Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-cxxrm Total loading time: 1.198 Render date: 2021-12-03T02:47:39.489Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Bibliography

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 July 2017

Aila M. Matanock
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Electing Peace
From Civil Conflict to Political Participation
, pp. 285 - 316
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

“1990 Country Report on Human Rights Practices: Guatemala,” 1990, September 7, Case ID 95122240, Document No. E1529, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Agreement on the Strengthening of Civilian Power and the Role of the Armed Forces in Democratic Society,” 1996, September 19, Mexico City. Available from the Peace Accord Matrix: https://peaceaccords.nd.edu/accord/accord-firm-and-lasting-peace.
“Ambassador Calls on MOD and Discusses Topics Surrounding Military-to-Military Relationships,” 1993, June 29, Case ID 951222H5, Document No. E3371, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Background Information for Mr. Lake’s November 21 Meeting with Jennifer Harbury,” 1994, November 18, Case ID 951222D0, Document No. E4777A, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Cerezo Nixes Dialogue with Guerrillas,” 1986, November 4, Case ID 95122214, Document No. E5 [missing], Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
“Cocaine: A Supply Side Strategy,” 1989, June 15, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C.
“Colombian Rebels Seek Status as Political Party,” 1988, The Globe and Mail (Canada), December 20.
“El Salvador Elections,” 1997, The Washington Post, March 17.
“En El 89, Washington Pensó En Enviar Tropas a Colombia,” 2010, El Tiempo, May 16.
“FMLN Begins Destruction of Arms,” 1992, December 1, Case ID F-2008–05748, Document No. C17582238, El Salvador Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“FMLN Legalization – Contingent on Demobilization,” 1992, October 29, Case ID F-2008–05748, Document No. C17582252, El Salvador Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Guatemala Human Rights Practices, 1995,” 1996, March, Electronic Research Collections, U.S. Department of State and Federal Depository Library, Richard J. Daley Library, University of Illinois at Chicago.
“Guatemala Human Rights Report – 1991,” 1991, January 1, Case ID 95122249, Document No. E1869, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Guatemala Meeting with President Ramiro de Leon Carpio,” 1994, February 15, Case ID 95122295, Document No. E3698A, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Guatemala: Negotiating Peace to Foster Democracy,” 1994, May 1, Case ID 951222H0, Document No. E6131, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Guatemalan Guerrillas Deny Issuing Truce Communique,” 1986, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, March 8.
“Guatemalan President Views Visit to Mexico,” 1986, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 4.
“Harbury/Bamaca Case: Supporting MINUGUA,” 1994, January 4, Case ID 95122293, Document No. E3627, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Re: GOES/FMLN Talks,” 1991, September 18, 7pp., Box No. CF00196B2, Latin American Directorate Files, Bush Presidential Records.
“Report in Spanish Re Michael Vernon Devine Case,” 1990, June 9, Case ID 95122236, Document No. E1395, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“Returning Exiles Test Guatemala’s New ‘Democracy’,” 1993, Guardian Weekly, May 16.
“Review of Key Issues,” 1992, November 14, Case ID 95122270, Document No. E2715, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
“US Policy toward Guatemala,” 1994, February 24, Case ID 95122297, Document No. E3758, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Abrahms, Max, 2008, “What Terrorists Really Want,” International Security, 32: 78105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acharya, Amitav, Lizée, Pierre, and Peou, Sorpong, eds., 1989, Cambodia – The 1989 Paris Peace Conference (Toronto: Centre for International and Strategic Studies).Google Scholar
Acosta, Benjamin, 2014. “From Bombs to Ballots: When Militant Organizations Transition to Political Parties,” The Journal of Politics, 76, 3: 666683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ake, Claude, 1996, “Rethinking African Democracy.” In Diamond, Larry and Plattner, Marc F., eds., The Global Resurgence of Democracy, Second Edition (Baltimore, M.D.: Johns Hopkins University Press): 6375.Google Scholar
Alberts, Susan, Warshaw, Chris, and Weingast, Barry R., 2012, “Democratization and Countermajoritarian Institutions: Power and Constitutional Design in Self-Enforcing Democracy.” In Ginsburg, Tom, ed., Comparative Constitutional Design (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 69100.Google Scholar
Alden, Chris, 2005, “China in Africa,” Survival, 47, 3: 147164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, Michael E., 2006a, “Leaving the Past Behind? A Study of the FMLN and URNG Transitions to Political Parties,” Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University.
Allison, Michael E., 2006b, “The Transition from Armed Opposition to Electoral Opposition in Central America,” Latin American Politics and Society, 48, 4: 137162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, Michael E., 2009, “Opportunity Lost: The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG).” In Dayton, Bruce and Kriesberg, Louise, eds., Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding: Moving from Violence to Sustainable Peace (New York, N.Y.: Routledge): 188203.Google Scholar
Álvarez, Alberto Martín, 2010a, “From Revolutionary War to Democratic Revolution: The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) in El Salvador,” No. 9. In Dudouet, Véronique and Giessmann, Hans J., eds., Berghof Transition Series: Resistance/Liberation Movements and Transition to Politics (Berlin: Berghof Conflict Research).Google Scholar
Álvarez, Alberto Martín, 2010b, “Process of Change in Non-State Armed Groups: Learning from the Salvadorean Experience,” Unpublished paper presented at the International Studies Association, New Orleans, L.A., February 17–20.
Alvarez, Enrique, 2002, “The Grand National Dialogue and the Oslo Consultations: Creating a Peace Agenda,” Accord, 13: 4447.Google Scholar
Amundsen, Inge, Abreu, Cesaltina, and Hoygaard, Laurinda, 2005, “Accountability on the Move: The Parliament of Angola,” CMI Working Paper 11 (Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute).
Andrade Casama, Luis Evelis, 2009, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, 10 December.
Angrist, Joshua D., and Pischke, Jörn-Steffen, 2009, Mostly Harmless Econometrics (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Annan, Kofi, 2003, “The Situation in Central America: Progress in Fashioning a Region of Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Development: United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala, Report of the Secretary-General,” United Nations General Assembly, A/58/267, August 11.
Antsee, Margaret J., 1996, Orphan of the Cold War: The Inside Story of the Collapse of the Angolan Peace Process, 1992–1993 (New York, N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press).Google Scholar
Arnault, Jean, 2001, “Good Agreement? Bad Agreement? An Implementation Perspective,” Center for International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, N.J., Unpublished paper.
Arnson, Cynthia, 2012, “Introduction: Conflict, Democratization, and the State.” In Arnson, Cynthia, ed., In the Wake of War: Democratization and Internal Armed Conflict in Latin America (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press): 134.Google Scholar
Ash, Timothy G., 2001, “Is There a Good Terrorist?,” New York Review of Books, November 29.
Atlas, Pierre M. and Licklider, Roy, 1999, “Conflict among Former Allies after Civil War Settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad, and Lebanon,” Journal of Peace Research, 36, 1: 3554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azpuru, Dinorah, 1999, “Peace and Democratization in Guatemala: Two Parallel Processes.” In Arnson, Cynthia J., ed., Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press): 97126.Google Scholar
Azpuru, Dinorah, Mendoza, Carlos, Blanck, Evelyn, and Blanco, Ligia, 2004, “Democracy Assistance to Post-Conflict Guatemala: Finding a Balance between Details and Determinants,” CRU Working Paper 30 (The Hague: Clingendael Institute).
Azpuru, Dinorah, Finkel, Steven E., Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal, and Seligson, Mitchell A., 2008, “What Has the United States Been Doing?,” Journal of Democracy, 19, 2: 150159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bagley, Bruce M, 1988, “Colombia and the War on Drugs,” Foreign Affairs 67, 1: 7092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balcells, Laia and Steele, Abbey, 2016, “Warfare, Political Identities, and Displacement in Spain and Colombia,” Political Geography, 51: 1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baloyra, Enrique A, 1998, “El Salvador: From Despotism to Partidocracia.” In Kumar, Krishna, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 1537.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N., 2006, “Building a Republican Peace: Stabilizing States after War,” International Security, 30, 4: 87112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beardsley, Kyle, 2012, The Mediation Dilemma (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Beardsley, Kyle, 2013, “The UN at the Peacemaking-Peacebuilding Nexus,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 30, 4: 369386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaulieu, Emily, 2014, Electoral Protest and Democracy in the Developing World (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bekoe, Dorina A., 2008, Implementing Peace Agreements: Lessons from Mozambique, Angola, and Liberia (New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, Andrew and Checkel, Jeffrey T., eds., 2014, Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool (Strategies for Social Inquiry) (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentley, Kristina A. and Southall, Roger, 2005, An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa, and Burundi (Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council Press).Google Scholar
Betts, Richard K., 1994, “The Delusion of Impartial Intervention,” Foreign Affairs, 73, 6: 2033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birnir, Jóhanna Kristín, 2006, Ethnicity and Electoral Politics (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjornlund, Eric C., 2004, Beyond Free and Fair: Monitoring Elections and Building Democracy (Baltimore, M.D.: Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
Blainey, Geoffrey, 1988, The Causes of War (New York, N.Y.: The Free Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaydes, Lisa, 2011, Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak’s Egypt (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
Boix, Carles and Svolik, Milan W., 2013, “The Foundations of Limited Authoritarian Government: Institutions, Commitment, and Power-Sharing in Dictatorships,” The Journal of Politics, 75, 2: 300316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boix, Carles and Stokes, Susan, 2003, “Endogenous Democratization,” World Politics, 55, 4: 517549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borzyskowski, Inken and Vabulas, Felicity, 2014, “The Punishment Phase: IGO Suspensions after Political Backsliding,” Unpublished paper presented at Political Economy of International Organizations (PEIO), Princeton, N.J., January 16–18.
Boucher, Richard, 1993, “Guatemala: Suspension of Congress, Courts,” National Security Council, Office of Press and Communications, and Philip “PJ” Crowley, Clinton Digital Library, William J. Clinton Presidential Library and Museum, http://clinton.presidentiallibraries.us/items/show/48515.
Boulding, Carew and Hyde, Susan D., 2005, “Political Terror, Election Fraud, and Foreign Aid: When Do Donors Withdraw Aid to Promote Democracy?,” Unpublished paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association (MPSA) National Annual Conference, Chicago, I.L., April 6–10.
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M. and Jones, Bradford S., 2004, Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists (New York: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brambor, Thomas, Clark, William Roberts, and Golder, Matt, 2006, “Understanding Interaction Models: Improving Empirical Analyses,” Political Analysis, 14, 1: 6382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brancati, Dawn and Snyder, Jack, 2011, “Rushing to the Polls: The Causes of Premature Postconflict Elections,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55, 3: 469492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brancati, Dawn and Snyder, Jack, 2013, “Time to Kill: The Impact of Election Timing and Sequencing on Post-Conflict Stability,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57, 5: 822853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brancati, Dawn, 2014, “Democratic Authoritarianism: Origins and Effects,” Annual Review of Political Science, 17: 313326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Stephen G. and Wohlforth, William C., 2000, “Power, Globalization, and the End of the Cold War: Reevaluating a Landmark Case for Ideas,” International Security, 25, 3: 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Stephen G. and Wohlforth, William C., 2005, “Hard Times for Soft Balancing,” International Security, 30, 1: 72108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Stephen G. and Wohlforth, William C., 2008, World out of Balance: International Relations and the Challenge of American Primacy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Michael E., ed., 1996, The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict (Cambridge, M.A.: MIT Press).Google Scholar
Brownlee, Jason, 2007, Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brownlee, Jason, 2012, Democracy Prevention: The Politics of the US-Egyptian Alliance (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bush, Sarah Sunn, 2015, The Taming of Democracy Assistance: Why Democracy Promotion Does Not Confront Dictators (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bush, Sarah Sunn and Prather, Lauren, 2016, “Third Party Monitors and the Credibility of Political Processes,” Unpublished paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Convention, Atlanta, G.A., March 16.
Butenschøn, Nils A. and Vollan, Kåre, 2011, “Electoral Quotas and the Challenges of Democratic Transition in Conflict-Ridden Societies: A Nordem Special Report,” The Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, September.
Büthe, Tim, 2002, “Taking Temporality Seriously: Modeling History and the Use of Narratives as Evidence,” American Political Science Review, 96, 3: 481493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, Charles T., 2002, “Assessing El Salvador’s Transition from Civil War to Peace.” In Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 383420.Google Scholar
Call, Charles T. with Wyeth, Vanessa, eds., 2008, Building States to Build Peace (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
Carothers, Thomas, 1997, “The Observers Observed,” Journal of Democracy, 8, 3: 1731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carothers, Thomas, 1999, Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace).Google Scholar
Carter, Brett L., 2016, “Why the Democratic Recession Will Be Brief: The View from Africa,” Journal of Democracy, 27, 3: 3650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Hug, Simon, and Krebs, Lutz F., 2010, “Democratization and Civil War: Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Peace Research, 47, 4: 377394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cepeda Castro, Iván, 2006, “Genocidio Político: El Caso De La Unión Patriótica En Colombia,” Published online on Desaparecidos.org, Originally published in Revista Cetil, No. 2, September.
Chafee, John H., 1991, “Letter to President George H.W. Bush,” March 14, 2pp, Box No. CO046, 002807–094748. Bush Presidential Records.
Chayes, Abram and Chayes, Antonia Handler, 1995, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements (Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
Cheibub, José A. and Hays, Jude C., 2015, “Elections and Civil War in Africa,” Political Science Research and Methods, FirstView: 122.Google Scholar
Chenoweth, Erica, 2010, “Democratic Competition and Terrorist Activity,” The Journal of Politics, 72, 1: 1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chernick, Marc W., 1999, “Negotiating Peace amid Multiple Forms of Violence: The Protracted Search for a Settlement to the Armed Conflict in Colombia.” In Arnson, Cynthia J., ed., Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America (Stanford, C.A.: Stanford University Press): 159196.Google Scholar
Claude, Inis L., 1966, “Collective Legitimization as a Political Function of the United Nations,” International Organization, 20, 33: 367379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clayton, Govinda, 2013, “Relative Rebel Strength and the Onset and Outcome of Civil War Mediation,” Journal of Peace Research, 50, 5: 609622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clinton, William J., 1994, “State of the Union Address (Transcript),” Accessed through Charlottesville, V.A.: Miller Center: http://millercenter.org/president/clinton/speeches/speech-3437.
Collier, David, 2011, “Understanding Process Tracing,” PS: Political Science and Politics, 44, 4: 823830.Google Scholar
Collier, Paul, 2009, Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places, (New York, N.Y.: Harper Perennial).Google Scholar
Collier, Paul and Hoeffler, Anke, 1999, Justice-Seeking and Loot-Seeking in Civil War (Washington, D.C.: World Bank).Google Scholar
Collier, Paul and Hoeffler, Anke, 2004, “Aid, Policy and Growth in Post-Conflict Societies,” European Economic Review, 48, 5: 11251145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke, and Söderbom, Måns, 2008, “Post-Conflict Risks,” Journal of Peace Research, 45, 4: 461478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Paul, Elliott, V. L., Hegre, Havard, Hoeffler, Anke, Reynal-Querol, Marta, and Sambanis, Nicholas, 2003, Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy, A World Bank Policy Research Report (Washington, D.C.: World Bank and Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Collier, Robert, 1995, “‘An Enduring ‘Nuisance’; Rebels Hang in against a Brutally Effective Army,” The Gazette, 5 March.
Cornick, Tully, 2014, Author Interview (Telephone), Washington, D.C., May 7.
Cox, Gary W., North, Douglass C., and Weingast, Barry, 2013, “The Violence Trap: A Political-Economic Approach to the Problems of Development,” Unpublished paper presented at the CDDRL Special Director’s Seminar, Stanford University, Stanford, C.A., June 10.
Cronin, Audrey Kurth, 2009, How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Cunningham, David E., 2006, “Veto Players and Civil War Duration,” American Journal of Political Science, 50, 4: 875892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, David E., 2007, “Responding to Multi-Party Civil Wars: Designing Peace Processes That Make Peace More Likely,” Paper presented at the American Political Science Association’s Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, August 30–September 2.
Cunningham, David E., Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, and Salehyan, Idean, 2009, “It Takes Two: A Dyadic Analysis of Civil War Duration and Outcome,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53, 4: 570597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dafoe, Allan, 2013, “First Do No Harm: The Risk of Modeling Temporal Dependence.” Unpublished paper presented at the 30th Annual Summer Meeting of the Society for Political Methodology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, V.A., July 18–20.
Dahl, Robert A., 2003, “Democratic Polities in Advanced Countries: Success and Challenge.” In Borón, Atilio, ed., New Worldwide Hegemony: Alternatives for Change and Social Movements (Amsterdam: Transnational Institute Publishing): 5150.Google Scholar
Davenport, Christian, 2004, “The Promise of Democratic Pacification: An Empirical Assessment,” International Studies Quarterly, 48, 3: 539560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daxecker, Ursula E., 2007, “Perilous Polities? An Assessment of the Democratization-Conflict Linkage,” European Journal of International Relations, 13, 4: 527553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Jonge Oudraat, Chantal, 1996, “The United Nations and Internal Conflict.” In Brown, Michael E., ed., The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict (Cambridge, U.K.: MIT Press): 489535.Google Scholar
De Soto, Alvaro, and del Castillo, Graciana, 1994, “Obstacles to Peacebuilding,” Foreign Policy, 94: 6983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Zeeuw, Jeroen, 2005, “Projects Do Not Create Institutions: The Record of Democracy Assistance in Post-Conflict Societies,” Democratization, 12, 4: 481504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Zeeuw, Jeroen, 2008, “Understanding the Transformations of Rebel Movements.” In De Zeeuw, Jeroen, ed., From Soldiers to Politicians: Transforming Rebel Movements after Civil War (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 132.Google Scholar
De Zeeuw, Jeroen, ed., 2008, From Soldiers to Politicians: Transforming Rebel Movements after Civil War (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
De Zeeuw, Jeroen, and Kumar, Krishna, 2006, Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
Deonandan, Kalowatie, Close, David, and Prevost, Gary, eds., 2007, From Revolutionary Movements to Political Parties (New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dermota, Ken, 1990, “Barco Lambasted for Not Protecting Presidential Field,” The Washington Times, April 30.
Derouen, Karl, Lea, Jenna, and Wallensteen, Peter, 2009, “The Duration of Civil War Peace Agreements,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 26, 4: 367387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diamond, Larry, 2006, “Promoting Democracy in Post-Conflict and Failed States: Lessons and Challenges,” Taiwan Journal of Democracy, 2, 2: 93116.Google Scholar
Dobbins, James, 2003, America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Dobbins, James, 2008, “Europe’s Role in Nation Building,” Survival, 50, 3: 83110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobbins, James, Jones, Seth G., Crane, Keith, Rathmell, Andrew, Steele, Brett, Teltschik, Richard, and Timilsina, Anga, 2005, The UN’s Role in Nation-Building from the Congo to Iraq (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Dobbins, James, Jones, Seth G., Crane, Keith, and DeGrasse, Beth Cole, 2007, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Dobbins, James, Jones, Seth G., Crane, Keith, Chivvis, Christopher S., Radin, Andrew, Larrabee, F. Stephen, Bensahel, Nora, Lawson, Brooke Stearns, and Goldsmith, Benjamin W., 2008, Europe’s Role in Nation-Building: From the Balkans to the Congo (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Donno, Daniela, 2013, Defending Democratic Norms: International Actors and the Politics of Electoral Misconduct (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downes, Alexander B., 2011, “To the Shores of Tripoli? Regime Change and Its Consequences,” Boston Review, 36, 5: 429436.Google Scholar
Downes, Alexander B. and Monten, Jonathan, 2013, “Forced to Be Free: Why Foreign-Imposed Regime Change Rarely Leads to Democratization,” International Security, 37, 4: 90131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downes, Alexander B. and O’Rourke, Lindsey A., 2016, “You Can’t Always Get What You Want: Foreign-Imposed Regime Change and Interstate Conflict,” International Security, 41, 2: 4389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downs, George W., Rocke, David M., and Barsoom, Peter N., 1996, “Is the Good News about Compliance Good News about Cooperation?,” International Organization, 50, 3: 379406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, Michael W., “Authority and Elections in Cambodia: Keeping the Peace.” In Doyle, Michael W., Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, Robert C., eds., 1997, Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (Cambridge U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 134164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, Michael W. and Sambanis, Nicholas, 2000, “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis,” American Political Science Review, 94, 4: 779801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, Michael W. and Sambanis, Nicholas, 2006, Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Driscoll, Jesse, 2008, “Inside the Leviathan: Coup-Proofing after State Failure,” Stanford University, Stanford, C.A., Unpublished paper.
