for offenders with autism spectrum conditions: a systematic review. Psychology, Crime and Law 2017; 23(8): 748–76.Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Extreme violence in a young man with an autistic spectrum disorder: assessment and intervention within high security psychiatric care. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2010; 21(3): 462–77.Google Scholar
Hare, DJ. Developing psychotherapeutic interventions with people with autism spectrum disorders. In Taylor, JL, Lindsay, WR, Hastings, R, eds., Psychological Therapies for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities. John Wiley & Sons, 2013: 193206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaus, V. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adults with Asperger Syndrome. The Guildford Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Royal College of Psychiatrists. Psychiatric Services for Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2006.Google Scholar
Prison Reform Trust. Behaviour that challenges: planning services for people with learning disabilities and or autism who sexually offend. 2018. Available at: https://prisonreformtrust.org.uk/publication/behaviour-that-challenges-planning-services-for-people-with-learning-disabilities-and-or-autism-who-sexually-offend/.Google Scholar
Findling, RL. Pharmacological treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2005; 66: 2631.Google ScholarPubMed
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Autism, recognition, referral, diagnosis and management of adults on the autism spectrum. Clinical guideline [CG142]. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg142.Google Scholar
Fitzpatrick, S, Srivorakiat, L, Wink, L, Pedapati, E, Erickson, C. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options. Neuropsychiatric Disorder and Treatment 2016; 12: 1525–38.Google Scholar
Hollis, C, Chen, Q, Chang, Z, Quinn, P, Victorin, A, Lichtenstein, P, et al. Methylphenidate and the risk of psychosis in adolescents and young adults: a population based cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry 2019; 6(8): 651–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, A, Pritchet, R, Hughes, C, Turner, K. Development and implementation of autism standards for prisons. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2013; 6(2): 6880.Google Scholar
Department of Health. ‘Right to be heard’: the Government response to the consultation on learning disability and autism training for health and care staff. 2019. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/844356/autism-and-learning-disability-training-for-staff-consultation-response.pdf.Google Scholar
Murphy, D, Broyd, J. Evaluation of autism awareness training for staff in high secure psychiatric care hospital. Advances in Autism 2019; 6(1): 3547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Autistic Society. The SPELL framework. Available at: www.autism.org.uk/what-we-do/professional-development/the-spell-framework.Google Scholar
Wing, L. Asperger’s syndrome: management requires diagnosis. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 1997; 2(8): 253–7.Google Scholar
Ashworth, S, Bamford, J, Tully, R. The effectiveness of a CBT based intervention for depression symptoms with a female forensic inpatient with cognitive disability and autism. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2020; 31(3): 432–52.Google Scholar
Markham, S. Diagnosis and treatment of ASD in women in secure and forensic hospitals. Advances in Autism 2019; 5(1): 6476.Google Scholar
Roberts, A, Koenen, K, Lyall, K, Robinson, E, Weisskopf, M. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization and posttraumatic stress. Child Abuse and Neglect 2015; 45: 135–42.Google Scholar
Haruvi-Lamdan, N, Horesh, D, Zohar, S. Autism spectrum disorder and post traumatic stress disorder: an unexplored occurrence of conditions. Autism 2020; 24(4): 884–98.Google Scholar
Fuld, S Autism spectrum disorder: the impact of stressful and traumatic life events and implications for clinical practice. Clinical Social Work Journal 2018; 46: 210–19.Google Scholar
Alexander, R, Langdon, P, Chester, V, Barnoux, M, Gunaratna, I, Hoare, S. Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorder in forensic mental health: the introduction of typologies. Advances in Autism 2016; 2(4): 201–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worthington, R. What are the key skills that staff require to support adults on the autism spectrum effectively? In Forensic Update Compendium. British Psychological Society, 2016: 6169.Google Scholar
Cornet, L, Van Gelder, J-L. Virtual reality: a use case for criminal justice practice. Psychology, Crime and Law 2019; 26(7): 631–47.Google Scholar

References

Wakeling, H, Ramsay, L. Learning disability and challenges in male prisons: programme screening evaluation. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2020; 11(1): 4959.Google Scholar
Murphy, GH, Gardner, J, Freeman, MJ. Screening prisoners for intellectual disabilities in three English prisons. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2017; 30(1): 198204.Google Scholar
