Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-zzcdp Total loading time: 2.724 Render date: 2021-12-07T14:34:17.600Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 40 - Extended Management Following Resuscitation

from Section 4 - Specific Conditions Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Brain Injury

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 December 2017

David K. Stevenson
Stanford University, California
William E. Benitz
Stanford University, California
Philip Sunshine
Stanford University, California
Susan R. Hintz
Stanford University, California
Maurice L. Druzin
Stanford University, California
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Benitz, WE, Frankel, LR, Stevenson, DK. The pharmacology of neonatal resuscitation and cardiopulmonary intensive care. II. Extended intensive care. West J Med 1986; 145: 4751.Google ScholarPubMed
van den Broek, MP, Groenendaal, F, Egberts, AC, Rademaker, CM. Effects of hypothermia on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacokinet 2010; 49: 277–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zanelli, S, Buck, M, Fairchild, K. Physiologic and pharmacologic considerations for hypothermia therapy in neonates. J Perinatol 2011; 31: 377–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevenson, DK, Benitz, WE. A practical approach to diagnosis and immediate care of the cyanotic neonate: stabilization and preparation for transfer to level III nursery. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1987; 26: 325–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruce, DA. Effects of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Clin Perinatol 1984; 11: 673–80.Google ScholarPubMed
Walsh-Sukys, MC, Tyson, JE, Wright, LL, et al. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in the era before nitric oxide: practice variation and outcomes. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 1420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kusuda, S, Shishida, N, Miyagi, N, et al. Cerebral blood flow during treatment for pulmonary hypertension. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999; 80: F30–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gleason, CA, Short, BL, Jones, MD Jr. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during and after prolonged hypocapnia in newborn lambs. J Pediatr 1989; 115: 309–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liem, KD, Hopman, JC, Oeseburg, B, et al. Cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics during induction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as investigated by near infrared spectrophotometry. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 555–61.Google ScholarPubMed
Toft, PB, Leth, H, Lou, HC, et al. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI. Pediatr Radiol 1995; 25: 420–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chalak, LF, Tarumi, T, Zhang, R. The “neurovascular unit approach” to evaluate mechanisms of dysfunctional autoregulation in asphyxiated newborns in the era of hypothermia therapy. Early Hum Dev 2014; 90: 687–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bifano, EM, Pfannenstiel, A. Duration of hyperventilation and outcome in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Pediatrics 1988; 81: 657–61.Google ScholarPubMed
Hendricks-Munoz, KD, Walton, JP. Hearing loss in infants with persistent fetal circulation. Pediatrics 1988; 81: 650–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Leavitt, AM, Watchko, JF, Bennett, FC, Folsom, RC. Neurodevelopmental outcome following persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. J Perinatol 1987; 7: 288–91.Google ScholarPubMed
Walsh-Sukys, MC, Cornell, DJ, Houston, LN, et al. Treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn without hyperventilation: an assessment of diffusion of innovation. Pediatrics 1994; 94: 303–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Wung, JT, James, LS, Kilchevsky, E, James, E. Management of infants with severe respiratory failure and persistence of the fetal circulation, without hyperventilation. Pediatrics 1985; 76: 488–94.Google ScholarPubMed
Clark, RH, Yoder, BA, Sell, MS. Prospective, randomized comparison of high-frequency oscillation and conventional ventilation in candidates for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr 1994; 124: 447–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumgart, S, Hirschl, RB, Butler, SZ, et al. Diagnosis-related criteria in the consideration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in neonates previously treated with high-frequency jet ventilation. Pediatrics 1992; 89: 491–4.Google ScholarPubMed
deLemos, R, Yoder, B, McCurnin, D, et al. The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the management of the term/near term infant with respiratory failure. Early Hum Dev 1992; 29: 299303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhuta, T, Henderson-Smart, DJ. Rescue high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1998; 2: CD000438.Google Scholar
Hintz, SR, Suttner, DM, Sheehan, AM, et al. Decreased use of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): how new treatment modalities have affected ECMO utilization. Pediatrics 2000; 106: 1339–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cools, F, Offringa, M. Meta-analysis of elective high frequency ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999; 80: F1520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henderson-Smart, DJ, Bhuta, T, Cools, F, Offringa, M. Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4: CD000104.Google Scholar