Duarte, José Napoleón and Page, Diana, 1986, Duarte: My Story (New York, N.Y.: G.P. Putnam’s Sons).Google Scholar
Dudley, Steven S., 2004, Walking Ghosts: Murder and Guerrilla Politics in Colombia (New York, N.Y.: Routledge).Google Scholar
Dunning, Thad, 2004, “Conditioning the Effects of Aid: Cold War Politics, Donor Credibility, and Democracy in Africa,” International Organization, 58, 2: 409423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunning, Thad, 2011, “Fighting and Voting: Violent Conflict and Electoral Politics,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55, 3: 327339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durant, T. Clark and Weintraub, Michael, 2014, “How to Make Democracy Self-Enforcing after Civil War: Enabling Credible Yet Adaptable Elite Pacts,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 31, 5: 521540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eaton, Kent, 2006, “The Downside of Decentralization: Armed Clientelism in Colombia,” Security Studies, 15, 4: 533562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eck, Kristine, 2009, “From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification,” International Studies Quarterly, 53, 2: 369388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eder, James F. and McKenna, Thomas M., 2008, “Minorities in the Philippines: Ancestral Lands and Autonomy in Theory and Practice.” In Duncan, Christopher R., ed., Civilizing the Margins: Southeast Asian Government Policies for the Development of Minorities (Singapore: National University of Singapore Press): 5685.Google Scholar
Edwards, Aaron and Bloomer, Stephen, 2004, “A Watching Brief? The Political Strategy of Progressive Loyalism since 1994,” Conflict Transformation Papers 8 (Belfast, LINC Resource Centre).
Elkins, Zachery and Simmons, Beth A., 2005, “On Waves, Clusters and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598, 1: 3351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elklit, Jorgen and Svensson, Palle, 1997, “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?,” Journal of Democracy, 8, 3: 3246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emmanuel, Nikolas and Rothchild, Donald, 2007, “Economic Aid and Peace Implementation: The African Experience,” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 1, 2: 171188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Gareth and Sahnoun, Mohamed, 2002, “The Responsibility to Protect,” Foreign Affairs, 81, 6: 99110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Michael, 2002, “Conditioning Security Assistance.” In Evans, Michael, “War in Columbia: Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in US-Colombia Policy, 1988–2002,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 69, May 2.
Farah, Douglas, 1997, “Salvadorans Reminded of War’s Polarization; Ex-Rebels Lead in Polls for Midterm Elections, Provoking Furious Reaction on Right,” The Washington Post, February 23.
Farer, Tom J., 2004, “The Promotion of Democracy: International Law and Norms.” In Rich, Roland and Newman, Edward, eds., The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality (Tokyo: United Nations University Press): 3261.Google Scholar
Fazal, Tanisha, 2015, “Peace Treaties in Civil War.” In Wars of Law: Unintended Consequences in the Regulation of Armed Conflict, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, I.N., Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
Fearon, James D., 1995, “Rationalist Explanations for War,” International Organization, 49, 3: 379414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D., 2004, “Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?,” Journal of Peace Research, 41, 3: 275301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D., 2007, “Fighting Rather Than Bargaining,” Unpublished paper presented at 2007 Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, I.L., August 30–September 2.
Fearon, James D., 2010, “Governance and Civil War Onset,” World Development Report 2011 Background Paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., August 31.
Fearon, James D., 2011, “Self-Enforcing Democracy,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126, 4: 16611708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D., 2003, “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” American Political Science Review, 97, 1: 7590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D., 2004, “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States,” International Security, 28, 4: 543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D., 2007, “Civil War Termination,” Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, I.L., August 30–September 1.
Félix, Walter, 2013, Author Interview, Guatemala City, Guatemala, August 20.
Feste, Karen A., 2003, Intervention: Shaping the Global Order (New York, N.Y.: Praeger).Google Scholar
Fine, Jason P., and Gray, Robert J., 1999, “A Proportional Hazards Model for the Subdistribution of a Competing Risk,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 94, 446: 496509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkel, Steven E., Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal, and Seligson, Mitchell A., 2007, “The Effects of US Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990–2003,” World Politics, 59, 3: 404439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finnemore, Martha, 1996, “Constructing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention.” In Katzenstein, Peter, ed., The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press): 153185.Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha, 2003, The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Fish, Steven M. and Kroenig, Matthew, 2006, “Diversity, Conflict and Democracy: Some Evidence from Eurasia and East Europe,” Democratization, 13, 5: 828842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores, Thomas E. and Nooruddin, Irfan, 2009a, “Democracy Under the Gun: Understanding Post-Conflict Recovery,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53, 1: 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores, Thomas E. and Nooruddin, Irfan, 2009b, “Financing the Peace: Evaluating World Bank Post-Conflict Assistance Programs,” Review of International Organizations, 4, 1: 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores, Thomas E. and Nooruddin, Irfan, 2012, “The Effect of Elections on Post-Conflict Peace and Reconstruction,” Journal of Politics, 74, 2: 558570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flórez, Enrique, 2010, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, March 16.
Fortna, Virginia Page, 2004, “Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace after Civil War,” International Studies Quarterly, 48, 2: 269292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page, 2008, Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices after Civil War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page, 2015, “Do Terrorists Win? Rebels’ Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes,” International Organization 69, 3: 519556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page and Huang, Reyko, 2012, “Democratization after Civil War: A Brush-Clearing Exercise,” International Studies Quarterly, 56, 4: 801808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page and Howard, Lise Morjé, 2008, “Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping Literature,” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 283301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, Robert R., 2000, “Letter Dated 10 March 2000 from the Chairman of the Security Council Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 864 (1993) Concerning the Situation in Angola,” United Nations Security Council, New York.
Franck, Thomas M., 1990, The Power of Legitimacy among Nations (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Frerks, Georg, 2006, The Use of Peace Conditionalities in Conflict and Post-Conflict Settings: A Conceptual Framework and a Checklist (The Hague: Clingendael Institute).Google Scholar
Fuentes, Juan Alberto and Carothers, Thomas, 1998, “Luces Y Sombras De La Cooperación Internacional.” In International IDEA, ed., Democracia En Guatemala: La Mision De Un Pueblo Entero (Stockholm, International IDEA): 214219.Google Scholar
Fukuyama, Francis and McFaul, Michael, 2008, “Should Democracy Be Promoted or Demoted?,” The Washington Quarterly, 31, 1: 2345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gandhi, Jennifer, 2008, Political Institutions under Dictatorship (Cambridge, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gandhi, Jennifer and Lust-Okar, Ellen, 2009, “Elections under Authoritarianism,” Annual Review of Political Science, 12: 403422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garbar, Larry, 1998, “Introduction.” In Kuman, Krishna, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 13.Google Scholar
García Durán, Mauricio, Loewenherz, Vera Grabe, and Hormaza, Otty Patiño, 2008, “M-19’s Journey from Armed Struggle to Democratic Politics: Striving to Keep the Revolution Connected to the People,” No. 1. In Dudouet, Véronique and Giessmann, Hans J., eds., Berghof Transition Series: Resistance/Liberation Movements and Transition to Politics, Berghof Conflict Research, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
Garst, Rachel, 1995, “Guatemala: United State Policy and the Guatemalan Peace Process,” WOLA Policy Brief, Washington Office on Latin America, Washington, D.C.
Geddes, Barbara, 2003, Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics (Ann Arbor, M.I.: University of Michigan Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gellman, Barton, 1992, “Keeping the US First; Pentagon Would Preclude a Rival Superpower,” The Washington Post, March 11.
Gent, Stephen E., 2011, “Relative Rebel Strength and Power Sharing in Intrastate Conflicts,” International Interactions, 37, 2: 215228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerring, John, 2007, “Is There a (Viable) Crucial-Case Method?,” Comparative Political Studies, 40, 3: 231253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghosh, Partha S., 1989, Conflict and Cooperation in South Asia (New Delhi: Manohar).Google Scholar
Gilligan, Michael J., Mvukiyehe, Eric, and Samii, Cyrus, 2013, “Reintegrating Rebels into Civilian Life: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Burundi,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57, 4: 598626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilligan, Michael J. and Sergenti, Ernest J., 2008, “Do UN Interventions Cause Peace? Using Matching to Improve Causal Inference,” Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 3, 2: 89122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilligan, Michael J. and Stedman, Stephen John, 2003, “Where Do the Peacekeepers Go?,” International Studies Review, 5, 4: 3754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Girod, Desha M., 2011, “Effective Foreign Aid Following Civil War: The Nonstrategic-Desperation Hypothesis,” American Journal of Political Science, 56, 1: 188201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian S. and Beardsley, Kyle, 2004, “Nosy Neighbors: Third-Party Actors in Central American Conflicts,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48, 3: 379402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian S., Salehyan, Idean, and Schultz, Kenneth, 2008, “Fighting at Home, Fighting Abroad,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 52, 4: 479506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian S. and Ward, Michael D., 2000, “War and Peace in Space and Time: The Role of Democratization,” International Studies Quarterly, 44, 1: 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian S. and Ward, Michael D., 2006, “Diffusion and the International Context of Democratization,” International Organization, 60, 4: 911933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Nils P., Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Strand, Håvard, 2002, “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research, 39, 5: 615637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golan, Guy and Wanta, Wayne, 2003, “International Elections on US Network News: An Examination of Factors Affecting Newsworthiness,” International Communication Gazette, 65, 1: 2539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabe, Loewenherz Vera, 2009, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, December 14.