Fazel, S, Xenitidis, K, Powell, J. The prevalence of intellectual disabilities among 12,000 prisoners: a systematic review. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 2008; 31(4): 369–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maulik, PK, Mascarenhas, MN, Mathers, CD, Dua, T, Saxena, S. Prevalence of intellectual disability: a meta-analysis of population-based studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2011; 32(2): 419–36.Google Scholar
Søndenaa, E, Rasmussen, K, Palmstierna, T, Nøttestad, J. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2008; 52(12): 1129–37.Google Scholar
Asscher, JJ, van der Put, CE, Stams, GJ. Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability in offense type and risk factors. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2012; 33(6): 1905–13.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, 2013.Google Scholar
Schalock, RL, Borthwick-Duffy, SA, Bradley, VJ, Buntinx, WHE, Coulter, DL, Craig, EM, et al. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2010.Google Scholar
Hellenbach, M, Karatzias, T, Brown, M. Intellectual disabilities among prisoners: prevalence and mental and physical health comorbidities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2017; 30(2): 230–41.Google Scholar
British Psychological Society. Learning disability: definitions and contexts. Available at: www.bps.org.uk/psychologist/defining-learning-disability.Google Scholar
Kaal, HL, Nijman, HL, Moonen, XM. Identifying offenders with an intellectual disability in detention in the Netherlands. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2015. June 9.Google Scholar
Hartman, DE. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS IV): return of the gold standard. Applied Neuropsychology 2009; 16(1): 85–7.Google Scholar
Sparrow, SS, Cicchetti, DV. Diagnostic uses of the Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1985; 10(2): 215–25.Google Scholar
Hayes, SC. Hayes Ability Screening Index: HASI Manual. University of Sydney, 2000.Google Scholar
Ammons, RB, Ammons, CH. The Quick Test (QT): provisional manual. Psychological Reports 1962; 11(1): 111–61.Google Scholar
Mason, J, Murphy, G. People with an intellectual disability in the criminal justice system: developing an assessment tool for measuring prevalence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 2002; 41(3): 315–20.Google Scholar
Tyrer, F, McGrother, CW, Thorp, CF, Taub, NA, Bhaumik, S, Cicchetti, DV. The Leicestershire Intellectual Disability Tool: a simple measure to identify moderate to profound intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2008; 21(3): 268–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKenzie, K, Michie, A, Murray, A, Hales, C. Screening for offenders with an intellectual disability: the validity of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2012; 33(3): 791–5.Google Scholar
Ali, A, Ghosh, S, Strydom, A, Hassiotis, A. Prisoners with intellectual disabilities and detention status. Findings from a UK cross sectional study of prisons. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2016; 53–54: 189–97.Google Scholar
Hayes, SC. Early intervention or early incarceration? Using a screening test for intellectual disability in the criminal justice system. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2002; 15(2): 120–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, AS. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test: KBIT. American Guidance Service, 1990.Google Scholar
Ford, G, Andrews, R, Booth, A, Dibdin, J, Hardingham, S, Kelly, TP. Screening for learning disability in an adolescent forensic population. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2008; 19(3): 371–81.Google Scholar
Homack, SR, Reynolds, CR. Essentials of Assessment with Brief Intelligence Tests. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.Google Scholar
McCrimmon, AW, Smith, AD. Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2011; 31(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282912467756.Google Scholar
McKenzie, K, Paxton, D. Promoting access to services: the development of a new screening tool. Learning Disability Practice 2006; 9(6): 1721.Google Scholar
McKenzie, K, Sharples, P, Murray, AL. Validating the learning disability screening questionnaire against the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2015; 53(4): 301–7.Google Scholar
Paxton, D, McKenzie, K, Murray, G. Putting screening tools to the test. Learning Disability Practice 2008; 11(8): 1418.Google Scholar
McKenzie, K, Michie, A, Murray, A, Hales, C. Screening for offenders with an intellectual disability: the validity of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2012; 33(3): 791–5.Google Scholar
Murray, AL, McKenzie, K. The accuracy of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ) in classifying severity of impairment: a brief report. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 2014; 39(4): 370–4.Google Scholar
Bjørgen, TG, Gimse, R, Søndenaa, E. Selective samples and the accuracy of screening for intellectual disabilities: learning disability screening questionnaire. Open Journal of Social Sciences 2016; 4(05): 109.Google Scholar