Crone, RK, Favorito, J. The effects of pancuronium bromide on infants with hyaline membrane disease. J Pediatr 1980; 97: 991–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goudsouzian, NG, Liu, LM, Savarese, JJ. Metocurine in infants and children: neuromuscular and clinical effects. Anesthesiology 1978; 49: 266–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anand, KJ, Barton, BA, McIntosh, N, et al. Analgesia and sedation in preterm neonates who require ventilatory support: results from the NOPAIN trial: neonatal outcome and prolonged analgesia in neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 331–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grunau, RE, Whitfield, MF, Petrie-Thomas, J, et al. Neonatal pain, parenting stress and interaction, in relation to cognitive and motor development at 8 and 18 months in preterm infants. Pain 2009; 143: 138–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jobe, AH. Pulmonary surfactant therapy. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 861–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Kendig, JW, Ryan, RM, Sinkin, RA, et al. Comparison of two strategies for surfactant prophylaxis in very premature infants: a multicenter randomized trial. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 1006–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soll, RF. Synthetic surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1998; 3: CD001149.Google Scholar
Bancalari, E, del Moral, T. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80(Suppl 1): 713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenough, A. Expanded use of surfactant replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159: 635–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lotze, A, Mitchell, BR, Bulas, DI, et al. Multicenter study of surfactant (beractant) use in the treatment of term infants with severe respiratory failure. Survanta in Term Infants Study Group. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 40–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS). Inhaled nitric oxide in full-term and nearly full-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 597604.CrossRefPubMed
Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS). Inhaled nitric oxide and hypoxic respiratory failure in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatrics 1997; 99: 838–45.PubMed
Van Meurs, KP, Wright, LL, Ehrenkranz, RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breitweser, JA, Meyer, RA, Sperling, MA, et al. Cardiac septal hypertrophy in hyperinsulinemic infants. J Pediatr 1980; 96: 535–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seri, I. Systemic and pulmonary effects of vasopressors and inotropes in the neonate. Biol Neonate 2006; 89: 340–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zaritsky, A, Chernow, B. Use of catecholamines in pediatrics. J Pediatr 1984; 105: 341–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, WF, George, BL. Treatment of congestive heart failure by altering loading conditions of the heart. J Pediatr 1985; 106: 697706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, H. Hemoglobin synthesis and metabolism during the neonatal period. In Christensen, RD, ed., Hematologic Problems of the Neonate. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000: 374–7.Google Scholar
Yeh, TF, Shibli, A, Leu, ST, et al. Early furosemide therapy in premature infants (less than or equal to 2000 g) with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr 1984; 105: 603–9.Google Scholar
Benitz, WE. Treatment of persistent patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: time to accept the null hypothesis? J Perinatol 2010; 30: 241–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Overmeire, B, Smets, K, Lecoutere, D, et al. A comparison of ibuprofen and indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 674–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowlie, PW. Intravenous indomethacin for preventing mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2: CD000174.Google Scholar
Schmidt, B, Davis, P, Moddemann, D, et al. Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1966–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ment, LR, Vohr, B, Allan, W, et al. Outcome of children in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 485–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ment, LR, Vohr, BR, Makuch, RW, et al. Prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage by indomethacin in male preterm infants. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 832–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clyman, RI. Recommendations for the postnatal use of indomethacin: an analysis of four separate strategies. J Pediatr 1996; 128: 601–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watterberg, KL, Gerdes, JS, Cole, CH, et al. Prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a multicenter trial. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 1649–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heymann, MA. Pharmacologic use of prostaglandin E1 in infant with congenital heart disease. Am Heart J 1981; 101: 837–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brann, AW Jr., Myers, RE. Central nervous system findings in the newborn monkey following severe in utero partial asphyxia. Neurology 1975; 25: 327–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myers, RE. Two patterns of perinatal brain damage and their conditions of occurrence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 112: 246–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Myers, RE. Experimental models of perinatal brain damage: relevance to human pathology. In Gluck, L, ed., Intrauterine Asphyxia and the Developing Fetal Brain. Chicago: Year Book, 1977: 3797.Google Scholar