Greene, Kenneth F., 2007, Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico’s Democratization in Comparative Perspective (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilengue, Fredson, 2013, “Mozambique: Why Has RENAMO Gone Back to the Bush?,” All Africa Media, November 28.
Guttieri, Karen, and Piombo, Jessica, eds., 2007, Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy? (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace Press).Google Scholar
Guzman, Andrew T., 2008, How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory (Oxford, U.K. and New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., 2005, “Trading Human Rights: How Preferential Trade Agreements Influence Government Repression,” International Organization, 59, 3: 593629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., 2013, Making Human Rights a Reality (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, John R., 1994, “Memo ‘Your Meeting with Guatemalan Foreign Minister Maritza De Vielman’ from John R. Hamilton (State) to Alexander F. Watson,” September 20, Case ID 951222A9, Document No. E4104, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Handel, Shafick Jorge, 1984, “Analisis De La Situacion Politico-Militar Hecho Por El Miembro De La Comandancia General Del FMLN,” Box 3, El Salvador, Salvadoran Subject Collection (1976–1994), Hoover Institution Archives.
Handel, Schafik Jorge, 1988, “Salvadoran Guerrilla Letter to POTUS,” December 8, 1 pp., Box No. CF00196B1, Latin American Directorate Files, Bush Presidential Records.
Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt, 2014, “Ballots and Blue Helmets,” Institut for Statskundskab, Copenhagen, Unpublished paper.
Happold, Tom, 2004, “Sinn Fein Leaders Face Pay Cuts,” The Guardian, April 20.
Harbom, Lotta, Högbladh, Stina, and Wallensteen, Peter, 2006, “Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements,” Journal of Peace Research, 43, 5: 617631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harbom, Lotta and Wallensteen, Peter, 2010, “Armed Conflict, 1946–2009,” Journal of Peace Research, 47, 4: 501509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harish, S.P., and Little, Andrew T., Forthcoming, “The Political Violence Cycle,” American Political Science Review.
Hartlyn, Jonathan, and McCoy, Jennifer L., 2001, “Elections with ‘Adjectives’ in Contemporary Latin America: A Comparative Analysis,” Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington D.C., September 6–8.
Hartzell, Caroline A., Hoddie, Matthew, and Rothchild, Donald, 2001, “Stabilizing the Peace after Civil War: An Investigation of Some Key Variables,” International Organization, 55, 1: 183208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartzell, Caroline A., and Hoddie, Matthew, 2003, “Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management,” American Journal of Political Science, 47, 2: 318332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartzell, Caroline A. and Hoddie, Matthew, 2007, Crafting Peace: Power-Sharing Institutions and the Negotiated Settlement of Civil Wars (University Park, P.A.: Pennsylvania State University).Google Scholar
Hartzell, Caroline A., and Hoddie, Matthew, 2015, “The Art of the Possible: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Democracy,” World Politics, 67, 1: 3771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heard, John, 1999, “Guatemala Demobilization and Incorporation Program: An Evaluation Prepared for the Office of Transition Initiatives, Bureau for Humanitarian Response, US Agency for International Development,” January.
Hegre, Havard, Nygard, Havard Mokleiv, Strand, Havard, Gates, Scott, and Flaten, Ranveig D., 2011, “The Conflict Trap,” Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Seattle, W.A., September 1–4.
Hernandez, Carolina G., 1996, “The Philippines in 1995: Growth Amid Challenges,” Asian Survey, 36, 2: 142151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hernandez, Carolina G, 1997, “The Philippines in 1996: A House Finally in Order?Asian Survey, 37, 2: 204211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heston, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina, 2011, “Penn World Table,” 7.0 edition, Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices, University of Pennsylvania.
Hillen, John, 2000, Blue Helmets: The Strategy of UN Military Operations (Dulles, V.A.: Potomac Books Inc.).Google Scholar
Hoddie, Matthew and Hartzell, Caroline A., 2003, “Civil War Settlements and the Implementation of Military Power-Sharing Arrangements,” Journal of Peace Research, 40, 3: 303320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Högbladh, Stina, 2012, “Peace Agreements 1975–2011 – Updating the UCDP Peace Agreement Dataset.” In Pettersson, Therése and Themnér, Lotta, eds., States in Armed Conflict 2011, Department of Peace and Conflict Research Report 99, Uppsala University, Uppsala: 3956.Google Scholar
Hopmann, P. Terrence, 1988, “Negotiating Peace in Central America,” Negotiation Journal, 4, 4: 361380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, Donald L., 1991, A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society (Berkeley, C.A.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
Howard, Lise Morjé, 2008, UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
Howard, Marc Morjé and Roessler, Philip G., 2006, “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes,” American Journal of Political Science, 50, 2: 365381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, Reyko, 2016, The Wartime Origins of Democratization: Civil War, Rebel Governance, and Political Regimes (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hultquist, Philip, 2013, “Power Parity and Peace? The Role of Relative Power in Civil War Settlement,” Journal of Peace Research, 50, 5: 623634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hultman, Lisa, Kathman, Jacob, and Shannon, Megan, 2014, “Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting,” American Political Science Review, 108, 4: 737753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hultman, Lisa, Kathman, Jacob, and Shannon, Megan, 2016, “United Nations Peacekeeping Dynamics and the Duration of Post-Civil Conflict Peace,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 33, 3: 231249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Watch, 1994, “Human Rights Watch World Report 1994 – El Salvador,” January 1.
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy M., 2007, “Demobilization and Reintegration,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51, 4: 531567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P., 1991, The Third Wave: Democracy in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, O.K.: University of Oklahoma Press).Google Scholar
Hyde, Susan D., 2007, “The Observer Effect in International Politics: Evidence from a Natural Experiment,” World Politics, 60, 1: 3763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, Susan D., 2010, “Experimenting in Democracy Promotion: International Observers and the 2004 Presidential Elections in Indonesia,” Perspectives on Politics, 8, 2: 511527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, Susan D., 2011a, “Catch Us If You Can: Election Monitoring and International Norm Diffusion,” American Journal of Political Science, 55, 2: 356369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, Susan D., 2011b, The Pseudo-Democrat’s Dilemma: Why Election Observation Became an International Norm (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, Susan D. and Marinov, Nikolay, 2012, “Which Elections Can Be Lost?,” Political Analysis, 20, 2: 191201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, Susan D. and Marinov, Nikolay, 2014, “Information and Self-Enforcing Democracy: The Role of International Election Observation,” International Organization, 68, 2: 329359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikenberry, G. John, Mastanduno, Michael, and Wohlforth, William C., eds., 2011, International Relations Theory and the Consequences of Unipolarity (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Court of Justice, 1986, “Case Concerning the Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua V. United States of America),” June 27.
InterPress Service, 1994, “URNG Asks for UN Participation in Peace Talks,” January 26, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: The Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://pudl.princeton.edu/objects/p5547s24n.
Inter-Parliamentary Union, 1995, “Guatemala: Parliamentary Chamber: Congreso de la República.”
Irvin, Cynthia L., 1999, Militant Nationalism: Between Movement and Party in Ireland and the Basque Country (Minneapolis, M.N.: University of Minnesota Press).Google Scholar
Jakobsen, Peter Viggo, 1996, “National Interest, Humanitarianism or CNN: What Triggers UN Peace Enforcement after the Cold War?,” Journal of Peace Research 33, 2: 205215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarstad, Anna K., 2006, “The Logic of Power Sharing after Civil War,” Unpublished paper presented at the Power-sharing and Democratic Governance in Divided Society, Center for the Study of Civil War, PRIO, Oslo, August 21–22.
Jarstad, Anna K., 2008, “Dilemmas of War-to-Democracy Transitions: Theories and Concepts.” In Jarstad, Anna K. and Sisk, Timothy D., ed., From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 1736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Harold J., 1993, “El Salvador: Status of Reconstruction Activities One Year after the Peace Agreement, 1993,” Statement before Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., March 23.
Jonas, Susanne, 1996, “Dangerous Liaisons: The US In Guatemala,” Foreign Policy, 103: 144160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonas, Susanne, 2000a, “Democratization through Peace: The Difficult Case of Guatemala,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 42, 4: 938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonas, Susanne, 2000b, Of Centaurs and Doves: Guatemala’s Peace Process (Boulder, C.O.: Westview Press).Google Scholar
Joshi, Madhav and Mason, T. David, 2011, “Civil War Settlements, Size of Governing Coalition, and Durability of Peace in Post–Civil War States,” International Interactions, 37, 4: 388413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. and Balcells, Laia, 2010, “International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict,” American Political Science Review, 104, 3: 415429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karl, Terry Lynn, 1985, “After La Palma: The Prospects for Democratization in El Salvador,” World Policy Journal, 2, 2: 305330.Google Scholar
Karl, Terry Lynn, 1990, “Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America,” Comparative Politics, 23, 1: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karl, Terry Lynn, 1992, “El Salvador’s Negotiated Revolution,” Foreign Affairs, 71, 2: 147164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karl, Terry Lynn and Herman, Edward S., 1985, “El Salvador after La Palma,” World Policy Journal, 2, 3: 587592.Google Scholar
Katayanagi, Mari, 2002, Human Rights Functions of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).Google Scholar
Kecskemeti, Paul, 1957, Strategic Surrender: The Politics of Victory and Defeat (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Kelley, Judith G., 2008, “Assessing the Complex Evolution of Norms: The Rise of International Election Monitoring,” International Organization, 62, 2: 221255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Judith G., 2009, “D-Minus Elections: The Politics and Norms of International Elections Observation,” International Organization, 63, 4: 733764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Judith G., 2012, Monitoring Democracy: When International Election Observation Works, and Why It Often Fails (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O., 1984, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Kierkegaard, Ralph, 1994, “Confusion in the Jungle,” Guardian Weekly, May 1.