McKenzie, K, Paxton, D, Murray, G, Milanesi, P, Murray, AL. The evaluation of a screening tool for children with an intellectual disability: the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2012; 33(4): 1068–75.Google Scholar
McBrien, J. The intellectually disabled offender: methodological problems in identification. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2003; 16(2): 95105.Google Scholar
Traub, GS, Spruill, J. Correlations between the Quick Test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Psychological Reports 1982; 51(1): 309–10.Google Scholar
Hassiotis, A, Gazizova, D, Akinlonu, L, Bebbington, P, Meltzer, H, Strydom, A. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners with intellectual disabilities: analysis of prison survey data for England and Wales. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011; 199(2): 156–7.Google Scholar
Gresham, FM, Elliott, SN. The relationship between adaptive behavior and social skills: issues in definition and assessment. Journal of Special Education 1987; 21(1): 167–81.Google Scholar
Soenen, S, Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I, Scholte, E. Patterns of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral functioning in individuals with mild mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2009; 30(3): 433–44.Google Scholar
Ross, GE, Hocken, K, Auty, JM. The reliability and validity of the Adaptive Functioning Assessment Tool in UK custodial settings. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities 2020; 24(1): 3549.Google Scholar
Uzieblo, K, Winter, J, Vanderfaeillie, J, Rossi, G, Magez, W. Intelligent diagnosing of intellectual disabilities in offenders: food for thought. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 2012; 30(1): 2848.Google Scholar
Goodman, R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1997; 38(5): 581–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, L. Improving the assessment of intellectual disability (ID) within the UK prison service (who define ID using an IQ below 80). Nottingham Trent University, 2016. Available at: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28031/1/LORRAINE.SMITH-2016.pdf.Google Scholar
Harrison, P, Oakland, T. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System (ABAS-II). The Psychological Corporation, 2003.Google Scholar
Higgins, L. Secure unit: positive behavioural support and restraint reduction in a unit for offenders with an intellectual disability and/or autism: practice paper. International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support 2021; 11(1): 4254.Google Scholar
Carlson, JR, Thomas, G. Burnout among prison caseworkers and corrections officers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2006; 43(3): 1934.Google Scholar
Lawrence, D, Bagshaw, R, Stubbings, D, Watt, A. Restrictive practices in adult secure mental health services: a scoping review. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 2021; 13: 121.Google Scholar
Büsselmann, M, Titze, L, Lutz, M, Dudeck, M, Streb, J. Measuring the quality of life in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 701231.Google Scholar
Mooney, JL, Daffern, M. The Offence Analogue and Offence Reduction Behaviour Rating Guide as a supplement to violence risk assessment in incarcerated offenders. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 2013; 12(4): 255–64.Google Scholar
Cavney, J, Friedman, SH. Culture, mental illness, and prison: a New Zealand perspective. In Mills, A, Kendall, K, eds., Mental Health in Prisons. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018: 211–34.Google Scholar
Thomas, SD, Slade, M, Mccrone, P, Harty, MA, Parrott, J, Thornicroft, G, Leese, M. The reliability and validity of the forensic Camberwell Assessment of Need (CANFOR): a needs assessment for forensic mental health service users. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2008; 17(2): 111–20.Google Scholar
Xenitidis, K, Thornicroft, G, Leese, M, Slade, M, Fotiadou, M, Philp, H, et al. Reliability and validity of the CANDID: a needs assessment instrument for adults with learning disabilities and mental health problems. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000; 176(5): 473–8.Google Scholar
Andrews, DA, Bonta, J, Wormith, SJ. Level of Service–Case Management Inventory: LS/CMI. Multi-Health Systems, 2000.Google Scholar
Davoren, M, Hennessy, S, Conway, C, Marrinan, S, Gill, P, Kennedy, HG. Recovery and concordance in a secure forensic psychiatry hospital: the self rated DUNDRUM-3 programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 recovery scales. BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15(1): 12.Google Scholar
Dench, C. A model for training staff in positive behaviour support. Tizard Learning Disability Review 2005; 10(2): 2430.Google Scholar
Bonta, J, Andrews, DA. Risk–need–responsivity model for offender assessment and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation 2007; 6(1): 122.Google Scholar
Ward, T, Brown, M. The good lives model and conceptual issues in offender rehabilitation. Psychology, Crime and Law 2004; 10(3): 243–57.Google Scholar