Mujsce, DJ, Christensen, MA, Vannucci, RC. Cerebral blood flow and edema in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Pediatr Res 1990; 27: 450–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, RS, Yagel, SK. Cerebral physiological and metabolic effects of hyperventilation in the neonatal dog. Ann Neurol 1984; 16: 337–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, A. Current concepts of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury in the term newborn. Pediatr Neurol 1991; 7: 317–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lupton, BA, Hill, A, Roland, EH, et al. Brain swelling in the asphyxiated term newborn: pathogenesis and outcome. Pediatrics 1988; 82: 139–46.Google ScholarPubMed
Volpe, JJ. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In Volpe, JJ, ed., Neurology of the Newborn. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001: 217394.Google ScholarPubMed
Levene, MI, Evans, DH. Continuous measurement of subarachnoid pressure in the severely asphyxiated newborn. Arch Dis Child 1983; 58: 1013–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levene, MI. Management and outcome of birth asphyxia. In Levene, MI, Lilforde, RJ, eds., Fetal and Neonatal Neurology and Neurosurgery. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston, 1995: 427–42.Google Scholar
Levene, MI, Evans, DH, Forde, A, Archer, LN. Value of intracranial pressure monitoring of asphyxiated newborn infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 1987; 29: 311–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosenberg, AA, Jones, MD Jr, Traystman, RJ, et al. Response of cerebral blood flow to changes in PCO2 in fetal, newborn, and adult sheep. Am J Physiol 1982; 242: H862–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Bernbaum, JC, Russell, P, Sheridan, PH, et al. Long-term follow-up of newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Crit Care Med 1984; 12: 579–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiswell, TE, Graziani, LJ, Kornhauser, MS, et al. Effects of hypocarbia on the development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants treated with high-frequency jet ventilation. Pediatrics 1996; 98: 918–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Dammann, O, Allred, EN, Kuban, KC, et al. Hypocarbia during the first 24 postnatal hours and white matter echolucencies in newborns ≤28 weeks gestation. Pediatr Res 2001; 49: 388–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vannucci, RC, Towfighi, J, Heitjan, DF, Brucklacher, RM. Carbon dioxide protects the perinatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic damage: an experimental study in the immature rat. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 868–74.Google ScholarPubMed
Vannucci, RC, Towfighi, J, Brucklacher, RM, Vannucci, SJ. Effect of extreme hypercapnia on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the immature rat. Pediatr Res 2001; 49: 799803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, PR, Moody, S, Clark, WK, et al. Dexamethasone and severe head injury: a prospective double-blind study. J Neurosurg 1979; 51: 307–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dearden, NM, Gibson, JS, McDowall, DG, et al. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on outcome from severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1986; 64: 81–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levene, MI, Evans, DH. Medical management of raised intracranial pressure after severe birth asphyxia. Arch Dis Child 1985; 60: 12–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barks, JD, Post, M, Tuor, UI. Dexamethasone prevents hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the neonatal rat. Pediatr Res 1991; 29: 558–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tuor, UI, Simone, CS, Barks, JD, Post, M. Dexamethasone prevents cerebral infarction without affecting cerebral blood flow in neonatal rats. Stroke 1993; 24: 452–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on the Effect of Corticosteroids for Fetal Maturation of Perinatal Outcomes. Effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. JAMA 1994; 273: 413–8.PubMed
Adhikari, M, Moodley, M, Desai, PK. Mannitol in neonatal cerebral oedema. Brain Dev 1990; 12: 349–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marchal, C, Costagliolu, P, Leaveau, P, Wong, RJ. Treatment de la souffrance cerebrale neonatale d’orisivie anoxique par le mannitol. Rev Pediatr 1974; 9: 581–9.Google Scholar
Adamson, SJ, Alessandri, LM, Badawi, N, et al. Predictors of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term infants. BMJ 1995; 311: 598602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badawi, N, Kurinczuk, JJ, Keogh, JM, et al. Intrapartum risk factors for newborn encephalopathy: the Western Australian case-control study. BMJ 1998; 317: 1554–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Shankaran, S. The postnatal management of the asphyxiated term infant. Clin Perinatol 2002; 29: 675–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankaran, S, Laptook, AR, Pappas, A, et al. Effect of depth and duration of cooling on deaths in the NICU among neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014; 312: 2629–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Svenningsen, NW, Blennow, G, Lindroth, M, et al. Brain-orientated intensive care treatment in severe neonatal asphyxia: effects of phenobarbitone protection. Arch Dis Child 1982; 57: 176–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, RT, Hall, FK, Daily, DK. High-dose phenobarbital therapy in term newborn infants with severe perinatal asphyxia: a randomized, prospective study with three-year follow-up. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 345–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarkar, S, Barks, JD, Bapuraj, JR, et al. Does phenobarbital improve the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy? J Perinatol 2012; 32: 1520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyn, DF Jr, Ness, J, Ambalavanan, N, Carlo, WA. Prophylactic phenobarbital and whole-body cooling for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. J Pediatr 2010; 157: 334–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz, J, Schain, RJ. Phenobarbital: effects of long-term administration on behavior and brain of artificially reared rats. Science 1978; 199: 90–1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittigau, P, Sifringer, M, Genz, K, et al. Antiepileptic drugs and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 15089–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, SP, Weiss, J, Barnwell, A, et al. Seizure-associated brain injury in term newborns with perinatal asphyxia. Neurology 2002; 58: 542–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, DJ, Levene, MI, Tsakmakis, M. Anticonvulsants for preventing mortality and morbidity in full term newborns with perinatal asphyxia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: D001240.Google Scholar
Giacoia, GP. Asphyxial brain damage in the newborn: new insights into pathophysiology and possible pharmacologic interventions. South Med J 1993; 86: 676–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muir, KW, Lees, KR. Clinical experience with excitatory amino acid antagonist drugs. Stroke 1995; 26: 503–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levene, M. Role of excitatory amino acid antagonists in the management of birth asphyxia. Biol Neonate 1992; 62: 248–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, GK, Bell, TE, Yenari, MA. Dose escalation safety and tolerance study of the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan in neurosurgery patients. J Neurosurg 1996; 84: 860–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, SM, Lees, KR, Albers, GW, et al. Selfotel in acute ischemic stroke: possible neurotoxic effects of an NMDA antagonist. Stroke 2000; 31: 347–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parikka, H, Toivonen, L, Naukkarinen, V, et al. Decreases by magnesium of QT dispersion and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1999; 20: 111–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lampl, Y, Gilad, R, Geva, D, et al. Intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate in acute stroke: a randomized double-blind study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2001; 24: 11–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lucas, MJ, Leveno, KJ, Cunningham, FG. A comparison of magnesium sulfate with phenytoin for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 201–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Haan, HH, Gunn, AJ, Williams, CE, et al. Magnesium sulfate therapy during asphyxia in near-term fetal lambs does not compromise the fetus but does not reduce cerebral injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: 1827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marret, S, Gressens, P, Gadisseux, JF, Evrard, P. Prevention by magnesium of excitotoxic neuronal death in the developing brain: an animal model for clinical intervention studies. Dev Med Child Neurol 1995; 37: 473–84.Google ScholarPubMed
McDonald, JW, Silverstein, FS, Johnston, MV. Magnesium reduces N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)–mediated brain injury in perinatal rats. Neurosci Lett 1990; 109: 234–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penrice, J, Amess, PN, Punwani, S, et al. Magnesium sulfate after transient hypoxia-ischemia fails to prevent delayed cerebral energy failure in the newborn piglet. Pediatr Res 1997; 41: 443–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Levene, M, Blennow, M, Whitelaw, A, et al. Acute effects of two different doses of magnesium sulphate in infants with birth asphyxia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1995; 73: F174–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, NJ, Edwards, AD. Recent advances in developing neuroprotective strategies for perinatal asphyxia. Curr Opin Pediatr 1998; 10: 575–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marret, S, Doyle, LW, Crowther, CA, Middleton, P. Antenatal magnesium sulphate neuroprotection in the preterm infant. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 12: 311–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crowther, CA, Hiller, JE, Doyle, LW, Haslam, RR. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth: a randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 2669–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rouse, DJ, Hirtz, DG, Thom, E, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 895905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Magnesium sulfate before anticipated preterm birth for neuroprotection (Committee Opinion No. 455). Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 669–71.
Gunn, AJ, Mydlar, T, Bennet, L, et al. The neuroprotective actions of a calcium channel antagonist, flunarizine, in the infant rat. Pediatr Res 1989; 25: 573–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunn, AJ, Williams, CE, Mallard, EC, et al. Flunarizine, a calcium channel antagonist, is partially prophylactically neuroprotective in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the fetal sheep. Pediatr Res 1994; 35: 657–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levene, MI, Gibson, NA, Fenton, AC, et al. The use of a calcium-channel blocker, nicardipine, for severely asphyxiated newborn infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990; 32: 567–74.Google Scholar
Buonocore, G, Groenendaal, F. Anti-oxidant strategies. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 12: 287–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palmer, C, Towfighi, J, Roberts, RL, Heitjan, DF. Allopurinol administered after inducing hypoxia-ischemia reduces brain injury in 7-day-old rats. Pediatr Res 1993; 33: 405–11.Google ScholarPubMed
Van Bel, F, Shadid, M, Moison, RM, et al. Effect of allopurinol on postasphyxial free radical formation, cerebral hemodynamics, and electrical brain activity. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 185–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benders, MJ, Bos, AF, Rademaker, CM, et al. Early postnatal allopurinol does not improve short term outcome after severe birth asphyxia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006; 91: F163–5.Google Scholar
Gunes, T, Ozturk, MA, Koklu, E, et al. Effect of allopurinol supplementation on nitric oxide levels in asphyxiated newborns. Pediatr Neurol 2007; 36: 1724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Welin, AK, Svedin, P, Lapatto, R, et al. Melatonin reduces inflammation and cell death in white matter in the mid-gestation fetal sheep following umbilical cord occlusion. Pediatr Res 2007; 61: 153–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, NJ, Faulkner, S, Fleiss, B, et al. Melatonin augments hypothermic neuroprotection in a perinatal asphyxia model. Brain 2013; 136: 90105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aly, H, Elmahdy, H, El-Dib, M, et al. Melatonin use for neuroprotection in perinatal asphyxia: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Perinatol 2015; 35: 186–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tan, WK, Williams, CE, Mallard, CE, Gluckman, PD. Monosialoganglioside GM1 treatment after a hypoxic-ischemic episode reduces the vulnerability of the fetal sheep brain to subsequent injuries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 170: 663–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, ED. The neuroprotective pharmacology of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg 1992; 76: 1322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amar, AP, Levy, ML. Pathogenesis and pharmacological strategies for mitigating secondary damage in acute spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 1999; 44: 1027–39; discussion 3940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, ED, McCall, JM, Means, ED. Therapeutic potential of the lazaroids (21-aminosteroids) in acute central nervous system trauma, ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Adv Pharmacol 1994; 28: 221–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kavanagh, RJ, Kam, PC. Lazaroids: efficacy and mechanism of action of the 21-aminosteroids in neuroprotection. Br J Anaesth 2001; 86: 110–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McPherson, RJ, Juul, SE. Recent trends in erythropoietin-mediated neuroprotection. Int J Dev Neurosci 2008; 26: 103–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, FF, McQuillen, P, Mu, D, et al. Erythropoietin enhances long-term neuroprotection and neurogenesis in neonatal stroke. Dev Neurosci 2007; 29: 321–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, YW, Bauer, LA, Ballard, RA, et al. Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics. Pediatrics 2012; 130: 683–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sabir, H, Bishop, S, Cohen, N, et al. Neither xenon nor fentanyl induces neuroapoptosis in the newborn pig brain. Anesthesiology 2013; 119: 345–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ma, D, Hossain, M, Chow, A, et al. Xenon and hypothermia combine to provide neuroprotection from neonatal asphyxia. Ann Neurol 2005; 58: 182–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobbs, C, Thoresen, M, Tucker, A, et al. Xenon and hypothermia combine additively, offering long-term functional and histopathologic neuroprotection after neonatal hypoxia/ischemia. Stroke 2008; 39: 1307–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chakkarapani, E, Dingley, J, Aquilina, K, et al. Effects of xenon and hypothermia on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in newborn global hypoxic-ischemic pig model. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013; 33: 1752–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dingley, J, Tooley, J, Liu, X, et al. Xenon ventilation during therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: a feasibility study. Pediatrics 2014; 133: 809–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Osredkar, D, Toet, MC, van Rooij, LG, et al. Sleep-wake cycling on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 327–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hellstrom-Westas, L, Rosen, I, Svenningsen, NW. Predictive value of early continuous amplitude integrated EEG recordings on outcome after severe birth asphyxia in full term infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1995; 72: F34–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toet, MC, Hellstrom-Westas, L, Groenendaal, F, et al. Amplitude integrated EEG 3 and 6 hours after birth in full term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999; 81: F1923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thoresen, M, Hellstrom-Westas, L, Liu, X, de Vries, LS. Effect of hypothermia on amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram in infants with asphyxia. Pediatrics 2010; 126: e131–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ancora, G, Maranella, E, Grandi, S, et al. Early predictors of short term neurodevelopmental outcome in asphyxiated cooled infants: a combined brain amplitude integrated electroencephalography and near infrared spectroscopy study. Brain Dev 2013; 35: 2631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toet, MC, Lemmers, PM, van Schelven, LJ, van Bel, F. Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: their relation to outcome. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 333–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats