Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-gx6zg Total loading time: 1.055 Render date: 2023-02-05T15:31:32.739Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 10 - Evolutionary Perspectives on Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2022

Riadh Abed
Mental Health Tribunals, Ministry of Justice, UK
Paul St John-Smith
Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Get access


The term ‘schizophrenia’ refers to a group of disorders that seem to occur worldwide, with clinical pictures being strikingly similar across cultures. Evolutionary explanations of these disorders are warranted for at least two reasons: the first concerns their prevalence in all known ethnicities; the second relates to the need to explain the paradox as to why the conditions are maintained despite the greatly decreased fecundity of the affected individuals. Accordingly, a plethora of heterogeneous hypotheses – unparalleled among other psychiatric disorders – have been put forth, some of which deal with genetic considerations, others with environmental risk factors, and a few consider the adaptive advantages associated with the genes that predispose to schizophrenia. None of the evolutionary scenarios has the potential to account for the diversity of the symptomatology or to cover all of the biological and non-biological aspects of schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This chapter aims at discussing the most relevant evolutionary hypotheses of schizophrenia, arguing that a symptom-based approach to psychotic disorders from an evolutionary perspective may improve upon the existing models of schizophrenia.

Evolutionary Psychiatry
Current Perspectives on Evolution and Mental Health
, pp. 153 - 168
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abed, R. T. and Abbas, M. J. (2011). A reformulation of the social brain theory for schizophrenia: the case for out-group intolerance. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 54, 132151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abed, R. T. and Abbas, M. J. (2014). Can the new epidemiology of schizophrenia help elucidate its causation? Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 31, 15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abrams, M. P., Carleton, R. N., Taylor, S. and Asmundson, G. J. (2009). Human tonic immobility: measurement and correlates. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 550556.Google ScholarPubMed
Allen, J. S. and Sarich, V. M. (1998). Schizophrenia in an evolutionary perspective. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 32, 132153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, A. C. (1954). Protection afforded by the sickle cell trait against subtertian malarial infection. British Medical Journal, 1, 290294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM-5 Handbook of Differential Diagnosis. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Annen, S., Roser, P. and Brüne, M. (2012). Non-verbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia, mania, and depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200, 2632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayalew, M., Le-Niculescu, H., Levey, D. F. et al. (2012). Convergent functional genomics of schizophrenia: from comprehensive understanding to genetic risk prediction. Molecular Psychiatry, 17, 887905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badner, J. A. and Gershon, E. S. (2002). Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 405411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailer, U., Leisch, F., Meszaros, K. et al. (2002). Genome scan for susceptibility loci for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 4052.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayer, T. A., Falkai, P. and Maier, W. (1999). Genetic and nongenetic vulnerability factors in schizophrenia: the basis of the ‘two hit hypothesis’. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 543554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechter, K. (2013). Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 42, 7191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beckmann, H. and Franzek, E. (2000). The genetic heterogeneity of ‘schizophrenia’. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 1, 3541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentall, R. P., Jackson, H. F. and Pilgrim, D. (1988). Abandoning the concept of ‘schizophrenia’: some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 303324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanchard, N., Dunay, I. R. and Schlüter, D. (2015). Persistence of Toxoplasma gondii in the central nervous system: a fine-tuned balance between the parasite, the brain and the immune system. Parasite Immunology, 37, 150158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bleuler, E. (1911). Dementia praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: Deutike.Google Scholar
Bord, L., Wheeler, J., Paek, M. et al. (2006). Primate disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1): high divergence of a gene for major mental illnesses in recent evolutionary history. Neuroscience Research, 56, 286293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brüne, M. (2002). Towards an integration of interpersonal and biological processes: evolutionary psychiatry as an empirically testable framework for psychiatric research. Psychiatry, 65, 4857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brüne, M. (2003). Social cognition and behaviour in schizophrenia. In The Social Brain: Evolution and Pathology, Brüne, M., Ribbert, H. and Schiefenhövel, W. (eds.). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 277313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brüne, M. (2004). Schizophrenia – an evolutionary enigma? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 4153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brüne, M. (2019). Latent toxoplasmosis: host–parasite interaction and psychopathology. Evolution Medicine and Public Health, 2019, 212213.Google Scholar