Knack, Stephen, 2004, “Does Foreign Aid Promote Democracy?,” International Studies Quarterly, 48, 1: 251266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D., 2004, “Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States,” International Security, 29, 2: 85120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D. and Risse, Thomas, 2014, “External Actors, State-Building, and Service Provision in Areas of Limited Statehood,” Governance, 27, 4: 545567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kreps, Sarah E., 2011, Coalitions of Convenience: United States Military Interventions after the Cold War (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kreutz, Joakim, 2010, “How and When Armed Conflicts End: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research, 47, 2: 243250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, Krishna, ed., 1998, Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
Kydd, Andrew, 2003, “Which Side Are You On? Bias, Credibility, and Mediation,” American Journal of Political Science, 47, 4: 597611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kydd, Andrew and Walter, Barbara, 2002, “Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence,” International Organization, 56, 2: 263296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacina, Bethany and Gleditsch, Nils Petter, 2005, “Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths,” European Journal of Population, 21, 2: 145166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacina, Bethany, Gleditsch, Nils Petter, and Russett, Bruce, 2006, “The Declining Risk of Death in Battle,” International Studies Quarterly, 50: 673680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lafraie, Najibullah, 2011, “Insurgency and Democratisation: Taliban Real Winners of Elections in Afghanistan,” Global Society, 25, 4: 469489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lake, David A. and Fariss, Christopher, 2014, “Why International Trusteeship Fails: The Politics of External Authority in Areas of Limited Statehood,” Governance, 27, 4: 569587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lake, David A. and Rothchild, Donald, 2005, “Territorial Decentralization and Civil War Settlements.” In Roeder, Philip G. and Rothchild, Donald S., eds., Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil Wars (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press): 109132.Google Scholar
Le Billon, Philippe, 2001, “Angola’s Political Economy of War: The Role of Oil and Diamonds, 1975–2000,” African Affairs, 100, 398: 5580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebovic, James H. and Voeten, Erik, 2009, “The Cost of Shame: International Organizations and Foreign Aid in the Punishing of Human Rights Violators,” Journal of Peace Research, 46, 1: 7997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebow, Richard N. and Risse, Thomas, 1995, International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War (New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
Leffler, Melvyn P. and Legro, Jeffrey W., eds., 2011, In Uncertain Times: American Foreign Policy after the Berlin Wall and 9/11 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legro, Jeffrey, 2005, Rethinking the World: Great Power Strategies and International Order (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Lehoucq, Fabrice Edouard, 1995, “The Election of 1994 in El Salvador,” Electoral Studies, 14, 2: 178183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leiras, Marcelo, Tuñón, Guadalupe, and Giraudy, Agustina, 2015, “Who Wants an Independent Court? Political Competition and Supreme Court Autonomy in the Argentine Provinces (1984-2008),” The Journal of Politics, 77, 1: 175187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeMoyne, James, 1992, “Out of the Jungle – in El Salvador, Rebels with a New Cause,” New York Times, February 9.
LeoGrande, William M., 1998, “Foreign Aid to Central America: Is the Era of Aid Over?.” In Grant, Richard and Nijman, Jan, eds., Global Crisis in Foreign Aid (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press): 103112.Google Scholar
LeVine, Mark, 1997, “Peacemaking in El Salvador.” In Doyle, Michael W., Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, Robert C., eds., Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 227255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levite, Ariel E., Jentleson, Bruce W., and Berman, Larry, eds., 1992, Foreign Military Intervention: The Dynamics of Protracted Conflict (New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A., 2010, Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Licklider, Roy, 1995, “The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945–1993,” American Political Science Review, 89, 3: 681690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Licklider, Roy, 2006, “Democracy and the Renewal of Civil Wars.” In Starr, Harvey, ed., Approaches, Levels and Methods of Analysis in International Politics: Crossing Boundaries (Hampshire, U.K.: Palgrave Macmillan): 95116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lijphart, Arend, 1968, The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands (Berkeley, C.A.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend, 1984, Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend, 1989, “Democratic Political Systems: Types, Cases, Causes, and Consequences,” Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1, 1: 3348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindberg, Steffan I., 2006, Democracy and Elections in Africa (Baltimore, M.D.: The Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
Liotta, P.H. and Jebb, Cindy, 2004, Mapping Macedonia: Idea and Identity (Westport, C.T.: Praeger Publishers).Google Scholar
Lo, Nigel, Hashimoto, Barry, and Reiter, Dan, 2008, “Ensuring Peace: Foreign-Imposed Regime Change and Postwar Peace Duration, 1914–2001,” International Organization, 62, 4: 717736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lujala, Päivi, Rød, Jan Ketil, and Thieme, Nadia, 2007, “Fighting over Oil: Introducing a New Dataset,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, 24, 3: 239256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lust-Okar, Ellen, 2005, Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lust-Okar, Ellen, 2008, “Competitive Clientalism in Jordanian Elections.” In Lust-Okar, Ellen and Zerhouni, Saloua, eds., Political Participation in the Middle East and North Africa (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 7594.Google Scholar
Lyons, Terrence, 2002a, “Postconflict Elections: War Termination, Democratization, and Demilitarizing Politics,” Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 2.
Lyons, Terrence, 2002b, “The Role of Postsettlement Elections.” In Rothchild, Donald, Stedman, Stephen, and Cousens, Elizabeth, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publications): 215236.Google Scholar
Lyons, Terrence, 2004, “Post-Conflict Elections and the Process of Demilitarizing Politics: The Role of Electoral Administration,” Democratization, 11, 3: 3662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyons, Terrence, 2005, Demilitarizing Politics: Elections on the Uncertain Road to Peace (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
Lyons, Terrence, 2016, “The Importance of Winning: Victorious Insurgent Groups and Authoritarian Politics,” Comparative Politics, 48, 2: 167184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mack, Andrew, ed., 2014, Human Security Report 2013: The Decline in Global Violence: Evidence, Explanation, and Contestation (Vancouver, B.C.: Human Security Research Group).Google Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz, 2008, Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
Maharaj, Mac, 2008, “The ANC and South Africa’s Negotiated Transition to Democracy and Peace.” In Dudouet, Véronique and Giessmann, Hans J., eds., Berghof Transition Series: Resistance/Liberation Movements and Transition to Politics, Berghof Conflict Research, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
Mahoney, James, 2010, “After KKV: The New Methodology of Qualitative Research,” World Politics 62, 1: 120147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, Carrie, 2004, “Armed Opposition Groups into Political Parties: Comparing Bosnia, Kosovo, and Mozambique,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 39, 1: 5476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, Carrie, 2008, The Making of Democrats: Elections and Party Development in Postwar Bosnia, El Salvador, and Mozambique (New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, Carrie and Malbrough, Monica, 2010, “Bilateral Donors and Aid Conditionality in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: The Case of Mozambique,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 48, 1: 143169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, Carrie, and Smith, Ian, 2016, “Political Party Formation by Former Armed Opposition Groups after Civil War,” Democratization 23, 6: 972989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D. and Snyder, Jack, 1995, “Democratization and the Danger of War,” International Security, 20, 1: 538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D. and Snyder, Jack, 2002, “Incomplete Democratization and the Outbreak of Military Disputes,” International Studies Quarterly, 46, 4: 529549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D. and Snyder, Jack, 2005, Electing to Fight: Why Emerging Democracies Go to War (Boston, M.A.: MIT Press).Google Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V., and Rosendorff, B. Peter, 2002, “Why Democracies Cooperate More: Electoral Control and International Trade,” International Organization, 56, 3: 477513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marinov, Nikolay, 2004, “Do Sanctions Help Democracy? The US and EU’s Record, 1977–2004,” Center for Democracy, Development and Rule of Law: Stanford Institute for International Studies, Working Paper no. 28, November 2.
Marinov, Nikolay, 2005, “Do Economic Sanctions Destabilize Country Leaders?,” American Journal of Political Science, 49, 3: 564576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Michael Christopher and Ishiyama, John, 2016, “Does Political Inclusion of Rebel Parties Promote Peace after Civil Conflict?,” Democratization 23, 6: 10091025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, T. David, Gurses, Mehmet, Brandt, Patrick T., and Quinn, Jason Michael, 2011, “When Civil Wars Recur: Conditions for Durable Peace after Civil Wars,” International Studies Perspectives, 12, 2: 171189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, T. David and Fett, Patrick J., 1996, “How Civil Wars End: A Rational Choice Approach,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40, 4: 546568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mastanduno, Michael, and Kapstein, Ethan B., eds., 1999, Unipolar Politics: Realism and State Strategies after the Cold War (New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
Matanock, Aila M., 2012, “International Insurance: Why Militant Groups and Governments Compete with Ballots Instead of Bullets.” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
Matanock, Aila M., 2014, “Governance Delegation Agreements: Shared Sovereignty as a Substitute for Limited Statehood,” Governance, 27, 4: 589612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matanock, Aila M., 2016a, “External Engagement: Explaining the Spread of Electoral Participation Provisions in Civil Conflict Settlements,” University of California, Berkeley, Unpublished paper.
Matanock, Aila M., 2016b, “Using Violence, Seeking Votes: Introducing the rebel Group Electoral Participation (MGEP) Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research, 53, 6: 845853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matanock, Aila M., 2017, “Bullets for Ballots: Electoral Participation Provisions and Enduring Peace after Civil Conflict,” International Security, 41, 4: 93132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matanock, Aila M. and Garbiras-Díaz, Natalia, 2016, “Running Candidates after Using Violence? Evidence on a Possible Path to Peace from a Survey Experiment in Colombia,” University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, C.A., Unpublished paper.
Matanock, Aila M. and Lichtenheld, Adam G., 2016, “How Does International Intervention Work? Mechanisms for Securing Settlements to Civil Conflicts,” University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, C.A., Unpublished paper.
Mattes, Michaela and Savun, Burcu, 2009, “Fostering Peace after Civil War: Commitment Problems and Agreement Design,” International Studies Quarterly, 53, 3: 737759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattes, Michaela and Savun, Burcu, 2010, “Information, Agreement Design, and the Durability of Civil War Settlements,” American Journal of Political Science, 54, 2: 511524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayall, James, ed., 1996, The New Interventionism 1991–1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAuley, Richard., 2009, Author Interview, Belfast, North Ireland, July 28.
McCleary, Rachel M., 1997, “Guatemala’s Postwar Prospects,” Journal of Democracy, 8, 2: 129143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCormick, David H., 1997, “From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding: Restructuring Military and Police Institutions in El Salvador.” In Doyle, Michael W., Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, Robert C., eds., Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 282311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCoy, Jennifer L., 1993, “Mediating Democracy: A New Role for International Actors?.” In Bruce, David, ed., New World Order: Social and Economic Implications (Atlanta, G.A.: Georgia State University Business Press): 129140.Google Scholar
McCoy, Jennifer L., Garbar, Larry, and Pastor, Robert A., 1991, “Pollwatching and Peacemaking,” Journal of Democracy, 2, 4: 102114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCullogh, G., 1990, “Assistant Secretary’s Daily Activity Report,” November 19, Case ID 95122244, Document No. E1714, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
McFaul, Michael, 1989, “Rethinking the ‘Reagan Doctrine’ in Angola,” International Security, 14, 3: 99135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McFaul, Michael, 2010, Advancing Democracy Abroad: Why We Should and How We Can (Stanford, C.A.: Hoover Institution and Lanham, M.D.: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers).Google Scholar
McGarry, John, 1998, “Political Settlements in Northern Ireland and South Africa,” Political Studies, 46, 5: 853870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mejía, Carlos, 2013, Author Interview, Guatemala City, Guatemala, August 20.
Milner, Helen V. and Tingley, Dustin H, 2016, Sailing the Water’s Edge: The Domestic Politics of American Foreign Policy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Mohsin, Amena, 2003, The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: On the Difficult Road to Peace (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
Montgomery, Tommie Sue, 1998, “International Elections, Observing Elections, and the Democratic Transition in El Salvador.” In Middlebrook, Kevin, ed., Electoral Observation and Democratic Transitions in Latin America (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 115140.Google Scholar
Morrison, Daniel “Danny,” 2009, Author Interview, Belfast, North Ireland, July 23.
Morrow, James D., 2007, “When Do States Follow the Laws of War?,” American Political Science Review, 101, 3: 559572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, Bumba, 2006, “Why Political Power-Sharing Agreements Lead to Enduring Peaceful Resolution of Some Civil Wars, but Not Others?,” International Studies Quarterly, 50, 2: 479504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mullenbach, Mark J., and Dixon, William. 2007, Third-Party Peacekeeping Missions: 1946–2006, Version 2.1. Codebook (Conway: University of Central Arkansas).Google Scholar
Mullins, Janet G., 1991, “Information Copy of a Direct Reply, Re: Urges the President to Uphold the Congressional Decision to Freeze Military Aid to El Salvador,” September 10, 2pp., Box No. CO046, 101116–243988, Bush Presidential Records.
Munck, Gerardo L., 1993, “Beyond Electoralism in El Salvador: Conflict Resolution through Negotiated Compromise,” Third World Quarterly, 14, 1: 7593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Democratic Institute, 2002, “Macedonia: Parliamentary Elections, September 2002,” Election Watch Report, Washington, D.C., August 15.
National Network in Solidarity with the People of Guatemala (U.S.), 1993, “Peace Process: Background and Current Status of Peace Negotiations,” January 31, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://pudl.princeton.edu/objects/w9505134d.
National Security Council, 1989a, “Andean Drug Summit.” In Evans, Michael, “War in Columbia: Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in US-Colombia Policy, 1988–2002,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 69, November 1.
National Security Council, 1989b, “Interagency Working Group Draft: Security for Narcotics Control in the Andean Region.” In Evans, Michael, “War in Columbia: Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in US-Colombia Policy, 1988–2002,” National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 69, June 30.
Natsios, Andrew S., 2006, “USAID Primer: What We Do and How We Do It,” U.S. Aid Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June.
Navarro Wolff, Antonio, 2012, Author Interview (Telephone), July 9.
Navarro Wolff, Antonio, 2012, Author Interview (Email), 12 July.
Nielsen, Richard A., Findley, Michael G., Davis, Zachary S., Candland, Tara, and Nielson, Daniel L., 2011, “Foreign Aid Shocks as a Cause of Violent Armed Conflict,” American Journal of Political Science, 55, 2: 219232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, Richard A. and Simmons, Beth A., 2015, “Rewards for Ratification: Payoffs for Participating in the International Human Rights Regime?,” International Studies Quarterly, 59, 2: 197208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niksch, Larry, 2002, “Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-US Anti-Terrorism Cooperation.” CRS Report for Congress, ed., Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., Order Code RL31265, January 25.
Nilsson, Desirée, 2008, “Partial Peace: Rebel Groups Inside and Outside of Civil War Settlements,” Journal of Peace Research, 45, 4: 479495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Pippa, 2004, Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Pippa, 2008, Driving Democracy: Do Power-Sharing Institutions Work? (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nuvunga, Adriano, 2007, Post-War Reconstruction in Mozambique: The United Nations’ Trust Fund to Assist the Former Rebel Movement RENAMO (Maputo, Mozambique: Centro de Integridade Publica (CIP)).Google Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo, and Schmitter, Philippe C., 1986, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies (Baltimore, M.D.: Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
Ofuho, Cirino Hiteng, 2006, “Negotiating Peace: Restarting a Moribund Process,” Issue 8. In Simmons, Mark and Dixon, Peter, eds., Peace by Piece: Addressing Sudan’s Conflict (London, U.K.: Conciliation Resources): 2021.Google Scholar
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 2010, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: General Elections, 3 October 2010,” Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Warsaw, Poland, December 17.
Organization of American States, 1993, “The On-Site Visits of the IACHR to Colombia, 1990–1992,” Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
Ossa Escobar, Carlos, 1998, “El Gobierno Barco Revelo La Magnitud Del Conflicto Y La Dificultad De Lograr La Paz.” In Serie El Proceso De Paz En Colombia 1982–2002 (Bogotá: Fundación Cultura Democrática): Volume II.Google Scholar
Oswald, Bruce, Durham, Helen, and Bates, Adrian, 2010, Documents on the Law of UN Peace Operations (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
O’Toole, Kathleen, 1997, “Why Peace Agreements Often Fail to End Civil Wars,” Stanford Online Report, November 19.
Ottaway, Marina, 1997, “From Political Opening to Democratization?.” In Ottaway, Marina, ed., Democracy in Africa. The Hard Road Ahead (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 114.Google Scholar
Ottaway, Marina, 1998, “Angola’s Failed Elections.” In Kuman, Krishna, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 133151.Google Scholar
Ottaway, Marina, 2003, “Promoting Democracy after Conflict: The Difficult Choices,” International Studies Perspectives, 4, 3: 314322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pardew, James, 2011, Author Interview (Telephone), April 20.
Pardo Rueda, Rafael, 1998, “Política De Paz, Acuerdo Con El M-19 Y Reactivación De Los Diálogos.” In Serie El Proceso De Paz En Colombia 1982–2002 (Bogotá: Fundación Cultura Democrática): Volume 2.Google Scholar
Paris, Roland, 2004, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pascoe, William, 1987, “Mozambique Merits the Reagan Doctrine,” Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 31.
Peceny, Mark and Stanley, William, 2001, “Liberal Social Reconstruction and the Resolution of Civil Wars in Central America,” International Organization, 55, 1: 149182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peic, Goran and Reiter, Dan, 2011, “Foreign-Imposed Regime Change, State Power and Civil War Onset, 1920–2004,” British Journal of Political Science, 41, 3: 453475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peñaranda, Ricardo, 1999, “De Rebeldes a Ciudadanos: El Caso del Movimiento Armado Quintín Lame.” In Peñaranda, Ricardo and Guerrero, Javier, eds., De las Armas a la Política (Bogota: TM Editores): 75131.Google Scholar
Peou, Sorpong, 2004, “The UN’s Modest Impact on Cambodia’s Democracy.” In Rich, Roland and Newman, Edward, eds., UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality (Tokyo: United Nations University Press): 258281.Google Scholar
Pereira, Anthony W., 1994, “The Neglected Tragedy: The Return to War in Angola, 1992–3,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 32, 1: 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pevehouse, Jon C., 2002, “Democracy from the Outside-In? International Organizations and Democratization,” International Organization, 56, 3: 515549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pevehouse, Jon C., 2005, Democracy from Above? Regional Organizations and Democratization (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, John, 2004, Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Pickering, Paula M., 2004, “Explaining Moderation in Post-Communist Ethnic Party Systems: A Cross-National Investigation in the Balkans,” Unpublished paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual National Conference, Chicago, I.L., April 15–18.
Pop-Eleches, Grigore and Robertson, Graeme B., 2015, “Information, Elections, and Political Change,” Comparative Politics, 47, 4: 459495.Google Scholar
Powell, Robert, 2002, “Bargaining Theory and International Conflict,” Annual Review of Political Science 5: 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, Robert, 2006, “War as a Commitment Problem,” International Organization, 60, 1: 169204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prantl, Jochen, 2006, The UN Security Council and Informal Groups of States (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prendergast, Kieran, 1997, “Guatemala,” United Nations General Assembly, A/52/, October.
Prisk, Court and Manwaring, Max G., eds., 1988, El Salvador at War: An Oral History of Conflict from the 1979 Insurrection to the Present (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press).Google Scholar
Przeworski, Adam, 1991, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam, 2006, “Self-Enforcing Democracy.” In Wittman, Donald and Weingast, Barry, eds., Oxford Handbook of Political Economy (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Purvis, Dawn, 2009, Author Interview, Belfast, North Ireland, July 28.
Quayle, Dan, 1989, “Vice President Quayle’s Remarks to the ESAF,” February 3, 5pp., Vice President Dan Quayle’s Office, Chief of Staff’s Office, Quayle Speech Files, Bush Presidential Records, White House Office of Records Management.
Quiroga, Jahel, 2009, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, December 11.
Reid, Michael, 1992, “Award Spotlights Longest War: Talks between Government and Guerrillas in the Country Are Stalled,” The Guardian, October 17.
Reid, Michael, 1993, “Guatemalan Army Opts for Democratic Dawn: A New Spirit of Consensus Shows That in Central America Regression to Dictatorship Is Not Inevitable,” The Guardian, June 21.
Reilly, Benjamin, 2002, “Post-Conflict Elections: Constraints and Dangers,” International Peacekeeping, 9, 2: 118139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin and Reynolds, Andrew, 1999, Electoral Systems and Conflict in Divided Societies (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press).Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin and Nordlund, Per, eds., 2008, Political Parties in Conflict-Prone Societies: Regulation, Engineering and Democratic Development (Tokyo: United Nations University Press).Google Scholar
Reiter, Dan, 2003, “Exploring the Bargaining Model of War,” Perspectives on Politics, 1, 1: 2743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rice, Condoleezza, 2013, Author Interview, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, May 28.
Riley, Kevin Jack, 1993, The Implications of Colombian Drug Industry and Death Squad Political Violence for US Counternarcotics Policy (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Robberson, Tod, 1993, “Vanguard of Guatemalan Refugees Returns from Exile,” The Washington Post, January 21.
Roca, Roberto, Handal, Shafik, González, Leonel, Cienfuegos, Fermán, and Villalobos, Joaquín, 1989, “FMLN Proposal to Turn the Elections into a Contribution to Peace,” Envio, January 24.
Rohter, Larry, 1997, “Salvador’s Ex-Rebels Expect Gains in Vote Today,” The New York Times, March 16, Section 1, Page 8.
Rojas Puyo, Alberto, 2009, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, December 3.
Romero, P., 1990, “Assistant Secretary’s Daily Activity Report,” March 16, Case ID 95122234, Document No. E1290, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Romero, P., 1991, “Tying ESF to Human Rights in Guatemala – Status and Possible Calls to the Hill,” April 5, Case ID 96122251, Document No. E1972, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Romero, Peter F., 1989. “Information Copy of a Direct Reply, Re: Writes Concerning Repression and Violation of Human Rights of El Salvador Women since March 19, 1989,” May 17, 2pp., Box No. CO046, 002807–094748, Bush Presidential Records, White House Office of Records Management.
Rosa, Herman and Foley, Michael, 2000, “El Salvador.” In Forman, Shepard and Patrick, Stewart, eds., Good Intentions: Pledges of Aid for Postconflict Recovery (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 113158.Google Scholar
Ross, Michael L., 2011, “Oil and Gas Production and Value, 1932–2009,” http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/15828, Harvard Dataverse, Version 4.
Rothchild, Donald and Hartzell, Caroline, 1995, “Interstate and Intrastate Negotiations in Angola.” In Zartman, I. William, ed., Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution): 175203.Google Scholar
Ruggeri, Andrea, Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene, and Dorussen, Han. 2013. “Managing Mistrust: An Analysis of Cooperation with U.N. Peacekeeping in Africa,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57, 3: 387409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roy, J. Stapleton, 1991, “J. Stapleton Roy to Brent Scowcroft, Re: Presidential Delegation for Elections in El Salvador,” February 2, 2pp. Box No. 07004–069, Personnel Office, Katja Bullock Files, Bush Presidential Records.
Russett, Bruce M. and Oneal, John R., 1997, “The Classical Liberals Were Right: Democracy, Interdependence, and Conflict, 1950–1985,” International Studies Quarterly, 41, 2: 267293.Google Scholar
Russett, Bruce M. and Oneal, John R., 2000, Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations (New York, N.Y.: Norton).Google Scholar
Salvesen, Hilde, 2002, “Guatemala: Five Years after the Peace Accords, The Challenges of Implementing Peace,” A Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway, March.
Sambanis, Nicholas and Schulhofer-Wohl, Jonah, 2007, “Evaluating Multilateral Interventions in Civil Wars: A Comparison of UN and Non-UN Peace Operations.” In Bourantonis, Dimitris, Ifantis, Kostas, and Tsakonas, Panayotis, eds., Multilateralism and Security Institutions in an Era of Globalization (London, U.K.: Routledge): 252287.Google Scholar
Sambanis, Nicholas, 2000, “Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the Theoretical Literature,” World Politics, 52, 4: 437483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, Lewis IV, 2016, “EU Cuts Financial Aid to Burundi Government,” Deutsche Welle, March 14.
Santa-Cruz, Arturo, 2005, “Constitutional Structures, Sovereignty, and the Emergence of Norms: The Case of International Election Monitoring,” International Organization, 59, 3: 663694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santa-Cruz, Arturo, 2013, International Election Monitoring Sovereignty and the Western Hemisphere Idea: The Emergence of an International Norm (New York, N.Y. and Oxford, U.K.: Routledge).Google Scholar
Santiso, Carlos, 2002, “Promoting Democratic Governance and Preventing the Recurrence of Conflict: The Role of the United Nations Development Programme in Post-Conflict Peace-Building,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 34, 3: 555586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schedler, Andreas, 2002, “The Menu of Manipulation,” Journal of Democracy, 13, 2: 3650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C., 1960, The Strategy of Conflict (Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C., 1966, Arms and Influence (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Schraeder, Peter J., Hook, Steven W., and Taylor, Bruce, 1998, “Clarifying the Foreign Aid Puzzle: A Comparison of American, Japanese, French, and Swedish Aid Flows,” World Politics, 50, 2: 294323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schultz, Kenneth A., 2010, “The Enforcement Problem in Coercive Bargaining: Interstate Conflict over Rebel Support in Civil Wars,” International Organization, 64, 2: 281312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schumpeter, Joseph, 1942, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (New York, N.Y.: Harper).Google Scholar
Schwarz, Benjamin C., 1991, American Counterinsurgency Doctrine and El Salvador: The Frustrations of Reform and the Illusion of Nation Building (Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND Corporation).Google Scholar
Scott, James M. and Steele, Carie A., 2005, “Assisting Democrats or Resisting Dictators? The Nature and Impact of Democracy Support by the United States National Endowment for Democracy, 1990–99,” Democratization, 12, 4: 439460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Kirsty, 1995, “Cry, the Benighted Country. Image Makers Mask Brutality,” The Herald, November 4.
Sharpe, Kenneth E., 1986, “El Salvador Revisited: Why Duarte Is in Trouble,” World Policy Journal, 3, 3: 473494.Google Scholar
Shugart, Matthew Soberg, 1992, “Guerrillas and Elections: An Institutionalist Perspective on the Costs of Conflict and Competition,” International Studies Quarterly, 36, 2: 121151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sichar Moreno, Gonzalo, 1999, Historia De Los Partidos Políticos Guatemaltecos: Distintas Siglas De (Casi) Una Misma Ideología (Guatemala: Editorial Los Altos).Google Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., 1998, “Compliance with International Agreements,” American Political Science Review, 1: 7593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., 2009, Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., 2010, “Treaty Compliance and Violation,” Annual Review of Political Science, 13: 273296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey, 2006, “Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism,” International Organization, 60, 4: 781810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A. and Elkins, Zachary, 2004, “The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy,” American Political Science Review, 98, 1: 171189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpser, Alberto and Donno, Daniela, 2012, “Can International Election Monitoring Harm Governance?,” The Journal of Politics, 74, 2: 501513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpser, Alberto, 2013, Why Governments and Parties Manipulate Elections: Theory, Practice, and Implications (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mark, Simpson, 1993, “Foreign and Domestic Factors in the Transformation of Frelimo,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 31, 2: 309337.Google Scholar
Singer, J. David, Bremer, Stuart, and Stuckey, John, 1972, “Capability Distribution, Uncertainty, and Major Power War, 1820–1965.” In Russett, Bruce, ed., Peace, War, and Numbers (Beverly Hills, C.A.: Sage): 1948. Version 4.Google Scholar
Smale, Alison, 2014, “Roots of Bosnian Protests Lie in Peace Accords of 1995,” The New York Times, February 14.
Snyder, Jack, 2000, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Violence (New York, N.Y.: W. W. Norton and Company).Google Scholar
Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi, 2007, “From Rebellion to Politics: The Transformation of Rebel Groups to Political Parties in Civil War Peace Processes,” Ph.D. dissertation, Uppsala University.
Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi, 2008, “When Rebels Change Their Stripes: Armed Insurgents in Post-War Politics.” In Jarstad, Anna and Sisk, Timothy, eds., From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press): 134156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi, and Hatz, Sophia, 2016, “Rebel-to-Party Transformations in Civil War Peace Processes 1975–2011,” Democratization 23, 6: 9901008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spence, Jack, 2005, “Central America and Political Terrorism.” In Crotty, William J., ed., Democratic Development and Political Terrorism: The Global Perspective (Lebanon, N.H.: University Press of New England): 473498.Google Scholar
Staniland, Paul, 2015, “Armed Groups and Militarized Elections,” International Studies Quarterly, 59, 4: 694705.Google Scholar
Stanley, William and Holiday, David, 1997, “Peace Mission Strategy and Domestic Actors: UN Mediation, Verification and Institution‐Building in El Salvador,” International Peacekeeping, 4, 2: 2249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanley, William and Holiday, David, 2002, “Broad Participation, Diffuse Responsibility: Peace Implementation in Guatemala.” In Rothchild, Donald, Stedman, Stephen J., and Cousens, Elizabeth M., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreement (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publications): 154 in pre-publication PDF provided.Google Scholar
Stanley, William, 2013, Enabling Peace in Guatemala: The Story of MINUGUA (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publications).Google Scholar
Stedman, Stephen J., 1997, “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes,” International Security, 22, 2: 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steele, Abbey, 2011, “Electing Displacement: Political Cleansing in Apartadó, Colombia,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55, 3: 423445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Steve, 1995, “Guatemala’s Blood Is on US Hands,” The Vancouver Sun, August 22.
Suhrke, Astri and Buckmaster, Julia, 2005, “Post-War Aid: Patterns and Purposes,” Development in Practice, 15, 6: 737746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suhrke, Astri, Villanger, Espen, and Woodward, Susan L., 2005, “Economic Aid to Post-Conflict Countries: A Methodological Critique of Collier and Hoeffler,” Conflict, Security and Development, 5, 3: 329361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sullivan, Joseph G., 1994, “How Peace Came to El Salvador,” Orbis, 38, 1: 8398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sumbeiywo, Lazaro, 2006, “The Mediator’s Perspective,” Issue 8. In Simmons, Mark and Dixon, Peter, eds., Peace by Piece: Addressing Sudan’s Conflict, Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, Conciliation Resources, London, U.K.: 2227.Google Scholar
Svensson, Isak, 2009, “Who Brings Which Peace?: Neutral versus Biased Mediation and Institutional Peace Arrangements in Civil Wars,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53, 3: 446469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svolik, Milan W., 2012, The Politics of Authoritarian Rule (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Themnér, Lotta and Wallensteen, Peter, 2012, “Armed Conflicts, 1946–2011,” Journal of Peace Research, 49, 4: 565575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, Michael J., Nielson, Daniel L., Hawkins, Darren G., Roberts, J. Timmons, Findley, Michael G., Powers, Ryan M., Parks, Bradley, Wilson, Sven E., and Hicks, Robert L., 2011, “More Dollars than Sense: Refining Our Knowledge of Development Finance Using AidData,” World Development, 39, 11: 18911906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, Monica Duffy, 2009, Securing the Peace: The Durable Settlement of Civil War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, Monica Duffy, 2010, “Ending Civil Wars: A Case for Rebel Victory?,” International Security, 34, 4: 736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tull, Denis M., 2006, “China’s Engagement in Africa: Scope, Significance and Consequences,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 44, 3: 459479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. Michael, Nelson, Sue, and Mahling-Clark, Kimberly, 1998, “Mozambique’s Vote for Democratic Governance.” In Kumar, Krishna, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, C.O.: Lynne Rienner Publishers): 153175.Google Scholar
Inge, Tvedten, 1992, “US Policy towards Angola since 1975,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 30, 1: 3152.Google Scholar
UNDP, Undated, “A Handbook on Working with Political Parties,” Democratic Governance Group, Bureau for Development Policy, United Nations Development Programme, New York, N.Y.
United Nations, 2006, The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peacekeeping (New York, N.Y.: United Nations Publications).
United Nations, 2008, 60 Years of United Nations Peacekeeping (New York, N.Y.: United Nations Publications).
United Nations General Assembly, 1999, “The Situation in Central America: Procedures for the Establishment of a Firm and Lasting Peace and Progress in Fashioning a Region of Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Development: United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala, Note by the Secretary-General,” A/54/688, December 21.
United Nations General Assembly, 2003, “Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala,” A/RES/57/161, January 28.
United Nations General Assembly, 2014, “Evaluation of the Implementation and Results of Protection of Civilians Mandates in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations,” Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, A/68787, March 7.
Upegui, Mario, 2009, Author Interview, Bogotá, Colombia, December 15.
URNG, 1985, “URNG: To the Guatemalan People,” September, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/v118rf32x.
URNG, 1986, “Message from the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity – URNG – to the 8th Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries,” August, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: The Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/bv73c119d.
URNG, 1987, “Proposal to the Guatemalan Government,” October 11, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/3n203z869.
URNG, 1990a, “For a New Guatemala, for Genuine Democratization and Development, for Progress and Peace,” August 25, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/w3763762j.
URNG, 1990b, “Statement about the Present Situation from the General Command of the URNG,” October 15, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/1n79h508w.
URNG, 1991, “The Actual Situation in the Negotiations Regarding the Topic of Human Rights,” December 9, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/9019s335t.
URNG, 1993a, “Making Room for the Truth in Guatemala: URNG High Command Briefing on the Current State of the Negotiations,” May 8, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/fb494919s.
URNG, 1993b, “Renew the Negotiations Process and Go Forward on the Basis of What Has Been Agreed To,” May 8, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/z890rv14b.
URNG, 1994a, “In Order for the Negotiations to Continue, Compliance with the Accords is Indispensable: Declaration of the General Command of the URNG,” August 12, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/t148fj080.
URNG, 1994b, “Vital Moment for Human Rights and the Negotiations Process,” April 19, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/fn106z80n.
URNG, 1995, “Future Must be Forged with Struggle and Decisiveness: Political Declaration of the General Command of the URNG,” October 31, Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/br86b435r.
URNG, Undated, “International Communique,” [possibly 1982 based on the context], Civil War, Society and Political Transition in Guatemala: the Guatemala News and Information Bureau Archive (1963–2000), Princeton University Digital Library, http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/76537211v.
USAID, 2009, “US Overseas Loans and Grants: Obligations and Loan Authorizations,” U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., CONG-R-0105, September 30.
Van Cott, Donna Lee, 2005, From Movements to Parties Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Evera, Stephen, 1997, Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Verstegen, Suzanne, 2000, “The Netherlands and Guatemala: Dutch Policies and Intervention in the Guatemalan Conflict and Peace,” Clingendael Institute, Conflict Policy Research Unit, The Hague, the Netherlands, December 1.
Vickers, George, 1992, “El Salvador: A Negotiated Revolution,” NACLA Report on the Americas, 25, 5: 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villalobos, Joaquín, 1989, “A Democratic Revolution for El Salvador,” Foreign Policy, 74: 103122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinegrad, Anna, 1998, “From Guerrillas to Politicians: The Transition of the Guatemalan Revolutionary Movement in Historical and Comparative Perspective.” In Sieder, Rachel, ed., Guatemala after the Peace Accords (London, U.K.: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London): 207227.Google Scholar
Vines, Alex, 1993, “One Hand Tied: Angola and the UN,” CIIR Briefing Paper, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London, U.K., June.
Voeten, Erik, 2005, “The Political Origins of the UN Security Council’s Ability to Legitimize the Use of Force,” International Organization, 59, 3: 527557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, William Graham, 1991, “Embassy, El Salvador to SECSTATE, Re: Cristiani Believes USG Meeting with FMLN Now Could Be Helpful,” December 20, 3pp., Box No. CF00196B2, Latin American Directorate Files, Bush Presidential Records.
Walter, Barbara F., 1997, “The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement,” International Organization, 51, 3: 335364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, Barbara F., 1999, “Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace,” International Security, 24, 1: 127155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, Barbara F., 2002, Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Walter, Barbara F., 2004, “Does Conflict Beget Conflict? Explaining Recurring Civil War,” Journal of Peace Research, 41, 3: 371388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, Barbara F., 2015, “Why Bad Governance Leads to Repeat Civil War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59, 7: 12421272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wantchekon, Leonard, 2004, “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy: A Theoretical Investigation,” American Political Science Review, 98, 1: 1733.Google Scholar
Watson, Alexander F., 1995, “United States Policy toward Guatemala,” Testimony before the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, 104th Congress, 1st Session, Hearing on Guatemala, Washington, D.C., April 5.
Washington Office on Latin America, 1990, “The Guatemalan Elections in Context,” September 24, Case ID 95122241, Document No. E1583, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Wedeen, Lisa, 2009, Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen (Chicago, I.L.: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
Weinberg, Leonard, Pedahzur, Ami, and Perliger, Arie, 2009, Political Parties and Terrorist Groups, 2nd ed. (New York, N.Y.: Routledge).Google Scholar
Weingast, Barry R., 1997, “The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law,” American Political Science Review, 91, 2: 245263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weingast, Barry R., 1996, “Off-the-Path Behavior: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Counterfactuals and Its Implications for Political and Historical Analysis.” In Tetlock, Philip E. and Belkin, Aaron, eds., Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press): 230243.Google Scholar
Werner, Suzanne, 1999, “The Precarious Nature of Peace: Resolving the Issues, Enforcing the Settlement, and Renegotiating the Terms,” American Journal of Political Science, 43, 3: 912934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitehead, Laurence, 1991, “The Imposition of Democracy.” In Lowenthal, Abraham F., ed., Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America (Baltimore, M.D.: The Johns Hopkins University Press): 356382.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, Tracy, 1993a, “Guatemala Leader Seizes Total Power,” Los Angeles Times, May 26.
Wilkinson, Tracy, 1993b, “More Salvador Officers Will Be Purged, Cristiani Says: Pressed from at Home and Abroad about Delays, the President Pledges to Fulfill Peace Pact,” Los Angeles Times, January 5.
Willetts, Peter, ed., 1996, “The Conscience of the World”: The Influence of Non-Governmental Organizations in the UN System (London, U.K.: Hurst).Google Scholar
Williams, Richard, 2012, “Using the Margins Command to Estimate and Interpret Adjusted Predictions and Marginal Effects,” The Stata Journal, 12, 2: 308331.Google Scholar
Willingham, P. and Kusnitz, L., 1994, “Guatemala: Peace Process,” November 17, Case ID 951222D0, Document No. E4779, Guatemala Declassification Project, U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act, U.S. Department of State.
Wood, Elisabeth J., 1995, “Agrarian Social Relations and Democratization: The Negotiated Resolution of the Civil War in El Salvador,” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
Wood, Elisabeth J., 2000, Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2002, Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach, 2nd ed (Cincinnati: Thomson/South-Western).Google Scholar
World Bank, 2011, World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank).
Wright, Joseph, 2008, “Do Authoritarian Institutions Constrain? How Legislatures Affect Economic Growth and Investment,” American Journal of Political Science, 52, 2: 322343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wurst, Jim, 1994, “Mozambique: Peace and More,” World Policy Journal, 11, 3: 7882.Google Scholar
Young, John, 2007, “Sudan IGAD Peace Process: An Evaluation,” Sudan Tribune, May 30.
Youngs, Richard, 2008, “What Has Europe Been Doing?,” Journal of Democracy, 19, 2: 160169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahar, Marie-Joelle, 1999, “Fanatics, Mercenaries, Brigands … And Politicians: Militia Decision-Making and Civil Conflict Resolution,” Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University.
Zartman, I. William, 1995, “Negotiating the South African Conflict.” In Zartman, I. William, Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution): 147174.Google Scholar
Zartman, I. William, 1985, Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Zürcher, Christoph, 2011, “Building Democracy While Building Peace,” Journal of Democracy, 22, 1: 8195.Google Scholar