Ogloff, J, Dafern, M. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients. Behavioural Sciences and the Law 2006; 24(6): 799813.Google Scholar
Barry-Walsh, J, Daffern, M, Duncan, S, Ogloff, J. The prediction of imminent aggression in patients with mental illness and/or intellectual disability using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression instrument. Australasian Psychiatry 2009; 17(6): 493–6.Google Scholar
Schalast, N, Redies, M, Collins, M, Stacey, J, Howells, K. EssenCES, a short questionnaire for assessing the social climate of forensic psychiatric wards. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 2008; 18(1): 4958.Google Scholar
Chester, V, Alexander, RT, Morgan, W. Measuring relational security in forensic mental health services. BJPsych Bulletin 2017; 41(6): 358–63.Google Scholar
Sugai, G, Horner, R. The evolution of discipline practices: school-wide positive behavior supports. Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2002; 24(1–2): 2350.Google Scholar
Rizvi, SL, Ritschel, LA. Mastering the art of chain analysis in dialectical behavior therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2014; 21(3): 335–49.Google Scholar
Sheehan, R, Hassiotis, A, Walters, K, Osborn, D, Strydom, A, Horsfall, L. Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study. BMJ 2015; 351.Google Scholar
Smith, P, Waterman, M, Ward, N. Driving aggression in forensic and non‐forensic populations: relationships to self‐reported levels of aggression, anger and impulsivity. British Journal of Psychology 2006; 97(3): 387403.Google Scholar
Smith, RL, Rose, AJ, Schwartz‐Mette, RA. Relational and overt aggression in childhood and adolescence: clarifying mean‐level gender differences and associations with peer acceptance. Social Development 2010; 19(2): 243–69.Google Scholar
Baczała, D. Social skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2016; 5(2): 6877.Google Scholar
Sakdalan, JA, Shaw, J, Collier, V. Staying in the here‐and‐now: a pilot study on the use of dialectical behaviour therapy group skills training for forensic clients with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2010; 54(6): 568–72.Google Scholar
Oxnam, P, Gardner, E. Treatment for emotional difficulties related to offending for people with an intellectual disability. In Lindsay, WR, Craig, LA, Griffiths, D, eds., The Wiley Handbook on What Works for Offenders with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Evidence‐Based Approach to Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. Wiley, 2019: 357–72.Google Scholar
Taylor, JL, Novaco, RW, Brown, T. Reductions in aggression and violence following cognitive behavioural anger treatment for detained patients with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2016; 60(2): 126–33.Google Scholar
Wong, SC, Gordon, A. The Violence Reduction Programme: a treatment programme for violence-prone forensic clients. Psychology, Crime and Law 2013; 19(5–6): 461–75.Google Scholar
Elliott, DE, Bjelajac, P, Fallot, RD, Markoff, LS, Reed, BG. Trauma‐informed or trauma‐denied: principles and implementation of trauma‐informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology 2005; 33(4): 461–77.Google Scholar
Buel, SM. Domestic violence and the law: an impassioned exploration for family peace. Family Law Quarterly 1999; 33(3): 719–44.Google Scholar
Craig, LA. Controversies in assessing risk and deviancy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities. Psychology, Crime and Law 2010; 16(1–2): 75101.Google Scholar
Williams, F, Mann, RE. The treatment of intellectually disabled sexual offenders in the National Offender Management Service: the Adapted Sex Offender Treatment programmes. In Craig, LA, Lindsay, WR, Browne, KD, eds., Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: A Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 2010: 293315.Google Scholar
Gooren, LJ. Ethical and medical considerations of androgen deprivation treatment of sex offenders. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2011; 96(12): 3628–37.Google Scholar
Harrison, K, Rainey, B, eds. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Legal and Ethical Aspects of Sex Offender Treatment and Management. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.Google Scholar
Daffern, M. Anti-libidinal medication use in people with intellectual disability who sexually offend. Available at: www.dhhs.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/201912/Anti-libidinal%20medication%20use%20in%20people%20with%20intellectual%20disability%20271119.pdf.Google Scholar
Holst, S, Lystrup, D, Taylor, JL. Firesetters with intellectual disabilities in Denmark. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2019; 10(4): 102–18.Google Scholar
Alexander, RT, Chester, V, Green, FN, Gunaratna, I, Hoare, S. Arson or fire setting in offenders with intellectual disability: clinical characteristics, forensic histories, and treatment outcomes. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 2015; 40(2): 189–97.Google Scholar
Marshall-Tate, K, Chaplin, E, McCarthy, J, Grealish, A. A literature review about the prevalence and identification of people with an intellectual disability within court liaison and diversion services. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2020; 11(3): 159–69.Google Scholar
Devapriam, J, Alexander, RT. Tiered model of learning disability forensic service provision. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2012; 3(4): 175–85.Google Scholar
Taylor, JL, McKinnon, I, Thorpe, I, Gillmer, BT. The impact of transforming care on the care and safety of patients with intellectual disabilities and forensic needs. BJPsych Bulletin 2017; 41(4): 205–8.Google Scholar
Chester, V, Brown, AS, Devapriam, J, Axby, S, Hargreaves, C, Shankar, R. Discharging inpatients with intellectual disability from secure to community services: risk assessment and management considerations. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities 2017; 11: 98109.Google Scholar

References

Lofthouse, R, Golding, L, Totsika, V, Hastings, R, Lindsay, W. How effective are risk assessments/measures for predicting future aggressive behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID)?: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 2017; 58: 7685.Google Scholar
Douglas, KS, Hart, SD, Webster, CD, Belfrage, H. HCR-20V3: Assessing Risk of Violence – User Guide. Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, 2013.Google Scholar
Morrissey, C, Geach, N, Alexander, RT, Chester, V, Devapriam, J, Duggan, C, et al. Researching outcomes from forensic services for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities: a systematic review, evidence synthesis and expert and patient/carer consultation. Health Services and Delivery Research 2017; 5(3).Google Scholar
Lindsay, WR, Hogue, TE, Taylor, JL, Steptoe, L, Mooney, P, O’Brien, G, et al. Risk assessment in offenders with intellectual disability: a comparison across three levels of security. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2008; 52(1): 90111.Google Scholar
Boer, DP, Frize, M, Pappas, R, Morrissey, C, Lindsay, WR. 2010. Suggested adaptations to the HCR-20 for offenders with intellectual disabilities. In Craig, LA, Lindsay, WR, Browne, KD, eds., Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: A Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 2010: 177–92.Google Scholar
Morrissey, C, Hogue, T, Mooney, P, Allen, C, Johnston, S, Hollin, C, et al. Predictive validity of the PCL-R in offenders with intellectual disability in a high secure hospital setting: institutional aggression. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2007; 18(1): 15.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, S, Gray, NS, Alexander, RT, Bagshaw, R, Chesterman, P, Huckle, P, et al. Predicting institutional violence in offenders with intellectual disabilities: the predictive efficacy of the VRAG and the HCR‐20. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 2013; 26(5): 384–93.Google Scholar
O’Shea, LE, Picchioni, MM, McCarthy, J, Mason, FL, Dickens, GL. Predictive validity of the HCR‐20 for inpatient aggression: the effect of intellectual disability on accuracy. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2015; 59(11): 1042–54.Google Scholar
Morrissey, C, Beeley, C, Longitudinal, Milton J. HCR‐20 scores in a high‐secure psychiatric hospital. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. 2014; 24(3): 169–80.Google Scholar
Gray, NS, Fitzgerald, S, Taylor, J, MacCulloch, MJ, Snowden, RJ. Predicting future reconviction in offenders with intellectual disabilities: The predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR-20. Psychological Assessment 2007; 19(4): 474.Google Scholar
Morrissey, C. Guidelines for assessment of psychopathy in offenders with intellectual disabilities. 2006. Available at: www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Assessment-of-psychopathy-in-offenders-with-Morrissey/2322ae4fed59bbd7cee27258a0afc36b867ae31b.Google Scholar
Morrissey, C, Hobson, B, Faulkner, E, James, T, et al. Outcomes from a high secure forensic service: findings and challenges. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities. 2015; 9: 116–23.Google Scholar
Hart, S, Krop, P.R, Laws, DR, Klaver, J, Logan, C, Watt, KA. The Risk for Sexual Violence Protocol (RSVP): Structured Professional Guidelines for Assessing Risk of Sexual Violence. The Institute Against Family Violence, 2003.Google Scholar
Boer, DP, Hart, SD, Kropp, PR Hart, SD, Webster, CD. Manual for Version 2 of the Sexual Violence Risk-20. Protect International Risk and Safety Services Inc., 2017.Google Scholar
Boer, DP, Haaven, JL, Lambrick, F, Lindsay, WR, McVilly, K, Sakdalan, J, et al., ARMIDILO-S manual: web version 1.0. 2012. Available at: www.armidilo.net/index.html.Google Scholar
Allely, CS. A systematic PRISMA review of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in secure psychiatric care: prevalence, treatment, risk assessment and other clinical considerations. Journal of Criminal Psychology 2018; 5: 1.Google Scholar
Långström, N, Grann, M, Ruchkin, V, Sjöstedt, G, Fazel, S. Risk factors for violent offending in autism spectrum disorder: a national study of hospitalized individuals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2009; 24(8): 1358–70Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Risk assessment of offenders with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2013; 4(1–2): 3341.Google Scholar
Westpahl, A, Allely, C. The need for a structured approach to violence risk assessment in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 2019; 47(4): 437–9.Google Scholar
Girardi, A, Hancock-Johnson, E, Thomas, C, Wallang, PM. Assessing the risk of inpatient violence in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 2019; 47(4): 427–36.Google Scholar
Shine, J, Cooper-Evans, S. Developing an autism specific framework for forensic case formulation. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour 2016; 7(3): 127–39.Google Scholar
Al-Attar, Z. Development and evaluation of guidance to aid risk assessments of offenders with autism. 2018. Unpublished MA dissertation: Sheffield Hallam University.Google Scholar
Blair, RJR. Responding to the emotions of others: dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition 2005; 14(4): 698–718.Google Scholar
Young, S. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 32.Google Scholar
Al-Attar, Z. ADHD as a context for risk, protection and responsivity in offenders: Introducing the FARAH guidance. National Autistic Society, Autism, Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System Conference (virtual event), September 23, 2021.Google Scholar

References

Scottish Government. The Kilbrandon Report. 2003. Available at: www.gov.scot/publications/kilbrandon-report/pages/4.Google Scholar
Dickens, C. Oliver Twist. Richard Bentley, 1837–1839.Google Scholar
Welsh, I. Trainspotting. Secker & Warburg, 1993.Google Scholar
Hughes, N, Williams, H, Chitsabesan, P, Davies, R, Mounce, L. Nobody made the connection: the prevalence of learning disability in young people who offend. 2012. Available at: www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/publication/nobody-made-the-connection.Google Scholar
Crenshaw, K. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: a black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. (University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989, Issue 1, Article 8). Available at: https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=uclf.Google Scholar
Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice. Youth justice statistics 2019–20 England and Wales. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/956621/youth-justice-statistics-2019-2020.pdf.Google Scholar
Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice. Assessing the needs of sentenced children in the youth justice system. 2020. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/statistics/assessing-the-needs-of-sentenced-children-in-the-youth-justice-system.Google Scholar
Center for American Progress, Movement Advancement Project and Youth First. UNJUST: LGBTQ youth incarcerated in the juvenile justice system. Available at: www.lgbtmap.org/file/lgbtq-incarcerated-youth.pdf.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug misuse prevention: targeted interventions. NICE guideline [NG64]. 2017 Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng64.Google Scholar
British Medical Association. Young lives behind bars: the health and human rights of children and young people detained in the criminal justice system. Available at: www.bma.org.uk/media/1861/bma-young-lives-behind-bars-2014.pdf.Google Scholar
Fazel, S, Khosla, V, Doll, H, Geddes, J. The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in Western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. PLoS Medicine 2008; 5(12): e225.Google Scholar
Wiesner, M, Windle, M. Young adult substance use and depression as a consequence of delinquency trajectories during middle adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence 2006; 16: 239–64.Google Scholar
McKinlay, W, Forsyth, A, Khan, F. Alcohol and violence among young male offenders in Scotland (1979–2009). Available at: www.sps.gov.uk/Corporate/Publications/Publication-2677.aspx.Google Scholar
Chitsabesan, P, Kroll, L, Bailey, S, Kenning, C, Sneider, S, MacDonald, W, et al. Mental health needs of young offenders in custody and in the community. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006; 188: 534–40.Google Scholar
Sanislow, C, Grilo, C, Fehon, D, Axelrod, SR, McGlashan, TH. Correlates of suicide risk in juvenile detainees and adolescent inpatients, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003; 42(2): 234–40.Google Scholar
Putnins, L. Correlates and predictors of self-reported suicide attempts among incarcerated youths. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2005; 49(2): 143–57.Google Scholar
Beaudry, G, Yu, R, Långström, N, Fazel, S. An updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis: mental disorders among adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2021; 60(1): 4660.Google Scholar
Department of Health. Healthy children, safer communities: a strategy to promote the health and wellbeing of children and young people in contact with the youth justice system. Available at: www.ryantunnardbrown.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/HCSC-strategy1.pdf.Google Scholar