Brüne, M. and Schiefenhövel, W. (eds.) (2019). Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brüne, M., Brüne-Cohrs, U., McGrew, W. C. and Preuschoft, S. (2006). Psychopathology in great apes: concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 12461259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brüne, M., Sonntag, C., Abdel-Hamid, M. et al. (2008). Non-verbal behavior during standardized interviews in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 282288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, J. K. (2004). An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia: cortical connectivity, metarepresentation, and the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 831855; discussion 855–885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cantor-Graae, E. and Selten, J. P. (2005). Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespi, B. and Badcock, C. (2008). Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 241320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespi, B., Summers, K. and Dorus, S. (2007). Adaptive evolution of genes underlying schizophrenia. Proceedings, Biological Sciences, 274, 28012810.Google ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (1990). The continuum of psychosis and its genetic origin. The sixty-fifth Maudsley Lecture. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 788797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1995). A Darwinian approach to the origins of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1999). Commentary on Annett, Yeo et al., Klar, Saugstad and Orr: cerebral asymmetry, language and psychosis – the case for a Homo sapiens-specific sex-linked gene for brain growth. Schizophrenia Research, 39, 219231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2012). Schizophrenia as variation in the sapiens-specific epigenetic instruction to the embryo. Clinical Genetics, 81, 319324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. and Sacker, A. (1995). Childhood precursors of psychosis as clues to its evolutionary origins. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 245, 6169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. and Sacker, A. (1996). Cerebral lateralization is delayed in children who later develop schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 22, 181185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J., Eyre, H., Jacka, F. N. et al. (2016). A review of vulnerability and risks for schizophrenia: beyond the two hit hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 185194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Giudice, M. (2010). Reduced fertility in patients’ families is consistent with the sexual selection model of schizophrenia and schizotypy. PLoS ONE, 5, e16040.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Giudice, M. (2017). Mating, sexual selection, and the evolution of schizophrenia. World Psychiatry, 16, 141142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado García, G. and García Landa, J. (1979). [Reactivity of the intradermal test with toxoplasmosis in schizophrenic patients]. Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical, 31, 225231.Google ScholarPubMed
DeLisi, L. E. (1997). Gender and age at onset of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLisi, L. E., Shaw, S., Sherrington, R. et al. (2000). Failure to establish linkage on the X chromosome in 301 families with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96, 333341.Google ScholarPubMed
Doi, N., Hoshi, Y., Itokawa, M. et al. (2009). Persistence criteria for susceptibility genes for schizophrenia: a discussion from an evolutionary viewpoint. PLoS ONE, 4, e7799.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferdowsian, H., Durham, D. and Brüne, M. (2013). Mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees: a response to Rosati et al. (2012). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 127, 337340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferdowsian, H. R., Durham, D. L., Johnson, C. M. et al. (2012). Signs of generalized anxiety and compulsive disorders in chimpanzees. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 7, 353361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flegr, J. (2007). Effects of toxoplasma on human behavior. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 757760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flint, J. and Munafò, M. (2014). Schizophrenia: genesis of a complex disease. Nature, 511, 412413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, J. M., Seidman, L. J., O’Brien, L. M. et al. (2002). Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 154164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haselton, M. G. and Miller, G. F. (2006). Women’s fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence. Human Nature, 17, 5073.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hjorthøj, C., Stürup, A. E., McGrath, J. J. et al. (2017). Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 295301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howes, O., McCutcheon, R. and Stone, J. (2015). Glutamate and dopamine in schizophrenia: an update for the 21st century. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29, 97115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, C. C., Chen, Y. H., Tsai, M. T. et al. (2001). Systematic search for mutations in the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) gene on chromosome 22 and association study with schizophrenia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105, 275278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huxley, J., Mayr, E., Osmond, H. et al. (1964). Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism. Nature, 204, 220221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jablensky, A. (2006). Subtyping schizophrenia: implications for genetic research. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 815836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarvik, L. F. and Deckard, B. S. (1977) The Odyssean personality. A survival advantage for carriers of genes predisposing to schizophrenia? Neuropsychobiology, 3, 179191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1976). The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Jennen-Steinmetz, C., Löffler, W. and Häfner, H. (1997). Demography and age at onset of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 485486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juckel, G., Manitz, M. P., Brüne, M. et al. (2011). Microglial activation in a neuroinflammational animal model of schizophrenia – a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 131, 96100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kano, S. I., Hodgkinson, C. A., Jones-Brando, L. et al. (2020). Host–parasite interaction associated with major mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 25, 194205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karlsson, J. L. (1968). Genealogic studies of schizophrenia. In The Transmission of Schizophrenia, Rosenthal, D. and Kety, S. S. (eds.). London: Pergamon Press, pp. 8594.Google Scholar
Keller, M. C. and Miller, G. (2006). Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: which evolutionary genetic models work best? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 385404; discussion 405–452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kellett, J. M. (1973). Evolutionary theory for the dichotomy of the functional psychoses. Lancet, 1, 860863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kety, S. S., Wender, P. H., Jacobsen, B. et al. (1994). Mental illness in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees. Replication of the Copenhagen Study in the rest of Denmark. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 442455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khaitovich, P., Lockstone, H. E., Wayland, M. T. et al. (2008). Metabolic changes in schizophrenia and human brain evolution. Genome Biology, 9, R124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khashan, A. S., Abel, K. M., McNamee, R. et al. (2008). Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 146152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, H. S., Wadekar, R. V., Takenaka, O. et al. (1999). SINE-R.C2 (a Homo sapiens specific retroposon) is homologous to CDNA from postmortem brain in schizophrenia and to two loci in the Xq21.3/Yp block linked to handedness and psychosis. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88, 560566.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krabbendam, L. and van Os, J. (2005). Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence – conditional on genetic risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 795799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krause, R., Steimer, E., Sanger-Alt, C. and Wagner, G. (1989). Facial expression of schizophrenic patients and their interaction partners. Psychiatry, 52, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kretschmer, E. (1926/1960). Hysteria, Reflex, and Instinct. New York: Philosophical Library.Google Scholar
Laval, S. H., Dann, J. C., Butler, R. J. et al. (1998). Evidence for linkage to psychosis and cerebral asymmetry (relative hand skill) on the X chromosome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 420427.3.0.CO;2-E>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawn, R. B., Sallis, H. M., Taylor, A. E. et al. (2019). Schizophrenia risk and reproductive success: a Mendelian randomization study. Royal Society Open Science, 6, 181049.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, J., Jimenez, A. M., Reavis, E. A. et al. (2018). Reduced neural sensitivity to social vs nonsocial reward in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 45, 620-628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leonhard, K. (2003). Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen und ihre differenzierte Ätiologie, 8th ed. Stuttgart/New York: Georg Thieme Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, C., Everall, I., Pantelis, C. et al. (2019). Interrogating the evolutionary paradox of schizophrenia: a novel framework and evidence supporting recent negative selection of schizophrenia risk alleles. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlashan, T. H. and Hoffman, R. E. (2000). Schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally reduced synaptic connectivity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 637-648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGrath, J. J. (2006). Variations in the incidence of schizophrenia: data versus dogma. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 195197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGuire, M. T. and Polsky, R. H. (1979). Behavioral changes in hospitalized acute schizophrenics. An ethological perspective. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 167, 651657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Medicus, G. (2015). Being Human. Bridging the Gap between the Sciences of Body and Mind. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.Google Scholar
Menninger, K. A. (1926). Influenza and schizophrenia: an analysis of post-influenzal ‘dementia praecox,’ as of 1918, and five years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 82, 469529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mittal, V. A., Dhruv, S., Tessner, K. D. et al. (2007). The relations among putative biorisk markers in schizotypal adolescents: minor physical anomalies, movement abnormalities, and salivary cortisol. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 11791186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moritz, S. and Woodward, T. S. (2006). A generalized bias against disconfirmatory evidence in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 142, 157165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moskowitz, A. K. (2004). ‘Scared stiff’: catatonia as an evolutionary-based fear response. Psychological Review, 111, 9841002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, R. M. (1994). Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia: the rediscovery of dementia praecox. British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement, (25), 612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesse, R. M. (2005). Maladaptation and natural selection. Quarterly Review of Biology, 80, 6270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nesse, R. M. (2013). Tinbergen’s four questions, organized: a response to Bateson and Laland. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 28, 681682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nilsson, E., Hultman, C. M., Cnattingius, S. et al. (2008). Schizophrenia and offspring’s risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant death. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 311315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odegaard, O. (1932). Emigration and insanity: a study of mental disease among the Norwegian-born population of Minnesota. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 4, 1206.Google Scholar
Ostermann, S., Herbsleb, M., Schulz, S. et al. (2013). Exercise reveals the interrelation of physical fitness, inflammatory response, psychopathology, and autonomic function in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, 11391149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owen, M. J., Craddock, N. and Jablensky, A. (2007). The genetic deconstruction of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 905911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pardiñas, A. F., Holmans, P., Pocklington, A. J. et al. (2018). Common schizophrenia alleles are enriched in mutation-intolerant genes and in regions under strong background selection. Nature Genetics, 50, 381389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, G. (1982). Re-searching the schizophrenogenic mother. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 452462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, S., Khan, S., Saipavankumar, M. et al. (2020). The association between cannabis use and schizophrenia: causative or curative? A systematic review. Cureus, 12, e9309.Google ScholarPubMed
Pearlson, G. D. and Folley, B. S. (2008). Schizophrenia, psychiatric genetics, and Darwinian psychiatry: an evolutionary framework. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 722733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitman, R. K., Kolb, B., Orr, S. P. and Singh, M. M. (1987). Ethological study of facial behavior in nonparanoid and paranoid schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 99102.Google ScholarPubMed
Poirotte, C., Kappeler, P. M., Ngoubangoye, B. et al. (2016). Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees. Current Biology, 26, R98R99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polimeni, J. and Reiss, J.P. (2002). How shamanism and group selection may reveal the origins of schizophrenia. Medical Hypotheses, 58, 244248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polimeni, J. and Reiss, J.P. (2003). Evolutionary perspectives on schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 3439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Post, F. (1994). Creativity and psychopathology. A study of 291 world-famous men. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 2234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Power, R. A., Kyaga, S., Uher, R. et al. (2013). Fecundity of patients with schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, depression, anorexia nervosa, or substance abuse vs their unaffected siblings. JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 2230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Preti, A. and Wilson, D. R. (2011). Schizophrenia, cancer and obstetric complications in an evolutionary perspective – an empirically based hypothesis. Psychiatry Investigations, 8, 7788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1948). The Andaman Islanders: A Study in Social Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Randall, P. L. (1998). Schizophrenia as a consequence of brain evolution. Schizophrenia Research, 30, 143148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanders, A. R., Duan, J., Levinson, D. F. et al. (2008). No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 497506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saugstad, L.F. (1999). A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation. Schizophrenia Research, 39, 183196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiefenhövel, W. (1995). Aggression und Aggressionskontrolle am Beispiel der Eipo aus dem Hochland von West-Neuguinea. In Töten im Krieg, von Stietencron, H. and Rüpke, J. (eds.). Freiburg/München: Verlag Karl Alber, pp. 339362.Google Scholar
Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature, 511, 421427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sei, Y., Ren-Patterson, R., Li, Z. et al. (2007). Neuregulin1-induced cell migration is impaired in schizophrenia: association with neuregulin1 and catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 946957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaner, A., Miller, G. and Mintz, J. (2004). Schizophrenia as one extreme of a sexually selected fitness indicator. Schizophrenia Research, 70, 101109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiloh, R., Schwartz, B., Weizman, A. and Radwan, M. (1995). Catatonia as an unusual presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopathology, 28, 285290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, A. and Price, J. (2000). Evolutionary Psychiatry. A New Beginning, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Susser, E. S. and Lin, S. P. (1992). Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 983988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svensson, A. C., Lichtenstein, P., Sandin, S. et al. (2007). Fertility of first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a three generation perspective. Schizophrenia Research, 91, 238245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tienari, P., Wynne, L. C., Moring, J. et al. (2000). Finnish adoptive family study: sample selection and adoptee DSM-III-R diagnoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 101, 433443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tienari, P., Wynne, L. C., Sorri, A. et al. (2004). Genotype–environment interaction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Long-term follow-up study of Finnish adoptees. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 216222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomasello, M. (2014). The ultra-social animal. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 187194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torrey, E. F., Bartko, J. J., Lun, Z. R. et al. (2007). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 729736.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torrey, E. F., Torrey, B. B. and Burton-Bradley, B. G. (1974). The epidemiology of schizophrenia in Papua New Guinea. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 567573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troisi, A., Pompili, E., Binello, L. and Sterpone, A. (2007). Facial expressivity during the clinical interview as a predictor functional disability in schizophrenia. A pilot study. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 31, 475481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troisi, A., Spalletta, G. and Pasini, A. (1998). Non-verbal behaviour deficits in schizophrenia: an ethological study of drug-free patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 109115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J. and Kapur, S. (2009). Schizophrenia. Lancet, 374, 635645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J., Verdoux, H., Maurice-Tison, S. et al. (1999). Self-reported psychosis-like symptoms and the continuum of psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 34, 459463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wahlbeck, K., Osmond, C., Forsen, T., Barker, D. J. and Eriksson, J. G. (2001). Associations between childhood living circumstances and schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104, 356360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, J. P., Kaushik, M., Bristow, G. C. et al. (2013). Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour? Journal of Experimental Biology, 216, 99112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wrangham, R. W. (1999). Evolution of coalitionary killing. American Journal of Physical Anthropologu, (29), 1–30.3.0.CO;2-E>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yao, Y., Yang, J., Xie, Y. et al. (2020). No evidence for widespread positive selection signatures in common risk alleles associated with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 46, 603611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeo, R. A., Gangestad, S. W., Edgar, C., et al. (1999). The evolutionary genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia: the developmental instability model. Schizophrenia Research, 39, 197206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zelt, D. (1981). First person account: the Messiah quest. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 527531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimmer, A., Youngblood, A., Adnane, A. et al. (2021). Prenatal exposure to viral infection and neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring: a review of the literature and recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Behavior, and Immunity, 91, 756770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zolotova, J. and Brüne, M. (2006). Persecutory delusions: reminiscence of ancestral hostile threats? Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 185192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats