Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 June 2011
Table A1 lists a number of relevant physical quantities and derived parameters at high levels of precision. Table A2 lists approximate values of some relevant properties of the solar system planets, which can be used for comparison with the emerging properties of exoplanets.
The systems of standards
Beyond a small number of basic physical quantities (notably c, G, and h) the relevant system of astronomical units is essentially defined by four numbers: the length of the day, d; the mass of the Sun, M⊙, or in practice GM⊙; the astronomical unit, Am; and the Gaussian constant of gravitation, k (a discussion of the complexities and limitations can be found in Klioner 2008).
The source for these referenced standards are as follows:
• CODATA06: recommended values from the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants (see www.codata.org and physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants).
• INPOP06: self-consistent (TCB-compatible) solar system quantities from the numerical planetary ephemeris developed at the IMCCE–Observatoire de Paris (Fienga et al., 2008). Small changes in planetary masses accompany INPOP08 (Fienga et al., 2009), which have not been incorporated, and a further revision is expected in 2011. INPOP provides an alternative to the JPL development ephemeris solutions DE405 and DE414 (Konopliv et al., 2006).
• IAU (1976): the IAU (1976) system of astronomical constants.
Notes to Table Al
(1) the astronomical unit is a defining constant in INPOP06, consistent with the combination of the light travel time and the speed of light used in the JPL DE solutions.