Gov.UK. Age of criminal responsibility. Available at: www.gov.uk/age-of-criminal-responsibility.Google Scholar
Hughes, N, Chitsabesan, P. Supporting young people with neurodevelopmental impairment. 2015. Available at: www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/Supporting%20young%20people%20with%20neurodevelopmental%20impairment.pdf.Google Scholar
NHS England. Liaison and diversion standard service specification 2019. Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/national-liaison-and-diversion-service-specification-2019.pdf.Google Scholar
Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Available at: www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/37/contents.Google Scholar
Hampson, C, Youth justice in a pandemic: the situation in England and Wales. Available at: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/socialpolicy/2020/07/24/youth-justice-in-a-pandemic-the-situation-in-england-and-wales.Google Scholar
Gov.UK. Lammy review: an independent review into the treatment of, and outcomes for Black, Asian and minority ethnic individuals in the criminal justice system. 2017. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/lammy-review-final-report.Google Scholar
Chitsabesan, P, Lennox, C, Theodosiou, L, Bailey, S, Shaw, J. The development of the comprehensive health assessment tool for young offenders within the secure estate. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 2014; 25: 125.Google Scholar
Bailey, S, Shaw, J, Tarbuck, P, et al. Mental health care pathways for juveniles and young persons in the criminal justice system. 2008 Department of Health, London (unpublished).Google Scholar
Lennox, C, Theodosiou, L. Comprehensive health screening and assessment for young people in the secure estate. 3rd EFCAP Congress. 7–9 March 2012, Berlin.Google Scholar
Chitsabesan, P, Lennox, C, Williams, H, Tariq, O, Shaw, J. Traumatic brain injury in juvenile offenders: Findings from the comprehensive health assessment tool study and the development of a specialist link worker service. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2015; 30(2): 106–15.Google Scholar
Youth Justice Board. Deaths of children in custody: action taken, lessons learnt. 2014. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/362715/deaths-children-in-custody.pdf.Google Scholar
Kroll, L, Rothwell, J, Bradley, D, Bailey, S, Harrington, RC. Mental health needs of boys in secure care for serious or persistent offending: a prospective, longitudinal study. Lancet. 2002; 359(9322): 1975–9.Google Scholar
Black, C. Review of drugs: evidence relating to drug use, supply and effects, including current trends and future risks. 2020. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/882953/Review_of_Drugs_Evidence_Pack.pdf.Google Scholar
National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. Young people’s substance misuse treatment services: essential elements. 2005. Available at: www.drugsandalcohol.ie/6223/1/documental_2657_en.pdf.Google Scholar
Offender Health Research Network. Manual for the Comprehensive Health Assessment Tool (CHAT): young people in the secure estate. Available at: https://sites.manchester.ac.uk/hjrn/.Google Scholar
Khan, L, Wilson, J. You Just Get on and Do It: Healthcare Provision in Youth Offending Teams. Centre for Mental Health, 2010.Google Scholar
Dent, M, Peto, L, Griffin, M. Forensic child and adolescent mental health services (FCAMHS): a map of current national provision and a proposed service model for the future. Final Report for the Department of Health. 2013. Available at: www.sph.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/FCAMHS-Report-24-Jan-2013-Final-Version.pdf.Google Scholar
Gibson, J, Evennett, J. Child not brought to appointment. British Journal of General Practice 2017; 67(662): 397.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug misuse in over 16s: psychosocial interventions. Clinical guideline [CG51]. 2007. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg51/resources.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug misuse in over 16s: opioid detoxification. Clinical guideline [CG52]. 2007. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg52/resources.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Vaccine uptake in under 19s. Quality standard [QS145]. 2017. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs145/chapter/Quality-statement-5-Checking-immunisation-status-of-young-offenders-and-offering-outstanding-vaccinations.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline [NG87]. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng87.Google Scholar
Intagliata, J. Improving the quality of community care for the chronically mentally disabled: the role of case management. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1982; 8(4): 655–74.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Transition from children’s to adults’ services for young people using health or social care services. NICE guideline [NG43] 2016. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng43.Google Scholar