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34 - Influenza

from Part I - Systems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 December 2009

Asim A. Jani
Affiliation:
Assistant Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Orlando Regional Healthcare, Orlando, FL
Timothy M. Uyeki
Affiliation:
Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, Deputy Chief, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
Rachel L. Chin
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco
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Summary

INTRODUCTION

Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses transmitted primarily by droplets expelled during coughing and sneezing. Influenza type A and B virus infections can cause substantial human disease and mortality worldwide. Patients present with variable signs and symptoms depending on age and the presence of underlying chronic disease. Seasonal winter influenza epidemics in temperate countries can have a substantial impact on the emergency department (ED), but travelers may present with influenza illness acquired in other countries year-round. Rarely, the emergence of a novel influenza A subtype virus can lead to a global influenza pandemic.

Influenza viruses are single-stranded negative sense RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Three types (A, B, and C) of influenza viruses infect humans. Type A and B viruses are known to cause significant human disease. The genome contains eight gene segments that code for 11 proteins, including the two main surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Type A viruses are further classified into subtypes based on their HA and NA proteins. Currently circulating human influenza A subtypes include A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) viruses. Human influenza viruses bind to and replicate primarily in epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract.

Influenza viruses are evolving continuously through a process called “antigenic drift” in which random point mutations in the HA gene result in changes to the HA surface protein.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2008

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References

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  • Influenza
    • By Asim A. Jani, Assistant Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Orlando Regional Healthcare, Orlando, FL, Timothy M. Uyeki, Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, Deputy Chief, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
  • Edited by Rachel L. Chin, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Emergency Management of Infectious Diseases
  • Online publication: 15 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547454.035
Available formats
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Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

  • Influenza
    • By Asim A. Jani, Assistant Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Orlando Regional Healthcare, Orlando, FL, Timothy M. Uyeki, Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, Deputy Chief, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
  • Edited by Rachel L. Chin, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Emergency Management of Infectious Diseases
  • Online publication: 15 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547454.035
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Influenza
    • By Asim A. Jani, Assistant Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Orlando Regional Healthcare, Orlando, FL, Timothy M. Uyeki, Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, Deputy Chief, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
  • Edited by Rachel L. Chin, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Emergency Management of Infectious Diseases
  • Online publication: 15 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547454.035
Available formats
×