Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-27T06:32:54.462Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part III - Conservation and Management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2018

Grzegorz Mikusiński
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Jean-Michel Roberge
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Robert J. Fuller
British Trust for Ornithology, Norfolk
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Amar, A., Smith, K.W., Butler, S. et al. (2010) Recent patterns of change in vegetation structure and tree composition of British broadleaved woodland: Evidence from large-scale surveys. Forestry, 83, 345356.Google Scholar
Angelstam, P., Roberge, J.-M., Lõhmus, A. et al. (2004) Habitat modelling as a tool for landscape-scale conservation – a review of parameters for focal forest birds. Ecological Bulletins, 51, 427453.Google Scholar
Askins, R.A., Lynch, J.F. & Greenberg, R. (1990) Population declines in migratory birds in eastern North America. Current Ornithology, 7, 157.Google Scholar
Balmer, D.E., Gillings, S., Caffrey, B.J., Swann, R. L., Downie, I.S. & Fuller, R.J. (2013) Bird Atlas 2007–2011: The Breeding and Wintering Birds of Britain and Ireland. Thetford: BTO Books.Google Scholar
Barbet-Massin, M., Thuiller, W. & Jiguet, F. (2012) The fate of European breeding birds under climate, land-use and dispersal scenarios. Global Change Biology, 18, 881890.Google Scholar
Bastos, R., Santos, M., Ramos, J.A. et al. (2012) Testing a novel spatially-explicit dynamic modelling approach in the scope of the laurel forest management for the endangered Azores bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina) conservation. Biological Conservation, 147, 243254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batten, L.A. & Marchant, J.H. (1977) Bird population changes for the years 1965–75. Bird Study, 24, 5561.Google Scholar
Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D., Hill, D.A. & Mustoe, S.H. (2000) Bird Census Techniques (2nd ed.). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
BirdLife International (2013) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 21 January 2015.Google Scholar
BirdLife International (2015) European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
Blodget, B.G., Dettmetrs, R. & Scanlon, J. (2009) Status and trends of birds in an extensive Western Massachusetts Forest. Northeastern Naturalist, 16, 423422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Both, C., van Turnhout, C.A.M., Bijlsma, R.G., Siepel, H., Van Strien, A.J. & Foppen, R.P.B. (2010) Avian population consequences of climate change are most severe for long-distance migrants in seasonal habitats. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 277, 12591266.Google ScholarPubMed
Brommer, J.E., Lehikoinen, A. & Valkama, J. (2012) The breeding ranges of Central European and Arctic bird species move poleward. PLoS ONE 7(9), e43648.Google Scholar
Brooks, E.W. & Bonter, D.N. (2010) Long-term changes in avian community structure in a successional, forested, and managed plot in a reforesting landscape. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 122, 288295.Google Scholar
Bucher, E.H. (1992) The causes of extinction of the passenger pigeon. Current Ornithology, 9, 136.Google Scholar
Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B. et al. (2010) Global biodiversity: Indicators of recent declines. Science, 328, 11641168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, I.-C., Hill, J.K., Ohleműller, R., Roy, D.B. & Thomas, C. D. (2011) Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. Science, 333, 10241026.Google Scholar
Chollet, S. & Martin, J.-L. (2013) Declining woodland birds in North America: Should we blame Bambi? Diversity and Distribution, 19, 481483.Google Scholar
Crick, H.Q.P. (2004) The impact of climate change on birds. Ibis, 146 (Suppl. 1), 4856.Google Scholar
Devictor, V., Swaay, C., Brereton, T. et al. (2012) Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale. Nature Climate Change, 2, 121124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, E.H., Hobson, K.A., Wassanaar, L., Hussell, D.J.T. & Allan, M.L. (2006) Identification of summer origins of songbirds migrating through southern Canada in autumn. Avian Conservation and Ecology, 1(2), 4.Google Scholar
Edenius, L. & Meyer, C. (2002) Activity budgets and microhabitat use in the Siberian Jay Perisoreus infaustus in managed and unmanaged forest. Ornis Fennica, 79, 2633.Google Scholar
Eggers, S. & Low, M. (2014) Differential demographic responses of sympatric Parids to vegetation management in boreal forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 319, 169175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eglington, S.M., Julliard, R., Gargallo, G. et al. (2015) Latitudinal gradients in the productivity of European migrant warblers have not shifted northwards during a period of climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24, 427436.Google Scholar
Eglington, S.M. & Pearce-Higgins, J.W. (2012) Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends. PLoS ONE, 7, e30407.Google Scholar
European Bird Census Council (2015) Trends of common birds in Europe, 2015 update. Accessed 26 September 2015.Google Scholar
European Union (2015) Bird Directive article 12 reporting. Accessed 25 September 2015.Google Scholar
Fernández-Olalla, M., Martínez-Abraín, A., Canut, J., García-Ferré, D., Afonso, I. & González, L. M. (2012) Assessing different management scenarios to reverse the declining trend of a relict capercaillie population: A modelling approach within an adaptive management framework. Biological Conservation, 148, 7987.Google Scholar
Fonderflick, J., Caplat, P., Lovaty, F., Thévenot, M. & Prodon, R. (2010) Avifauna trends follow changes in a Mediterranean upland pastoral system. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 137, 337347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraixedas, S., Lehikoinen, A., Lindén, A. (2015a) Impact of climate and land use change on wintering bird populations in Finland. Journal of Avian Biology, 46, 6372.Google Scholar
Fraixedas, S., Lindén, A. & Lehikoinen, A. (2015b) Recent population trends of common breeding birds in southern Finland correspond with trends in forest management and climate change. Ornis Fennica, 92, 187203Google Scholar
Gil-Tena, A., Brotons, L. & Saura, S. (2009) Mediterranean forest dynamics and forest bird distribution changes in the late 20th century. Global Change Biology, 15, 474485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gregory, R.D., van Strien, A. J., Voříšek, P. et al. (2005) Developing indicators for European birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B, 360, 269288.Google Scholar
Gregory, R.D., Voříšek, P., Van Strien, A. et al. (2007) Population trends of widespread woodland birds in Europe. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 7897.Google Scholar
Gregory, R.D., Willis, S.G., Jiguet, F. et al. (2009) An indicator of the impact of climatic change on European bird populations. PLoS ONE 4 (3), e4678.Google Scholar
Griesser, M., Nystrand, M., Eggers, S. & Ekman, J. (2007) Impact of forestry on fitness correlates and population productivity in an open-nesting bird species. Conservation Biology, 21, 767774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J. (eds.) (1997) The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds: Their Distribution and Abundance. London: Poyser.Google Scholar
Haila, Y., Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R.A. (1980) Effects of changing forest structure on long-term trends in bird populations in SW Finland. Ornis Scandinavica, 11, 1222.Google Scholar
Hakkarainen, H., Mykrä, S., Kurki, S., Tornberg, R. & Jungell, S. (2004) Competitive interactions among raptors in boreal forests. Oecologia, 141, 420424.Google Scholar
Hautala, H., Jalonen, J., Laaka-Lindberg, S. & Vanha-Majamaa, I. (2004) Impacts of retention felling on coarse woody debris (CWD) in mature boreal spruce forests in Finland. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 15411554.Google Scholar
Herrando, S., Brotons, L., Anton, M. et al. (2015) Assessing impact of land abandonment on Mediterranean biodiversity using indicators based on bird and butterfly monitoring data. Environmental Conservation, DOI: 10.1017/S0376892915000260.Google Scholar
Hewson, C.M., Amar, A., Lindsell, J.A. et al. (2007) Recent changes in bird populations in British broadleaved woodland. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 1428.Google Scholar
Hewson, C.M. & Noble, D.G. (2009) Population trends of breeding birds British woodlands over a 32-year period: Relationships with food, habitat use and migratory behaviour. Ibis, 151, 464486.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Angulo, A. et al. (2010) The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science, 330, 15031509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holmes, R.T. & Sherry, T.W. (2001) Thirty-year bird population trends in a unfragmented temperate deciduous forest: Importance of habitat change. Auk, 118, 589609.Google Scholar
James, F.C., McCulloch, C. & Widenfeld, D.A. (1996) New approaches to the analysis of population trends in land birds. Ecology, 77, 1327.Google Scholar
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R.A. (1977) Recent quantitative changes in the populations of Finnish land birds. Polish Ecological Studies, 3, 177188.Google Scholar
Jiguet, F., Gregory, R.D., Devictor, V. et al. (2010) Population trends of European common birds are predicted by characteristics of their climatic niche. Global Change Biology, 16, 497505.Google Scholar
Julliard, R., Jiguet, F. & Couvet, D. (2003) Common birds facing global changes: What makes a species at risk. Global Change Biology, 10, 148154.Google Scholar
King, D.I., Lambert, J.D., Buonaccorsi, J.P. & Prout, L.S. (2008) Avian population trends in the vulnerable montane forests of the Northern Appalachians, USA. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 26912700.Google Scholar
Kirby, J.S., Stattersfield, A.J., Butchart, S.H.M. et al. (2008) Key conservation issues for migratory land- and waterbird species on the world’s major flyways. Bird Conservation International, 18, S49S73Google Scholar
Kirby, W.B., Bellamy, P.E., Stanbury, A.J., Bladon, A.J., Grice, P.V. & Gillings, S. (2015) Breeding season habitat associations and population declines of British Hawfinches Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Bird Study, 62, 348357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kjellén, N. & Roos, G. (2000) Population trends in Swedish raptors demonstrated by migration counts at Falsterbo, Sweden 1942–1997. Bird Study, 47, 195211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koleček, J. & Reif, J. (2011) Differences between the predictors of abundance, trend and distribution as three measures of avian population change. Acta Ornithologica, 46, 143-153.Google Scholar
Koleček, J., Reif, J., Št’astný, K. & Bejček, V. (2010) Changes in bird distribution in Central European country between 1985–1989 and 2001–2003. Journal of Ornithology, 151, 923932.Google Scholar
Korpimäki, E. & Hakkarainen, H. (2013) The Boreal Owl: Ecology, Behaviour, and Conservation of a Forest-Dwelling Predator. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kuresoo, A., Pehlak, H. & Nellis, R. (2011) Population trends of common birds in Estonia in 1983–2010. Estonian Journal of Ecology, 60, 88110.Google Scholar
Laaksonen, T.K. & Lehikoinen, A. (2013) Population trends in boreal birds: Continuing declines in long-distance migrants, agricultural and northern species. Biological Conservation, 168, 99107.Google Scholar
Larsen, J.L., Heldbjerg, H. & Eskildsen, A. (2011) Improving national habitat specific biodiversity indicators using relative habitat use for common birds. Ecological Indicators, 11, 14591466.Google Scholar
Lehikoinen, A., Green, M., Husby, M., Kålås, J.A. & Lindström, Å. (2014) Common montane birds are declining in North Europe. Journal of Avian Biology, 45, 3-14.Google Scholar
Lehikoinen, A., Lehikoinen, P., Lindén, A. & Laine, T. (2011) Population trend and status of the endangered White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos in Finland. Ornis Fennica, 88, 195207.Google Scholar
Lehikoinen, A. & Virkkala, R. (2016) North by northwest: Climate change and directions of density shifts in birds. Global Change Biology, 22, 11211129.Google Scholar
Li Yong, D., Liu, Y., Wen Low, B., Española, C.P., Choi, C.-Y. & Kawakami, K. (2015) Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: A review from a conservation perspective. Bird Conservation International, 25, 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Link, W.A. & Sauer, J.R. (1998) Estimating population change from count data: Application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Ecological Applications, 8, 258268.Google Scholar
Lõhmus, A., Nellis, R., Pullerits, M. & Leivits, M. (2016) The potential for long-term sustainability in seminatural forestry: A broad perspective based on woodpecker populations. Environmental Management, 57, 558571.Google Scholar
Machtans, C.S., Kardynal, K.J. & Smith, P.A. (2014) How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site? Avian Conservation and Ecology, 9 (1), Article 5.Google Scholar
Marra, P.P., Studds, C., Wilson, S., Sillett, T.S., Sherry, T.W. & Holmes, R.T. (2015) Non-breeding season habitat quality mediates the strength of density-dependence for a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 282, 20150624.Google Scholar
Mcdevitt, A.D., Kajtoch, Ł., Mazgajski, T.D. et al. (2011) The origins of Great Spotted Woodpeckers Dendrocopos major colonizing Ireland revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Bird Study, 58, 361364.Google Scholar
McNulty, S.A., Droege, S. & Masters, R.D. (2008) Long-term trends in breeding birds in an old-growth Adirondack forest and the surrounding regions. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 120, 153158.Google Scholar
Mikusiński, G. & Angelstam, P. (1997) European woodpeckers and anthropogenic habitat change: A review. Vogelwelt, 118, 277283.Google Scholar
Møller, A.P., Fiedler, W. & Berthold, P. (2010) Effects of Climate Change on Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Moss, R. (2001) Second extinction of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Scotland? Biological Conservation, 101, 255257.Google Scholar
Newton, I. (1998) Population Limitation in Birds. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Newton, I. (2008) The Migration Ecology of Birds. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Norris, D.R., Marra, P.P., Kyser, T.K. et al. (2004) Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271, 5964.Google Scholar
Ottosson, U., Ottvall, R., Elmberg, J. et al. (2012) The Birds in Sweden – Numbers and Occurrence. Halmstad: SOF. [in Swedish]Google Scholar
Ottvall, R., Edenius, L., Elmberg, J. et al. (2009) Population trends for Swedish breeding birds. Ornis Svecica, 19, 117192.Google Scholar
Pasinelli, G. (2000) Oaks (Quercus sp.) and only oaks? Relations between habitat structure and home range of the middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius). Biological Conservation, 93, 227235.Google Scholar
Pasinelli, G. (2001) Breeding performance of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius in relation to weather and territory quality. Ardea, 89, 353361.Google Scholar
Pearce-Higgins, J.W. & Green, R.E. (2014) Birds and Climate Change: Impacts and Conservation Responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Pettersson, B. (1985) Extinction of an isolated population of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius (L.) in Sweden and its relation to general theories on extinction. Biological Conservation, 32, 335353.Google Scholar
Pidgeon, A.M., Flather, C.H., Radeloff, V.C. et al. (2014) Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 28, 12911301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ram, D., Axelsson, A.-L., Green, M., Smith, H.G. & Lindström, Å. (2017) What drives current population trends in forest birds – forest quantity, quality or climate? A large-scale analyses from northern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 385, 177188.Google Scholar
Reif, J., Prylová, K., Šizling, A. L., Vermouzek, Z., Šťastný, K. & Bejček, V. (2013) Changes in bird community composition in the Czech Republic from 1982 to 200: Increasing biotic homogenization, impacts of warming climate, but no trend in species richness. Journal of Ornithology, 154, 359370.Google Scholar
Reif, J., Storch, D., Voříšek, P., Št’astný, K. & Bejček, (2008) Bird-habitat associations predict population trends in central European forest and farmland birds. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 33073319.Google Scholar
Reif, J., Voříšek, P., Št’astný, K., Bejček, V. & Petr, J. (2007) Population increase of forest birds in the Czech Republic between 1982–2003. Bird Study, 54, 248255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robbins, C.S., Sauer, J.R., Greenberg, R.S. & Droege, S. (1989) Population declines in North American birds that migrate to the Neotropics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 86, 76587662.Google Scholar
Roberge, J.M. & Angelstam, P. (2006) Indicator species among resident forest birds – A cross-regional evaluation in northern Europe. Biological Conservation, 130, 134147.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Ciudad, C. (2012) Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker. Conservation Biology, 26, 284293.Google Scholar
Romero, J.L., Lammertink, M. & Cañestro, J.P. (2013) Population increase and habitat use of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius in the Aran Valley, Spanish Pyrenees. Ardeola, 60, 345355.Google Scholar
Saikku, M. (1990) The Extinction of the Carolina Parakeet. Environmental History Review, 14 (3), 118.Google Scholar
Sanderson, F.J., Donald, P.F., Pain, D.J., Burfield, I.J. & van Bommel, F.P.J. (2006) Long-term population declines in Afro-Palaearctic migrant birds. Biological Conservation, 131, 93105.Google Scholar
Sauer, J.R. & Link, W.A. (2011) Analysis of the North American Breeding Bird Survey using hierarchical models. Auk, 128, 8798.Google Scholar
Saurola, P. (1997) The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and modern forestry: A review of population trends and their causes in Europe. Journal of Raptor Research, 31, 129137.Google Scholar
Saurola, P. (2009) Bad news and good news: Population changes of Finnish owls during 1982–2007. Ardea, 97, 469482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siffczyk, C., Brotons, L., Kangas, K. & Orell, M. (2003) Home range size of willow tits: A response to winter habitat loss. Oecologia, 136, 635642.Google Scholar
Sim, I.M.W., Eaton, M.A., Setchfield, R.P., Warren, P.K. & Lindley, P. (2008) Abundance of male Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix in Britain in 2005, and change since 1995–1996. Bird Study, 55, 304313.Google Scholar
Sirkiä, S., Lindén, A., Helle, P., Nikula, A., Knape, J. & Lindén, H. (2010) Are the declining trends in forest grouse populations due to changes in the forest age structure? A case study of Capercaillie in Finland. Biological Conservation, 143, 15401548.Google Scholar
Spühler, L., Krüsi, B.O. & Pasinelli, G. (2015) Do Oaks Quercus spp., dead wood and fruiting Common Ivy Hedera helix affect habitat selection of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius. Bird Study, 62, 115119.Google Scholar
Thaxter, C.B., Joys, A.C., Gregory, R.D., Baillie, S.R. & Noble, D. (2010) Hypotheses to explain patterns of population changes among breeding bird species in England. Biological Conservation, 143, 20062019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomiałojć, L. (2005) Distribution, breeding density and nest sites of Hawfinches Coccothraustes coccothraustes in the primeval forest of Białowieża National Park. Acta Ornithologica, 40, 127138.Google Scholar
Treinys, R., Lõhmus, A., Stoncius, D. et al. (2008) At the border of ecological change: Status and nest sites of Lithuanian Black Stork Ciconia nigra population 2000–2006 versus 1976–1992. Journal of Ornithology, 149, 7581.Google Scholar
Valiela, I. & Martinetto, P. (2007) Changes in bird abundance in Eastern North America: Urban sprawl and global footprint. Bioscience, 57, 360370.Google Scholar
Verner, J. (1985) Assessment of counting techniques. In Current Ornithology. Johnston, R.F. (ed.). New York: Plenum Press, pp. 247302.Google Scholar
Vickery, J.A., Ewing, S.R., Smith, K.W. et al. (2014) The decline of Afro-Palaearctic migrants and an assessment of potential causes. Ibis, 156, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Virkkala, R. (1990) Ecology of the Siberian Tit Parus cinctus in relation to habitat quality: Effects of forest management. Ornis Scandinavica, 21, 139146.Google Scholar
Virkkala, R. (2004) Bird species dynamics in a managed southern boreal forest in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 195, 151163.Google Scholar
Virkkala, R. (2016) Long-term decline of southern boreal forest birds: Consequence of habitat alteration or climate change? Biodiversity and Conservation, 25, 151167.Google Scholar
Virkkala, R., Alanko, T., Laine, T. & Tiainen, J. (1993) Population contraction of the white-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos in Finland as a consequence of habitat alteration. Biological Conservation, 66, 4753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Virkkala, R. & Lehikoinen, A. (2014) Patterns of climate-induced density shifts of species: Poleward shifts faster in northern boreal birds than in southern birds. Global Change Biology, 20, 29953003.Google Scholar
Virkkala, R., Pöyry, J., Heikkinen, R.K., Lehikoinen, A. & Valkama, J. (2014) Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern. Ecology and Evolution, 4, 29913003.Google Scholar
Voříšek, P., Klvanová, A., Wotton, S. & Gregory, R.D. (eds.) (2008) A Best Practice Guide for Wild Bird Monitoring Schemes. Třeboň, Czech Republic: CSO/RSPB.Google Scholar
Wegge, P. & Rolstad, J. (2011) Clearcutting forestry and Eurasian boreal forest grouse: Long-term monitoring of sympatric capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and black grouse T. tetrix reveals unexpected effects on their population performance. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 15201529.Google Scholar
Wesołowski, T., Mitrus, C., Czeszczewik, D. & Rowiński, P. (2010) Breeding bird dynamics in a primeval temperate forest over thirty-five years: Variation and stability in the changing world. Acta Ornithologica, 45, 209232.Google Scholar
Wesołowski, T. & Tomiałojć, L. (1997) Breeding bird dynamics in a primaeval temperate forest: Long-term trends in Białowieża National Park (Poland). Ecography, 20, 432453.Google Scholar
Wiens, J.A. (1989). The Ecology of Bird Communities. Vol. 2. Processes and Variations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, M.W., Gittings, T., Pithon, J., Kelly, T.C., Irwin, S. & O’Halloran, J. (2012) Bird diversity of afforestation habitats in Ireland: Current trends and likely impacts. Biology and Environment – Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 112B, 5568.Google Scholar
Winstanley, D., Spencer, R. & Williamson, K. (1974) Where have all the Whitethroats gone? Bird Study, 21, 114.Google Scholar
Yamaura, Y., Amano, T., Koizumi, T., Mitsuda, Y., Taki, H. & Okabe, K. (2009) Does land-use change affect biodiversity dynamics at a macroecological scale? A case study of birds over the past 20 years in Japan. Animal Conservation 12, 110119.Google Scholar
Zav’yalov, E.V., Shlyakhtin, G.V., Tabachishin, V.G., Yakushev, N.N. & Mosolova, E.Y. (2010) Ecological aspects of the dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) expansion in the lower Volga region. Russian Journal of Ecology, 41, 7174.Google Scholar


Aanes, S., Engen, S., Saether, B.E., Willebrand, T. & Marcstrom, V. (2002) Sustainable harvesting strategies of willow ptarmigan in a fluctuating environment. Ecological Applications, 12, 281290.Google Scholar
Aebischer, N.J. (1995) Investigating the effects of hunting on the survival of British pigeons and doves by analysis of ringing recoveries. Journal of Applied Statistics, 22, 923934.Google Scholar
Aebischer, N.J. (1997) Impact of hunting on the population dynamics of wild birds. Gibier Faune Sauvage, 14, 183200.Google Scholar
Aebischer, N.J., Potts, G.R. & Rehfisch, M. (1999) Using ringing data to study the effect of hunting on bird populations. Ringing and Migration, 19 (Suppl.), S67S81.Google Scholar
Alatalo, R.V., Höglund, J., Lundberg, A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Evolution of black grouse leks – female preferences benefit males in larger leks. Behavioural Ecology, 3, 5359.Google Scholar
Allendorf, F.W., England, P.R., Luikart, G., Ritchie, P.A. & Ryman, N. (2008) Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 327337.Google Scholar
Andersen, O., Kaltenborn, B.P., Vittersø, J. & Willebrand, T. (2014) Preferred harvest principles and regulations amongst willow ptarmigan hunters in Norway. Wildlife Biology, 20, 285290.Google Scholar
Asmyhr, L., Willebrand, T. & Hörnell-Willebrand, M. (2012) Successful willow grouse are exposed to increased harvest risk. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 940943.Google Scholar
Baines, D. (1996) The implications of grazing and predator management on the habitats and breeding success of black grouse Tetrao tetrix. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 5462.Google Scholar
Baines, D. & Lindén, H. (1991) The impact of hunting on grouse population dynamics. Ornis Scandinavica, 22, 245246.Google Scholar
Barilani, M., Bernard-Laurent, A., Mucci, N. et al. (2007) Hybridisation with introduced chukars (Alectoris chukar) threatens the gene pool integrity of native rock (A. graeca) and redlegged rufa partridge populations. Biological Conservation, 137, 5769.Google Scholar
Berger, J. (2007) Fear, human shields and the redistribution of prey and predators in protected areas. Biology Letters, 3, 620623.Google Scholar
Beschta, R.L. & Ripple, W.J. (2009) Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation, 142, 24012414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BirdLife International (2004) Birds in the European Union: A Status Assessment. Wageningen: BirdLife International. Scholar
BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for Birds. Accessed 9 March 2017.Google Scholar
Blumstein, D.T. (2006) The multipredator hypothesis and the evolutionary persistence of antipredator behavior. Ethology, 112, 209217.Google Scholar
Blumstein, D.T., Daniel, J.C. & Springett, B.P. (2004) A test of the multi-predator hypothesis: Rapid loss of antipredator behavior after 130 years of isolation. Ethology, 110, 919934.Google Scholar
Bregnballe, T., Madsen, J. & Rasmussen, P.A.F. (2004) Effects of temporal and spatial hunting control in waterbird reserves. Biological Conservation, 119, 93104.Google Scholar
Brochet, A.-L. van Den Bossche, W., Jbour, S. et al. (2016) Preliminary assessment of the scope and scale of illegal killing and taking of birds in the Mediterranean. Bird Conservation International, 26, 128.Google Scholar
Brøseth, H. & Pedersen, H.C. (2010) Disturbance effects of hunting activity in a willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus population. Wildlife Biology, 16, 241248.Google Scholar
Brown, J.S., Laundré, J.W. & Gurung, M. (1999) The ecology of fear: Optimal foraging, game theory, and trophic interactions. Journal of Mammalogy, 80, 385399.Google Scholar
Bruggink, J.G., Oppelt, E.J., Doherty, K.E., Andersen, D.E., Meunier, J. & Lutz, R.S. (2013) Fall survival of American woodcock in the western Great Lakes region. Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, 10211030.Google Scholar
Bunnefeld, N., Reuman, D.C., Baines, D. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Impact of unintentional selective harvesting on the population dynamics of red grouse. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 12581268.Google Scholar
Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (1984) Tests of compensatory vs. additive hypotheses of mortality in mallards. Ecology, 63, 105112.Google Scholar
Byers, J.A. (1998) American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ciuti, S., Northrup, J.M., Muhly, T.B. et al. (2012) Effects of humans on behaviour of wildlife exceed those of natural predators in a landscape of fear. PLoS ONE 7 (11), e50611.Google Scholar
Coltman, D.W., O’Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (2003) Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy harvesting. Nature, 426, 655658.Google Scholar
Cooper, T.R. & Rau, R.D. (2014) American Woodcock Population Status, 2014. Laurel, MD: US Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
Côté, I.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (1997) The effectiveness of removing predators to protect bird populations. Conservation Biology, 11, 395405.Google Scholar
Côté, S.D., Rooney, T.P., Tremblay, J.-P., Dussault, C. & Waller, D.M. (2004) Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35, 113147.Google Scholar
Council of Europe (2007) European Charter on Hunting and Biodiversity. Scholar
Cresswell, W. (2008) Non-lethal effects of predation in birds. Ibis, 150, 317.Google Scholar
Darimont, Ch.T., Carlson, S.M., Kinnison, M.T., Paquet, P.C., Reimchen, Th.E. & Wilmers, Ch.C. (2009) Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(3), 952954.Google Scholar
Decker, D.J., Riley, S.J. & Siemer, W.F. (2012) Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management, 2nd ed. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Draycott, R.A., Hoodless, A.N. & Sage, R.B. (2008) Effects of pheasant management on vegetation and birds in lowland woodlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 334341.Google Scholar
Duriez, O., Eraud, C., Barbraud, C. & Ferrand, Y. (2005) Factors affecting population dynamics of Eurasian woodcocks wintering in France: Assessing the efficiency of a hunting-free reserve. Biological Conservation, 122, 8997.Google Scholar
Effiom, E.O., Birkhofer, K., Smith, H.G. & Olsson, O. (2014) Changes of community composition at multiple trophic levels due to hunting in Nigerian tropical forests. Ecography, 37, 367377.Google Scholar
Ellison, L.N. (1991) Shooting and compensatory mortality in tetraonids. Ornis Scandinavica, 22, 229240.Google Scholar
Encyclopædia Britannica (2017) Accessed 9 March 2017.Google Scholar
European Commission (2009) Key concepts of article 7(4) of directive 79/409/EEC. Period of reproduction and prenuptial migration of Annex II bird species in the 27 EU member states. Scholar
Falzon, M.-A. (2008) Flights of passion. Hunting, ecology and politics in Malta and the Mediterranean. Anthropology Today, 24, 1520.Google Scholar
Ferrand, Y., Aubry, P., Landry, P. & Priol, P. (2013) Responses of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola to simulated hunting disturbance. Wildlife Biology, 19, 1929.Google Scholar
Ferrand, Y. & Gossmann, F. (2001) Elements for a woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) management plan. Game and Wildlife Science, 18, 115139.Google Scholar
Ferrand, Y., Gossmann, F., Bastat, C. & Guénézan, M. (2008) Monitoring of the wintering and breeding woodcock populations in France. Revista Catalana d’Ornitologia, 24, 4452.Google Scholar
Fletcher, K.L., Aebischer, N.J., Baines, D., Foster, R. & Hoodless, A.N. (2010) Changes in breeding success and abundance of ground-nesting moorland birds in relation to the experimental deployment of legal predator control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 263272.Google Scholar
Fletcher, K., Hoodless, A.N. & Baines, D. (2013) Impacts of predator abundance on red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica during a period of experimental predator control. Wildlife Biology, 19, 248256.Google Scholar
Ford, M.J. (2002) Selection in captivity during supportive breeding may reduce fitness in the wild. Conservation Biology, 16, 815825.Google Scholar
Frid, A. & Dill, L.M. (2002) Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conservation Ecology, 6, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (2001) Responses of woodland birds to increasing numbers of deer: A review of evidence and mechanisms. Forestry, 74, 289298.Google Scholar
Gamborg, C. & Jensen, F.S. (2016) Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners, and the general public: A Danish comparative quantitative study. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 21, 328344.Google Scholar
Gamborg, C., Jensen, F.S. & Sandøe, P. (2016) A dividing issue: Attitudes to the shooting of rear and release birds among landowners, hunters and the general public in Denmark. Land Use Policy, 57, 296304.Google Scholar
Griffin, A.S. (2004) Social learning about predators: A review and prospectus. Learning and Behaviour, 32, 131140.Google Scholar
Guillemain, M., Blanc, R., Lucas, C. & Lepley, M. (2007) Ecotourism disturbance to wildfowl in protected areas: Historical, empirical and experimental approaches in the Camargue, Southern France. Biodiversity Conservation, 16, 36333651.Google Scholar
Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Atkinson, P.W. et al. (2006) Population-scale drivers of individual arrival times in migratory birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 11191127.Google Scholar
Heward, C.J., Hoodless, A.N., Conway, G.J., Aebischer, N.J., Gillings, S. & Fuller, R.J. (2015) Current status and recent trend of the Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola as a breeding bird in Britain. Bird Study, 62, 535551.Google Scholar
Hirschfeld, A. & Heyd, A. (2005) Mortality of migratory birds caused by hunting in Europe: Bag statistics and proposals for the conservation of birds and animal welfare. Berichte zum Vogelschutz, 42, 4774.Google Scholar
Hoodless, A.N. & Hirons, G.J.M. (2007) Habitat selection and foraging behaviour of breeding Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola: A comparison between contrasting landscapes. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 234249.Google Scholar
Holá, M., Zíka, T., Šálek, M. et al. (2015) Effect of habitat and game management practices on ring-necked pheasant harvest in the Czech Republic. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 61, 7380.Google Scholar
Hörnell-Willebrand, M., Willebrand, T. & Smith, A.A. (2014) Seasonal movements and dispersal patterns: Implications for recruitment and management of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Journal of Wildlife Management, 78, 194201.Google Scholar
Hudson, R.J., Drew, K.R. & Baskin, L.M. (1989) Wildlife Production Systems: Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ingold, P. (2005) Freizeitaktivitäten im Lebensraum der Alpentiere. Bern: Haupt.Google Scholar
IUCN (2017) Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed 9 March 2017.Google Scholar
Johnsgard, P.A. (1981) The Plovers, Sandpipers and Snipes of the World. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Kenward, R.E. (2006) The Northern Goshawk. London: Poyser.Google Scholar
Kenward, R.E., Hall, D.G., Walls, S.S. & Hodder, K.H. (2001) Factors affecting predation by buzzards Buteo buteo on released pheasants Phasianus colchicus. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 813822.Google Scholar
Kervinen, M. (2013) Fitness in Male Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix): Effects of life histories and sexual selection on male lifetime mating success. Jyväskylä Studies in Biological and Environmental Science, 271.Google Scholar
Knezevic, I. (2009) Hunting and environmentalism: Conflict or misperceptions. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14, 1220.Google Scholar
Lampila, P., Ranta, E., Mönkkönen, M., Lindén, H. & Helle, P. (2011) Grouse dynamics and harvesting in Kainuu, northeastern Finland. Oikos, 120, 10571064.Google Scholar
Laundré, J.W., Hernandez, L., Lopez Medina, P. et al. (2014) The landscape of fear: The missing link to understand top-down and bottom-up controls of prey abundance? Ecology, 95, 11411152.Google Scholar
Lindén, H., Helle, E., Helle, P. & Wikman, M. (1996) Wildlife triangle scheme in Finland: Methods and aims for monitoring wildlife populations. Finnish Game Research, 49, 411.Google Scholar
Lindner, K. (1940) Die Jagd im frühen Mittelalter. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Lindner, K. (1973) Beiträge zu Vogelfang und Falknerei in Altertum. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Little, R.M., Crowe, T.M. & Grant, W.S. (1993) Does hunting affect the demography and genetic-structure of the greywing francolin Francolinus africanus? Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 567585.Google Scholar
Lone, K., Loe, L.E., Gobakken, T. et al. (2014) Living and dying in a multi-predator landscape of fear, roe deer are squeezed by contrasting pattern of predation risk imposed by lynx and humans. Oikos, 123, 641651.Google Scholar
Lovegrove, R. (2007) Silent Fields: The Long Decline of a Nation’s Wildlife. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ludwig, T. & Storch, I. (2011) Re-introduction and re-enforcement as a conservation measure for grouse? G@llinformed, 4, 18–20.Google Scholar
Madden, C.F., Arroyo, B. & Amar, A. (2014) A review of the impacts of corvids on bird productivity and abundance. Ibis, 157, 116.Google Scholar
Madsen, J. (1998a) Experimental refuges for migratory waterfowl in Danish wetlands. I. Baseline assessment of the disturbance effects of recreational activities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 386397.Google Scholar
Madsen, J. (1998b) Experimental refuges for migratory waterfowl in Danish wetlands. II. Tests of hunting disturbance effects. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 398417.Google Scholar
Madsen, J. & Fox, A.D. (1995) Impacts of hunting disturbance on waterbirds – a review. Wildlife Biology, 1, 193207.Google Scholar
Magige, F.J., Holmern, T., Stokke, S., Mlingwa, C. & Røskaft, E. (2009) Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? A case study on ostrich (Struthio camelus). Biodiversity Conservation, 18, 13611373.Google Scholar
Maloney, R.F. & McNeal, I.G. (1995) Historical and experimental learned predator recognition in free-living New Zealand robins. Animal Behaviour, 50, 11931201.Google Scholar
Manfredo, M., Teela, T. & Bright, A. (2003) Why are public values toward wildlife changing? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8, 287306.Google Scholar
Marjakangas, A. & Aspegren, H. (1991) Responses of black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens to supplemental winter food. Ornis Scandinavica, 22, 282283.Google Scholar
Marquiss, M., Petty, S.J., Anderson, D.I.K. & Legge, G. (2003) Contrasting population trends of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Scottish/English borders and north-east Scotland. In Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment. Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds.). Edinburgh: The Stationery Office, pp. 143148.Google Scholar
McAuley, D.G., Longcore, J.R., Clugston, D.A. et al. (2005) Effects of hunting on survival of American woodcock in the Northeast. Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 15651577.Google Scholar
Ménoni, E. & Defos Du Rau, P. (2003) Démographie pyrénéenne du Grand Tétras Tetrao urogallus, quel impact de la chasse et des infrastructures. In Proceedings of Premières rencontres Naturalistes de Midi-Pyrénées. Cahors: Naturalistes de Midi-Pyrénées, pp. 113119.Google Scholar
Milner, J.M., Nilsen, E.B. & Andreassen, H.P. (2007) Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores. Conservation Biology, 21, 3647.Google Scholar
Milner-Gulland, E.J. & Akcakaya, H.R. (2001) Sustainability indices for exploited populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 686692.Google Scholar
Monteith, K.L., Long, R.A., Bleich, V.C., Heffelfinger, J.R., Krausman, P.R. & Bowyer, R.T. (2013) Effects of harvest, culture, and climate on trends in size of horn-like structures in trophy ungulates. Wildlife Monographs, 183, 128.Google Scholar
Moss, R., Leckie, F., Biggins, A., Poole, T., Baines, D. & Kortland, K. (2014) Impacts of human disturbance on capercaillie Tetrao urogallus distribution and demography in Scottish woodland. Wildlife Biology, 20, 118.Google Scholar
Mysterud, A. & Bischof, R. (2010) Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting? Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 148160.Google Scholar
Newborn, D. & Foster, R. (2002) Control of parasite burdens in wild red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus through the indirect application of anthelmintics. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 909914.Google Scholar
Newton, I. (1998) Population Limitation in Birds. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Olsson, G.E., Willebrand, T. & Smith, A.A. (1996) The effects of hunting on willow grouse movements. Wildlife Biology, 2, 1115.Google Scholar
Payevsky, V.A. & Vysotsky, V.G. (2003) Migratory song thrushes Turdus philomelos hunted in Europe: Survival rates and other demographic parameters. Avian Science, 3, 1320.Google Scholar
Pedersen, A.O., Soininen, E.M., Unander, S., Hörnell-Willebrand, M. & Fuglei, E. (2014) Experimental harvest reveals the importance of territoriality in limiting the breeding population of Svalbard rock ptarmigan. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 60, 201212.Google Scholar
Pedersen, H.C. (2007) Alt om rypa – biologi, jakt, forvaltning. Oslo: Tun forlag.Google Scholar
Pedersen, H.C., Steen, H., Kastdalen, L. et al. (2004) Weak compensation of harvest despite strong density-dependent growth in willow ptarmigan. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271, 381385.Google Scholar
Peron, G., Ferrand, Y., Gossmann, F., Bastat, C., Guenezan, M. & Gimenez, O. (2011) Nonparametric spatial regression of survival probability: Visualization of population sinks in Eurasian woodcock. Ecology, 92, 16721679.Google Scholar
Pohja-Mykrä, M., Vuorisalo, T. & Mykrä, S. (2012) Organized persecution of birds of prey in Finland: Historical and population biological perspectives. Ornis Fennica, 89, 119.Google Scholar
Proffitt, K.M., Grigg, J.L., Hamlin, K.L. & Garrott, R.A. (2009) Contrasting effects of wolves and human hunters on elk behavioral responses to predation risk. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 345356.Google Scholar
Puigcerver, M., Vinyoles, D. & Rodríguez-Teijeiro, J.D. (2007) Does restocking with Japanese quail or hybrids affect native populations of common quail Coturnix coturnix? Biological Conservation, 136, 628635.Google Scholar
Riepe, C. & Arlinghaus, R. (2014) Explaining anti-angling sentiments in the general population of Germany: An application of the cognitive hierarchy model. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 19, 371390.Google Scholar
Ripple, W.J. & Beschta, R.L. (2004) Wolves and the ecology of fear: Can predation risk structure ecosystems? Bioscience, 54, 755766.Google Scholar
Ripple, W.J. & Beschta, R.L. (2012) Trophic cascades in Yellowstone: The first 15 years after wolf reintroduction. Biological Conservation, 145, 205213.Google Scholar
Roth, H.H. & Merz, G. (1996) Wildlife Resources: A Global Account of Economic Use. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
RSPB (2017) Accessed 9 March 2017.Google Scholar
Sage, R.B., Ludolf, C. & Robertson, P.A. (2005) The ground flora of ancient semi-natural woodlands in pheasant release pens in England. Biological Conservation, 122, 243252.Google Scholar
Sand, H., Wikenros, C., Wabakken, P. & Liberg, O. (2006) Cross-continental differences in patterns of predation: Will naive moose in Scandinavia ever learn? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273, 14211427.Google Scholar
Sandercock, B.K., Nilsen, E.B., Brøseth, H. & Pedersen, H.C. (2011) Is hunting mortality additive or compensatory to natural mortality? Effects of experimental harvest on the survival and cause-specific mortality of willow ptarmigan. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 244258.Google Scholar
Sedinger, J.S., White, G.C., Espinosa, S., Partee, E.T. & Braun, C.E. (2010) An approach to assessing compensatory versus additive harvest mortality: An example using greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 326332.Google Scholar
Shrubb, M. (2013) Feasting, Fowling and Feathers: A History of the Exploitation of Wild Birds. London: Poyser.Google Scholar
Siano, R. & Klaus, S. (2013) Auerhuhn Wiederansiedlungs- und Bestandesstützungsprojekte in Deutschland nach 1950 – eine Übersicht. Vogelwelt, 134, 318.Google Scholar
Slagsvold, T. & Wiebe, K.L. (2011) Social learning in birds and its role in shaping a foraging niche. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366, 969977.Google Scholar
Small, R.J., Holzwart, J.C. & Rusch, D.H. (1991) Predation and hunting mortality of ruffed grouse in central Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management, 55, 512520.Google Scholar
Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Effectiveness of predator removal for enhancing bird populations. Conservation Biology, 24, 820829.Google Scholar
Sokos, C.K., Birtsas, P.K., Connelly, J.W. & Papaspyropoulos, K.G. (2013) Hunting of migratory birds: disturbance intolerant or harvest tolerant? Wildlife Biology, 19, 113125.Google Scholar
Sokos, C.K., Birtsas, P.K. & Tsachalidis, E.P. (2008) The aims of galliforms release and choice of techniques. Wildlife Biology, 14, 412422.Google Scholar
Sreekar, R., Huang, G., Zhao, J.-B. et al. (2015) The use of species-area relationships to partition the effects of hunting and deforestation on bird extirpations in a fragmented landscape. Diversity and Distributions, 21, 441450.Google Scholar
Stankowich, T. (2008) Ungulate flight responses to human disturbance: A review and meta-analysis. Biological Conservation, 141, 21592173.Google Scholar
Stankowich, T. & Blumstein, D.T. (2005) Fear in animals: A metaanalysis and review of risk assessment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 26272634.Google Scholar
Storch, I. (2007a) Grouse Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2006–2010. Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN; Reading: World Pheasant Association.Google Scholar
Storch, I. (2007b) Conservation status of grouse worldwide: An update. Wildlife Biology, 13, 917.Google Scholar
Storch, I. (2013) Human disturbance of grouse – why and when? Wildlife Biology, 19, 390403.Google Scholar
Storch, I. & Segelbacher, G. (2000) Genetic correlates of spatial population structure in central European capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and black grouse T. tetrix: A project in progress. Wildlife Biology, 6, 305310.Google Scholar
Tharme, A.P., Green, R.E., Baines, D., Bainbridge, I.P. & O’Brien, M. (2001) The effect of management for red grouse shooting on the population density of breeding birds on heather-dominated moorland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 439457.Google Scholar
Thiel, D., Menoni, E., Brenot, J.F. & Jenni, L. (2007) Effects of recreation and hunting on flushing distance of capercaillie. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 17841792.Google Scholar
Thurfjell, H., Spong, G. & Ericsson, G. (2013) Effects of hunting on wild boar Sus scrofa behaviour. Wildlife Biology, 19, 8793.Google Scholar
Van Maanen, E., Goradze, I., Gavashelishvili, A. & Goradze, R. (2001) Trapping and hunting of migratory raptors in western Georgia. Bird Conservation International, 11, 7792.Google Scholar
Verissimo, D. & Campbell, B. (2015) Understanding stakeholder conflict between conservation and hunting in Malta. Biological Conservation, 191, 812818.Google Scholar
Wam, H.K., Andersen, O. & Pedersen, H.C. (2013) Grouse hunting regulations and hunter typologies in Norway. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 18, 4557.Google Scholar
Watson, A. & Moss, R. (2008) Grouse. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar


Aben, J., Adriaensen, F., Thijs, K.W. et al. (2012) Effects of matrix composition and configuration on forest bird movements in a fragmented Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. Animal Conservation, 15, 658668.Google Scholar
Åberg, J., Jansson, G., Swenson, J.E. & Angelstam, P. (1995) The effect of matrix on the occurrence of hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia) in isolated habitat fragments. Oecologia, 103, 265269.Google Scholar
Ahlering, M.A. & Faaborg, J. (2006) Avian habitat management meets conspecific attraction: If you build it, will they come? Auk, 123, 301312.Google Scholar
Alexander, K., Stickler, D. & Green, T. (2010) Is the practice of haloing successful in promoting extended life? A preliminary investigation of the response of veteran oak and beech trees to increased light levels in Windsor Forest. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 104, 257266.Google Scholar
Anders, A.D., Faaborg, J. & Thompson, F.R. III (1998) Postfledging dispersal, habitat use, and home-range size of juvenile wood thrushes. Auk, 115, 349358.Google Scholar
Andersson, J., Domingo Gómez, E., Michon, S. & Roberge, J.-M. (2017) Tree cavity densities and characteristics in managed and unmanaged Swedish boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. DOI: 10.1080/02827581.2017.1360389.Google Scholar
Archaux, F. & Bakkaus, N. (2007) Relative impact of stand structure, tree composition and climate on mountain bird communities. Forest Ecology and Management, 247, 7279.Google Scholar
Artman, V.L., Sutherland, E.K. & Downhower, J.F. (2001) Prescribed burning to restore mixed-oak communities in Southern Ohio: Effects on breeding-bird populations. Conservation Biology, 15, 14231434.Google Scholar
Askins, R.A. (2001) Sustaining biological diversity in early successional communities: The challenge of managing unpopular habitats. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29, 407412.Google Scholar
Baglione, V., Canestrari, D., Marcos, J.M. & Ekman, J. (2006) Experimentally increased food resources in the natal territory promotes offspring philopatry and helping in cooperatively breeding carrion crows. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 273, 15291535.Google Scholar
Bailey, S. (2007) Increased connectivity in fragmented landscapes: An investigation of evidence for biodiversity gain in woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management, 238, 723.Google Scholar
Baines, D. & Summers, R.W. (1997) Assessment of bird collisions with deer fences in Scottish forests. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 941948.Google Scholar
Batáry, P., Fischer, J., Báldi, A., Crist, T.O. & Tscharntke, T. (2011) Does habitat heterogeneity increase farmland biodiversity? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 152153.Google Scholar
Bayne, E.M. & Hobson, K.A. (2001) Effects of habitat fragmentation on pairing success of Ovenbirds: The importance of male age and floater behavior. Auk, 118, 380388.Google Scholar
Begehold, H., Rzanny, M. & Flade, M. (2015) Forest development phases as an integrating tool to describe habitat preferences of breeding birds in lowland beech forests. Journal of Ornithology, 156, 1929.Google Scholar
Bennett, A.F. (1999) Linkages in the Landscape: The Role of Corridors and Connectivity in Wildlife Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
Betts, M.G., Fahrig, L., Hadley, A.S. et al. (2014) A species-centered approach for uncovering generalities in organism responses to habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecography, 37, 517527.Google Scholar
Bibby, C.J., Aston, N. & Bellamy, P.E. (1989) Effects of broadleaved trees on birds of upland conifer plantations in North Wales. Biological Conservation, 49, 1729.Google Scholar
Blicharska, M., Baxter, P.W.J. & Mikusiński, G. (2014) Practical implementation of species’ recovery plans: Lessons from the White-backed Woodpecker action plan in Sweden. Ornis Fennica, 91, 108128.Google Scholar
Blicharska, M. & Mikusiński, G. (2014) Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy. Conservation Biology, 28, 15581567.Google Scholar
Bollmann, K. & Braunisch, V. (2013) To integrate or to segregate: Balancing commodity production and biodiversity conservation in European forests. In Integrative Approaches as an Opportunity for the Conservation of Forest Biodiversity. Kraus, D. & Krumm, F. (eds.). Barcelona: European Forest Institute, pp. 1831.Google Scholar
Bowler, D.E. & Benton, T.G. (2005) Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: Relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics. Biological Reviews, 80, 205225.Google Scholar
Bridgeland, W.T., Beier, P., Kolb, T. & Whitham, T.G. (2010) A conditional trophic cascade: Birds benefit faster growing trees with strong links between predators and plants. Ecology, 91, 7384.Google Scholar
Broome, A., Connolly, T. & Quine, C.P. (2014) An evaluation of thinning to improve habitat for capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). Forest Ecology and Management, 314, 94103.Google Scholar
Brown, J.H. & Kodric-Brown, A. (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: Effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology, 58, 445449.Google Scholar
Burke, D.M. & Nol, E. (1998) Influence of food abundance, nest-site habitat, and forest fragmentation on breeding Ovenbirds. Auk, 115, 96104.Google Scholar
Cahall, R.E. & Hayes, J.P. (2009) Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the Eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 11191128.Google Scholar
Calladine, J., Bielinski, A. & Shaw, G. (2013) Effects on bird abundance and species richness of edge restructuring to include shrubs at the interface between conifer plantations and moorland. Bird Study, 60, 345356.Google Scholar
Calladine, J., Bray, J., Broome, A. & Fuller, R.J. (2015) Comparison of breeding bird assemblages in conifer plantations managed by continuous cover forestry and clearfelling. Forest Ecology and Management, 344, 2029.Google Scholar
Camprodón, J., Campión, D., Martínez-Vidal, R. et al. (2007) Habitat selection and conservation of the Iberian woodpeckers. In Conservación de la Biodiversidad, Fauna Vertebrada y Gestión Forestal. Camprodón, J. & Plana, E. (eds.). Barcelona: Centro Tecnológico Forestal de Cataluña–University of Barcelona, pp. 391434. [in Spanish]Google Scholar
Cevasco, R. & Moreno, D. (2015) Historical ecology in modern conservation in Italy. In Europe’s Changing Woods and Forests: From Wildwood to Managed Landscapes. Kirby, K.J. & Watkins, C. (eds.). Wallingford, UK: CABI, pp. 227242.Google Scholar
Chalfoun, A.D., Thompson, F.R. & Ratnaswamy, M.J. (2002) Nest predators and fragmentation: A review and meta-analysis. Conservation Biology, 16, 306318.Google Scholar
Ciudad, C., Robles, H. & Matthysen, E. (2009) Postfledging habitat selection of juvenile middle spotted woodpeckers: A multi-scale approach. Ecography, 32, 676682.Google Scholar
Clobert, J., Le Galliard, J.-F., Cote, J., Meylan, S. & Massot, M. (2009) Informed dispersal, heterogeneity in animal dispersal syndromes and the dynamics of spatially structured populations. Ecology Letters, 12, 197209.Google Scholar
Cockle, K.L., Martin, K. & Wesołowski, T. (2011) Woodpeckers, decay, and the future of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities worldwide. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 377382.Google Scholar
Cooper, C.B. & Walters, J.R. (2002) Experimental evidence of disrupted dispersal causing decline of an Australian passerine in fragmented habitat. Conservation Biology, 16, 471478.Google Scholar
Costello, C.A., Yamasaki, M., Pekins, P.J., Leak, W.B. & Neefus, C.D. (2000) Songbird response to group selection harvests and clearcuts in a New Hampshire northern hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 127, 4154.Google Scholar
Currie, D. & Matthysen, E. (1998) Nuthatches do not delay postfledging dispersal in isolated forest fragments. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 128, 4954.Google Scholar
Currie, F.A. & Bamford, R. (1982) The value to bird life of retaining small conifer stands beyond normal felling age within forests. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 76, 153160.Google Scholar
DeGraaf, R.M. & Yamasaki, M. (2003) Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 185, 179191.Google Scholar
Dickinson, J.L. & McGowan, A. (2005) Winter resource wealth drives delayed dispersal and family-group living in western bluebirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 272, 24232428.Google Scholar
Dickson, J.G., Conner, R.N. & Williamson, J.H. (1983) Snag retention increases bird use of a clear-cut. Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, 799804.Google Scholar
Dolman, P.M., Hinsley, S.A., Bellamy, P.E. & Watts, K. (2007) Woodland birds in patchy landscapes: The evidence base for strategic networks. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 146160.Google Scholar
du Bus de Warnaffe, G. & Deconchat, M. (2008) Impact of four silvicultural systems on birds in the Belgian Ardenne: Implications for biodiversity in plantation forests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 10411055.Google Scholar
Edenius, L. (2011) Short-term effects of wildfire on bird assemblages in old pine- and spruce-dominated forests in northern Sweden. Ornis Fennica, 88, 7179.Google Scholar
Elmhagen, B., Ludwig, G., Rushton, S.P., Helle, P. & Lindén, H. (2010) Top predators, mesopredators and their prey: Interference ecosystems along bioclimatic productivity gradients. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 785794.Google Scholar
Erdelen, M. (1984) Bird communities and vegetation structure: I. Correlations and comparisons of simple and diversity indices. Oecologia, 61, 277284.Google Scholar
Fahrig, L. (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 487515.Google Scholar
Fedrowitz, K., Koricheva, J., Baker, S.C. et al. (2014) Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 16691679.Google Scholar
Ferrer, M., Newton, I. & Muriel, R. (2013) Rescue of a small declining population of Spanish imperial eagles. Biological Conservation, 159, 3236.Google Scholar
Ferry, C. & Frochot, B. (1990) Bird communities of the forests of Burgundy and the Jura (Eastern France). In Biogeography and Ecology of Forest Bird Communities. Keast, A. (ed.). The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing, pp. 183195.Google Scholar
Fischer, J., Hartel, T. & Kuemmerle, T. (2012) Conservation policy in traditional farming landscapes. Conservation Letters, 5, 167175.Google Scholar
Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B. & Manning, A.D. (2006) Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: Ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 8086.Google Scholar
Fletcher, R.J. (2007) Species interactions and population density mediate the use of social cues for habitat selection. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 598606.Google Scholar
Fletcher, R.J. (2009) Does conspecific attraction explain the patch-size effect? An experimental test. Oikos, 118, 11391147.Google Scholar
Foster, C.N., Barton, P.S. & Lindenmayer, D.B. (2014) Effects of large native herbivores on other animals. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 929938.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (1992) Effects of coppice management on woodland breeding birds. In The Ecology and Management of Coppice Woodlands. Buckley, G.P. (ed.). London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 169192.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (2012a) Avian responses to transitional habitats in temperate cultural landscapes: Woodland edges and young-growth. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125149.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (2012b) Habitat quality and habitat occupancy by birds in variable environments. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3762.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (2013) Searching for biodiversity gains through woodfuel and forest management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 12951300.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J., Smith, K.W. & Hinsley, S.A. (2012) Temperate western European woodland as a dynamic environment for birds: A resource-based view. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 352380.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J., Smith, K.W., Grice, P.V., Currie, F.A. & Quine, C.P. (2007) Habitat change and woodland birds in Britain: Implications for management and future research. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 261268.Google Scholar
Gilbert-Norton, L., Wilson, R., Stevens, J.R. & Beard, K.H. (2010) A meta-analytic review of corridor effectiveness. Conservation Biology, 25, 660668.Google Scholar
Gill, R.M.A. & Fuller, R.J. (2007) The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 119127.Google Scholar
Gimona, A., Poggio, L., Brown, I. & Castellazzi, M. (2012) Woodland networks in a changing climate: Threats from land use change. Biological Conservation, 149, 93102.Google Scholar
Goodale, E., Beauchamp, G., Magrath, R.D., Nieh, J.C. & Ruxton, G.D. (2010) Interspecific information transfer influences animal community structure. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 354361.Google Scholar
Götmark, F. (2002) Predation by sparrowhaws favours early breeding and small broods in great tits. Oecologia, 130, 2532.Google Scholar
Gram, W.K., Porneluzi, P.A., Clawson, R.L., Faaborg, J. & Richter, S.C. (2003) Effects of experimental forest management on density and nesting success of bird species in Missouri Ozark forests. Conservation Biology, 17, 13241337.Google Scholar
Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Balmford, A. (2005) Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science, 307, 550555.Google Scholar
Griesser, M. & Lagerberg, S. (2012) Long-term effects of forest management on territory occupancy and breeding success of an open-nesting boreal bird species, the Siberian jay. Forest Ecology and Management, 271, 5864.Google Scholar
Groom, M.J., Meffe, G.K. & Carroll, C.R. (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
Haddad, N.M. & Tewksbury, J.J. (2006) Impacts of corridors on populations and communities. In Connectivity Conservation. Crooks, K.R. & Sanjayan, M. (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 390415.Google Scholar
Halkka, A. & Lappalainen, I. (2001) Insight into Europe’s Forest Protection. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.Google Scholar
Hanski, I. & Gilpin, M.E. (1997) Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Harmer, R., Kerr, G. & Thompson, R. (2010) Managing Native Broadleaved Woodland. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Hartel, T., Dorresteijn, I., Klein, C. et al. (2013) Wood-pastures in a traditional rural region of Eastern Europe: Characteristics, management and status. Biological Conservation, 166, 267275.Google Scholar
Hartel, T., Hanspach, J., Abson, D.J., Máthé, O., Moga, C.I. & Fischer, J. (2014) Bird communities in traditional wood-pastures with changing management in eastern Europe. Basic and Applied Ecology, 15, 385395.Google Scholar
Hinsley, S.A., Fuller, R.J. & Ferns, P.N. (2015) The changing fortunes of woodland birds in temperate Europe. In Europe’s Changing Woods and Forests: From Wildwood to Managed Landscapes. Kirby, K.J. & Watkins, C. (eds.). Wallingford, UK: CABI, pp. 154173.Google Scholar
Hodgson, J.A., Thomas, C.D., Wintle, B.A. & Moilanen, A. (2009) Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: Back to basics. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 964969.Google Scholar
Holmes, S.B. & Pitt, D.G. (2007) Response of bird communities to selection harvesting in a northern tolerant hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 238, 280292.Google Scholar
Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2013a) Exclusion of deer affects responses of birds to woodland regeneration in winter and summer. Ibis, 156, 116131.Google Scholar
Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2013b) Deer reduce habitat quality for a woodland songbird: Evidence from settlement patterns, demographic parameters, and body condition. Auk, 130, 1320.Google Scholar
James, F.C., Hess, C.A., Klicklighter, B.C. & Thum, R.A. (2001) Ecosystem management and the niche gestalt of the Red-cockaded woodpecker in longleaf pine forests. Ecological Applications, 11, 854870.Google Scholar
Jansson, G. & Angelstam, P. (1999) Threshold levels of habitat composition for the presence of the long-tailed tit (Aegitalus caudatus) in a boreal landscape. Landscape Ecology, 14, 283290.Google Scholar
Jentsch, S., Mannan, R.W., Dickson, B.G. & Block, W.M. (2008) Associations among breeding birds and gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, 994-1000.Google Scholar
Johnsson, K., Nilsson, S.G. & Tjernberg, M. (1993) Characteristics and utilization of old Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius holes by hole-nesting species. Ibis, 135, 410416.Google Scholar
Kirby, K.J. & Watkins, C. (2015) The forest landscape before farming. In Europe’s Changing Woods and Forests: From Wildwood to Managed Landscapes. Kirby, K.J. & Watkins, C. (eds.). Wallingford, UK: CABI, pp. 3345.Google Scholar
Klein, A.M., Boreux, V., Bauhus, J., Jahi-Chappell, M., Fisher, J. & Philpott, S.M. (2014) Forest islands in an agricultural sea. In Global Forest Fragmentation. Kettle, C.J. & Koh, L.P. (eds.). Wallingford, UK: CABI, pp. 7995.Google Scholar
Koch Widerberg, M., Ranius, T., Drobyshev, I., Nilsson, U. & Lindbladh, M. (2012) Increased openness around retained oaks increases species richness of saproxylic beetles. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 30353059.Google Scholar
Koenig, W., Van Vuren, D. & Hooge, P.N. (1996) Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 514517.Google Scholar
Kokko, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (1998) Optimal floating and queuing strategies: Consequences for density dependence and habitat loss. American Naturalist, 152, 354366.Google Scholar
Korpimäki, E. (1987) Clutch size, breeding success and brood size experiments in the Tengmalm´s owl Aeolius funereus: A test of hypotheses. Ornis Scandinavica, 18, 277284.Google Scholar
Kosiński, Z., Bilińska, E., Dereziński, J., Jeleń, J. & Kempa, M. (2010) The Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius and the European Beech Fagus sylvatica as keystone species for the Stock Dove Columba oenas in western Poland. Ornis Polonica, 51, 113.Google Scholar
Lampila, P., Mönkkönen, M. & Desrochers, A. (2005) Demographic responses by birds to forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology, 19, 15371546.Google Scholar
Langston, R.H.W., Wotton, S.R., Conway, G.J. et al. (2007) Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus and Woodlark Lullula arborea – recovering species in Britain? Ibis, 149, 250260.Google Scholar
Lens, L., Van Dongen, S., Norris, K., Githiru, M. & Matthysen, E. (2002) Avian persistence in fragmented rainforest. Science, 298, 12361238.Google Scholar
Linden, D.W., Roloff, G.J. & Kroll, A.J. (2012) Conserving avian richness through structure retention in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 284, 174184.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B. & Fischer, J. (2006) Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change: An Ecological and Conservation Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B. & Fischer, J. (2007) Tackling the habitat fragmentation panchreston. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 127132.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F. & Fischer, J. (2006) General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 131, 433445.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F., Lõhmus, A. et al. (2012) A major shift to the retention approach in forestry can help resolve global forest sustainability issues. Conservation Letters, 5, 421431.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D., Hobbs, R.J., Montague-Drake, R. et al. (2008) A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation. Ecology Letters, 11, 7891.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B., Laurance, W.F., Franklin, J.F. et al. (2014) New policies for old trees: averting a global crisis in a keystone ecological structure. Conservation Letters, 7, 6169.Google Scholar
Lõhmus, A. (2005) Are timber harvesting and conservation of nest sites of forest-dwelling raptors always mutually exclusive? Animal Conservation, 8, 443450.Google Scholar
Lõhmus, A. (2006) Nest-tree and nest-stand characteristics of forest dwelling raptors in east-central Estonia: Implications for forest management and conservation. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology, 55, 3150.Google Scholar
Loman, J. (2006) Does nest site availability limit the density of hole nesting birds in small woodland patches? Web Ecology, 6, 3743.Google Scholar
MacArthur, R.H. & MacArthur, J.W. (1961) On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42, 594598.Google Scholar
MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mackenzie, J.M.D. (1951) Control of forest populations. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, (April), 1–8.Google Scholar
Marquis, R.J. & Whelan, C.J. (1994) Insectivorous birds increase growth of white oak through consumption of leaf-chewing insects. Ecology, 75, 20072014.Google Scholar
Martin, J.-L., Drapeau, P., Fahrig, L. et al. (2012) Birds in cultural landscapes: Actual and perceived differences between northeastern North America and western Europe. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 481515.Google Scholar
Matthysen, E. (1999) Nuthatches (Sitta europaea: Aves) in forest fragments: Demography of a patchy population. Oecologia, 119, 501509.Google Scholar
Matthysen, E. (2005) Density-dependent dispersal in birds and mammals. Ecography, 28, 403416.Google Scholar
Matthysen, E. & Adriaensen, F. (1998) Forest size and isolation have no effect on reproductive success of Eurasian Nuthatches (Sitta europaea). Auk, 115, 955963.Google Scholar
Matthysen, E. & Currie, D. (1996) Habitat fragmentation reduces disperser success in juvenile nuthatches Sitta europaea: Evidence from patterns of territory establishment. Ecography, 19, 6772.Google Scholar
McDermott, M.E. & Wood, P.B. (2011) Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 262, 547554.Google Scholar
McShea, W.J. & Rappole, J.H. (2000) Managing the abundance and diversity of breeding bird populations through manipulation of deer populations. Conservation Biology, 14, 11611170.Google Scholar
Mikusiński, G. (1995) Population trends in black woodpecker in relation to changes and characteristics of European forests. Ecography, 18, 363369Google Scholar
Mills, G.S., Dunning, J.B. & Bates, J.M. (1991) The relationship between breeding bird density and vegetation volume. Wilson Bulletin, 103, 468479.Google Scholar
Mitrus, C. (2003) A comparison of the breeding ecology of collared flycatchers nesting in boxes and natural cavities. Journal of Field Ornithology, 74, 293299.Google Scholar
Møller, A.P. (1989) Parasites, predators and nest boxes: Facts and artefacts in nest box studies of birds? Oikos, 56, 421423.Google Scholar
Møller, A.P., Adriaensen, F., Artemyev, A. et al. (2014) Clutch size variation in Western Palearctic secondary hole-nesting birds in relation to nest box design. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 353362.Google Scholar
Mönkkönen, M., Helle, P. & Soppela, K. (1990) Numerical and behavioural responses of migrant passerines to experimental manipulation of resident tits (Parus spp.): Heterospecific attraction in northern breeding bird communities? Oecologia, 85, 218225.Google Scholar
Moorman, C.E. & Guynn, D.C. (2001) Effects of group-selection opening size on breeding bird habitat use in a bottomland forest. Ecological Applications, 11, 16801691.Google Scholar
Morrison, E.B. & Lindell, C.A. (2012) Birds and bats reduce insect biomass and leaf damage in tropical forest restoration sites. Ecological Applications, 22, 15261534.Google Scholar
Nilsson, K., Sangster, M., Gallis, C. et al. (eds.) (2011) Forests, Trees and Human Health. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Nilsson, S.G. (1979) Density and species richness of some forest bird communities in South Sweden. Oikos, 33, 392401.Google Scholar
Nilsson, S.G. (1987) Limitation and regulation of population density in the Nuthatch Sitta europaea (Aves) breeding in natural cavities. Journal of Animal Ecology, 56, 921937.Google Scholar
Noss, R.F. & Daly, K.M. (2006) Incorporating connectivity into broad-scale conservation planning. In Connectivity Conservation. Crooks, K.R. & Sanjayan, M. (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 587619.Google Scholar
Olsson, O., Wiktander, U., Malmqvist, A. & Nilsson, S.G. (2001) Variability of patch type preferences in relation to resource availability and breeding success in a bird. Oecologia, 127, 435443.Google Scholar
Otto, C.R.V. & Roloff, G.J. (2012) Songbird response to green-tree retention prescriptions in clearcut forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 284, 241250.Google Scholar
Palang, H., Printsmann, A., Gyuro, E.K., Urbanc, M., Skowronek, E. & Woloszyn, W. (2006) The forgotten rural landscapes of Central and Eastern Europe. Landscape Ecology, 21, 347357.Google Scholar
Palomo, I., Montes, C., Martín-López, B. et al. (2014) Incorporating the social-ecological approach in protected areas in the Anthropocene. BioScience, 64, 181191.Google Scholar
Parviainen, J. (2005) Virgin and natural forests in the temperate zone of Europe. Forest Snow and Landscape Research, 79, 918.Google Scholar
Parviainen, J., Bücking, W., Vandekerkhove, K., Schuck, A. & Päivinen, R. (2000) Strict forest reserves in Europe: Efforts to enhance biodiversity and research on forests left for free development in Europe (EU-COST-Action E4). Forestry, 73, 107118.Google Scholar
Parviainen, J. & Schuck, A. (2011) Maintenance, conservation and appropriate enhancement of biological diversity in forest ecosystems. In: State of Europe’s Forests 2011: Status and Trends in Sustainable Forest Management in Europe. Oslo: FOREST EUROPE, UNECE and FAO, pp. 6597.Google Scholar
Penteriani, V., Ferrer, M. & Delgado, M.M. (2011) Floater strategies and dynamics in birds, and their importance in conservation biology: Towards an understanding of nonbreeders in avian populations. Animal Conservation, 14, 233241.Google Scholar
Penteriani, V., Otalora, F. & Ferrer, M. (2008) Floater mortality within settlement areas can explain the Allee effect in breeding populations. Ecological Modelling, 213, 98104.Google Scholar
Peterken, G.F. (1993) Woodland Conservation and Management (2nd ed.). London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
Petit, D.R., Petit, K.E., Grubb, T.C. & Reichhardt, L.J. (1985) Habitat and snag selection by woodpeckers in a clear-cut: An analysis using artificial snags. Wilson Bulletin, 97, 525533.Google Scholar
Pietzarka, U. & Roloff, A. (1993). Forest edge management in consideration of natural vegetation dynamics. Forstarchiv, 64, 107113.Google Scholar
Porneluzi, P.A., Brito-Aguilar, R., Clawson, R.L. & Faaborg, J. (2014) Long-term dynamics of bird use of clearcuts in post-fledging period. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 126, 623832.Google Scholar
Porneluzi, P.A. & Faaborg, J. (1999) Season-long fecundity, survival, and viability of ovenbirds in fragmented and unfragmented landscapes. Conservation Biology, 13, 11511161.Google Scholar
Poulsen, B.O. (2002) Avian richness and abundance in temperate Danish forests: Tree variables important to birds and their conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 15511566.Google Scholar
Pöysä, H. & Pöysä, S. (2002) Nest-site limitation and density dependence of reproductive output in the common goldeneye Bucephala clangula: Implications for the management of cavity-nesting birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 502510.Google Scholar
Quine, C.P., Fuller, R.J., Smith, K.W. & Grice, P.V. (2007) Stand management: A threat or opportunity for birds in British woodland? Ibis (Suppl. 2), 149, 161174.Google Scholar
Remm, J., Lõhmus, A. & Remm, K. (2006) Tree cavities in riverine forests: What determines their occurrence and use by hole-nesting passerines? Forest Ecology and Management, 221, 267277.Google Scholar
Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., Palomares, F., Ferreras, P. & Delibes, M. (2004) Effects of matrix heterogeneity on animal dispersal: From individual behavior to metapopulation-level parameters. American Naturalist, 164, E130E153.Google Scholar
Richard, Y. & Armstrong, D.P. (2010) Cost distance modelling of landscape connectivity and gap-crossing ability using radio-tracking data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 603610.Google Scholar
Roberge, J.-M., Laudon, H., Björkman, C. et al. (2016) Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry. Ambio, 45, 109123.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Ciudad, C. (2012) Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker. Conservation Biology, 26, 284293.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Ciudad, C. (2017) Floaters may buffer the extinction risk of small populations: An empirical assessment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 284, 20170074. Scholar
Robles, H., Ciudad, C. & Matthysen, E. (2011) Tree-cavity occurrence, cavity occupation and reproductive performance of secondary cavity-nesting birds in oak forests: The role of traditional management practices. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 14281435.Google Scholar
Robles, H., Ciudad, C. & Matthysen, E. (2012) Responses to experimental reduction and increase of cavities by a secondary cavity-nesting bird community in cavity-rich Pyrenean oak forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 277, 4653.Google Scholar
Robles, H., Ciudad, C., Vera, R. & Baglione, V. (2007b) No effect of habitat fragmentation on post-fledging, first-year and adult survival in the middle spotted woodpecker. Ecography, 30, 685694.Google Scholar
Robles, H., Ciudad, C., Vera, R., Olea, P.P. & Matthysen, E. (2008) Demographic responses of middle spotted woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) to habitat fragmentation. Auk, 125, 131139.Google Scholar
Robles, H., Ciudad, C., Vera, R., Olea, P.P., Purroy, F.J. & Matthysen, E. (2007a) Sylvopastoral management and conservation of the middle spotted woodpecker at the south-western edge of its distribution range. Forest Ecology and Management, 242, 343352.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Martin, K. (2013) Resource abundance and quality determine the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users in a cavity-nest web. PLoS ONE, 8 (9), e74694.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Martin, K. (2014) Habitat-mediated variation in the importance of ecosystem engineers for secondary cavity nesters in a nest web. PLoS ONE, 9 (2), e90071.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Olea, P.P. (2003) Distribution and abundance of Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius in a southern population of the Cantabrian Mountains. Ardeola, 50, 275280.Google Scholar
Robles, H. & Pasinelli, G. (2014) Woodpeckers as model organisms in a changing world – Foreword to the 7th International Woodpecker Conference Proceedings. Acta Ornithologica, 49, 203206.Google Scholar
Root, R.B. (1973) Organization of a plant–arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: The fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecological Monographs, 43, 95124.Google Scholar
Rosenvald, R. & Lõhmus, A. (2008) For what, when and where is green-tree retention better than clear-cutting? A review of the biodiversity aspects. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 115.Google Scholar
Rost, J., Hutto, R.L., Brotons, L. & Pons, P. (2013) Comparing the effect of salvage logging on birds in the Mediterranean Basin and the Rocky Mountains: Common patterns, different conservation implications. Biological Conservation, 158, 7-13.Google Scholar
Sandom, C.J., Ejrnæs, R., Hansen, M.D.D. & Svenning, J.-C. (2014) High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 41624167.Google Scholar
Schütz, J.-P. (1999) Close-to-nature silviculture: Is this concept compatible with species diversity? Forestry, 72, 359366.Google Scholar
Seymour, R.S. & Hunter, M.L. (1999) Principles of ecological forestry. In Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M.L. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 2261.Google Scholar
Söderström, B. (2009) Effects of different levels of green- and dead-tree retention on hemi-boreal forest bird communities in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 215222.Google Scholar
Smith, K.W. (2007) The utilization of dead wood resources by woodpeckers in Britain. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 183192.Google Scholar
Smith, K.W. & Smith, L. (2013) The effect of supplementary feeding in early spring on the breeding performance of the great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major. Bird Study, 60, 169175.Google Scholar
Sunde, P. (2005) Predators control post-fledging survival in tawny owls, Strix aluco. Oikos, 110, 461472.Google Scholar
Swift, T.L. & Hannon, S.J. (2010) Critical thresholds associated with habitat loss: A review of the concepts, evidence, and applications. Biological Reviews, 85, 3553.Google Scholar
Thompson, F.R. & Burhans, D.E. (2004) Differences in predators of artificial and real songbird nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies. Conservation Biology, 18, 373380.Google Scholar
Thompson, F.R. & DeGraaf, R.M. (2001) Conservation approaches for woody, early successional communities in the eastern United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29, 483494.Google Scholar
Vega Rivera, J.H., Rappole, J.H., McShea, W.J. & Haas, C.A. (1998) Wood thrush postfledging movements and habitat use in northern Virginia. Condor, 100, 6978.Google Scholar
Vera, F.W.M. (2000) Grazing Ecology and Forest History. Wallingford, UK: CABI.Google Scholar
Verner, J. & Larson, T.A. (1989) Richness of breeding bird species in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California. Auk, 106, 447463.Google Scholar
Verschuyl, J., Riffell, S., Miller, D. & Wigley, T.B. (2011) Biodiversity response to intensive biomass production from forest thinning in North American forests – A meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 221232.Google Scholar
Villard, M.-A., Martin, P.R. & Drummond, C.G. (1993) Habitat fragmentation and pairing success in the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus). Auk, 110, 759768.Google Scholar
Ward, M.C. & Schlossberg, S. (2004) Conspecific attraction and the conservation of territorial birds. Conservation Biology, 18, 519525.Google Scholar
Warren, M.S. & Fuller, R.J. (1993) Woodland Rides and Glades: Their Management for Wildlife (2nd ed.). Peterborough, UK: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.Google Scholar
Wesołowski, T. (2002) Antipredator adaptations in nesting Marsh Tits Parus palustris: The role of nest site security. Ibis, 144, 593601.Google Scholar
Wesołowski, T. (2005) Virtual conservation: How the European Union is turning a blind eye to its vanishing primeval forests. Conservation Biology, 19, 13491358.Google Scholar
Wesołowski, T. & Fuller, R.J. (2012) Spatial variation and temporal shifts in habitat use by birds at the European scale. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 6392.Google Scholar
Wilson, M.W., Gittings, T., Kelly, T.C. & O’Halloran, J. (2010) The importance of non-crop vegetation for bird diversity in Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland. Bird Study, 57, 116120.Google Scholar
Zahner, V., Sikora, L. & Pasinelli, G. (2012) Heart rot as a key factor for cavity tree selection in the black woodpecker. Forest Ecology and Management, 271, 98103.Google Scholar
Zanette, L., Doyle, P. & Trémont, S.M. (2000) Food shortage in small fragments: evidence from an area-sensitive passerine. Ecology, 81, 16541666.Google Scholar


Agrawal, A., Chhatre, A. & Hardin, R. (2008) Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science, 320, 14601462.Google Scholar
Alberti, M., Asbjornsen, H., Baker, L.A. et al. (2011) Research on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS): Approach, challenges, and strategies. The Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 92, 218228.Google Scholar
Allen, C.D., Macalady, A.K., Chenchouni, H. et al. (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 660684.Google Scholar
Alvey, A.A. (2006) Promoting and preserving biodiversity in the urban forest. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 5, 195201.Google Scholar
Angelstam, P., Andersson, K., Axelsson, R., Elbakidze, M., Jonsson, B.G. & Roberge, J.-M. (2011) Protecting forest areas for biodiversity in Sweden 1991–2010: The policy implementation process and outcomes on the ground. Silva Fennica, 45, 11111133.Google Scholar
Barnes, G., Pillatt, T. & Williamson, T. (2016) Rural tree populations in England: Historic character and future planting policy. British Wildlife, 27, 392401.Google Scholar
Bedia, J., Herrera, S., Camia, A., Moreno, J.M. & Gutierrez, J.M. (2014) Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 122, 185199.Google Scholar
Berg, M.P., Kiers, T.E., Driessen, G. et al. (2010) Adapt or disperse: Understanding species persistence in a changing world. Global Change Biology, 16, 587598.Google Scholar
Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C.M. & Visser, M.E. (2006) Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature, 441, 8183.Google Scholar
Braunisch, V., Coppes, J., Arlettaz, R., Suchant, R., Zellweger, F. & Bollmann, K. (2014) Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: Compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity. PLoS ONE, 9 (5): e97718.Google Scholar
Brockerhoff, E.G., Jactel, H., Parrotta, J.A., Quine, C.P. & Sayer, J. (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: Oxymoron or opportunity? Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 925951.Google Scholar
Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G. et al. (2002) Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 16, 909923.Google Scholar
Carnus, J.-M., Parrotta, J., Brockerhoff, E. et al. (2006) Planted forests and biodiversity. Journal of Forestry, 104, 6577.Google Scholar
Carrascal, L.M., Galvan, I., Sanchez-Oliver, J.S. & Rey Benayas, J.M. (2014) Regional distribution patterns predict bird occurrence in Mediterranean cropland afforestations. Ecological Research, 29, 203211.Google Scholar
Chace, J.F. & Walsh, J.J. (2006) Urban effects on native avifauna: A review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 74, 4669.Google Scholar
Chazdon, R.L. (2008) Beyond deforestation: Restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science, 320, 14581460.Google Scholar
Cheaib, A., Badeau, V., Boe, J. et al. (2012) Climate change impacts on tree ranges: Model intercomparison facilitates understanding and quantification of uncertainty. Ecology Letters, 15, 533544.Google Scholar
Chollet, S. & Martin, J.-L. (2013) Declining woodland birds in North America: Should we blame Bambi? Diversity and Distributions, 19, 481483.Google Scholar
Clergeau, P., Jokimäki, J. & Savard, J.-P.L. (2001) Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 11221134.Google Scholar
Danielsen, F., Beukema, H., Burgess, N. et al. (2009) Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate. Conservation Biology, 23, 348358.Google Scholar
Demarais, S., Verschuyl, J.P., Roloff, G.J., Miller, D.A. & Wigley, T.B. (2017) Tamm review: Terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and intensive forest management in the U.S. Forest Ecology and Management, 385, 308330.Google Scholar
Devictor, V., Julliard, R., Couvet, D. & Jiguet, F. (2008) Birds are tracking climate warming, but not fast enough. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 27432748.Google Scholar
Dukes, J.S., Pontius, J., Orwig, D. et al. (2009) Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: What can we predict? Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39, 231248.Google Scholar
Eichhorn, M.P., Ryding, J., Smith, M.J., Gill, R.M.A., Siriwardena, G.M. & Fuller, R.J. (2017) Effects of deer on woodland structure revealed through terrestrial laser scanning. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54, 16151626.Google Scholar
Elmqvist, T., Colding, J., Barthel, S. et al. (2004) The dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1023, 308322.Google Scholar
Evans, K.L., Newson, S.E. & Gaston, K.J. (2009) Habitat influences on urban avian assemblages. Ibis, 151, 1939.Google Scholar
FAO (2015) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
Felton, A., Gustafsson, L., Roberge, J.-M. et al. (2016b) How climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies can threaten or enhance the biodiversity of production forests: Insights from Sweden. Biological Conservation, 194, 1120.Google Scholar
Felton, A., Nilsson, U., Sonesson, J. et al. (2016a) Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden. Ambio, 45 (Suppl. 2), 124139.Google Scholar
Fernández-Juricic, E. (2004) Spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of forest specialists in an urban-fragmented landscape (Madrid, Spain): Implications for local and regional bird conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69, 1732.Google Scholar
Fischer, A., Marshall, P. & Camp, A. (2013) Disturbances in deciduous temperate forest ecosystems of the northern hemisphere: Their effects on both recent and future forest development. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22, 18631893.Google Scholar
Fontana, S., Sattler, T., Bontadina, F. & Moretti, M. (2011) How to manage the urban green to improve bird diversity and community structure. Landscape and Urban Planning, 101, 278285.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.A., Irvine, K.N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P.H. & Gaston, K.J. (2007b) Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3, 390394.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J. (2013) Searching for biodiversity gains through woodfuel and forest management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 12951300.Google Scholar
Fuller, R.J., Smith, K.W., Grice, P.V., Currie, F.A. & Quine, C.P. (2007a) Habitat change and woodland birds in Britain: Implications for management and future research. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 261268.Google Scholar
Gauthier, S., Bernier, P., Kuuluvainen, T., Shvidenko, A.Z. & Schepaschenko, D.G. (2015) Boreal forest health and global change. Science, 349, 819822.Google Scholar
Gómez-Aparicio, L., García-Valdés, R., Ruíz-Benito, P. & Zavala, M.A. (2011) Disentangling the relative importance of climate, size and competition on tree growth in Iberian forests: Implications for forest management under global change. Global Change Biology, 17, 24002414.Google Scholar
Gottschalk, T.K. & Reiners, T.E. (2015) Forest conversion can help to mitigate impacts of climate change on common forest birds. Annals of Forest Science, 72, 335348.Google Scholar
Graham, C.T., Wilson, M.W., Gittings, T. et al. (2017) Implications of afforestation for bird communities: The importance of preceding land-use type. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26, 30513071.Google Scholar
Grodsky, S.M., Moorman, C.E., Fritts, S.R. et al. (2016b) Winter bird use of harvest residues in clearcuts and the implications of forest bioenergy harvest in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 379, 91101.Google Scholar
Grodsky, S.M., Moorman, C.E., Fritts, S.R., Castleberry, S.B. & Wigley, T.B. (2016a) Breeding, early-successional bird response to forest harvests for bioenergy. PLoS ONE, 11, e0165070.Google Scholar
Haché, S., Cameron, R., Villard, M.-A., Bayne, E.M. & MacLean, D.A. (2016) Demographic response of a neotropical migrant songbird to forest management and climate change scenarios. Forest Ecology and Management, 359, 309320.Google Scholar
Hamann, A. & Aitken, S.N. (2013) Conservation planning under climate change: Accounting for adaptive potential and migration capacity in species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 19, 268280.Google Scholar
Hamann, A. & Wang, T. (2006) Potential effects of climate change on ecosystem and tree species distribution in British Columbia. Ecology, 87, 27732786.Google Scholar
Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore, R. et al. (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science, 342, 850853.Google Scholar
Hartel, T., Hanspach, J., Abson, D.J., Mathe, O., Moga, C.I. & Fischer, J. (2014) Bird communities in traditional wood-pastures with changing management in Eastern Europe. Basic and Applied Ecology, 15, 385395.Google Scholar
Hartley, M.J. (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 155, 8195.Google Scholar
Hedblom, M., Knez, I., Ode Sang, Å. & Gunnarsson, B. (2017) Evaluation of natural sounds in urban greenery: Potential impact for urban nature preservation. Royal Society Open Science, 4, Article no. 170037.Google Scholar
Hedblom, M. & Söderström, B. (2010) Landscape effects on birds in urban woodlands: An analysis of 34 Swedish cities. Journal of Biogeography, 37, 13021316.Google Scholar
Heller, N.E. & Zavaleta, E.S. (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation, 142, 1432.Google Scholar
Heyman, E., Gunnarsson, B., Stenseke, M., Henningsson, S. & Tim, G. (2011) Openness as a key-variable for analysis of management trade-offs in urban woodlands. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 10, 281293.Google Scholar
Heywood, V.H. & Watson, R.T. (1995) Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Holmes, R.T. (2007) Understanding population change in migratory songbirds: Long-term and experimental studies of Neotropical migrants in breeding and wintering areas. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 213.Google Scholar
Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2013a) Deer reduce habitat quality for a woodland songbird: Evidence from settlement patterns, demographic parameters, and body condition. Auk, 130, 1320.Google Scholar
Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2013b) Exclusion of deer affects responses of birds to woodland regeneration in winter and summer. Ibis, 156, 116131.Google Scholar
Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., De Sy, V. et al. (2012) An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters, 7, Article no. 044009.Google Scholar
Kalies, E.L., Chambers, C.L. & Covington, W.W. (2010) Wildlife responses to thinning and burning treatments in southwestern conifer forests: A meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 333342.Google Scholar
Keast, A. (1990) Biogeography and Ecology of Forest Bird Communities. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
Keenan, R.J., Reams, G.A., Achard, F., de Freitas, J., Grainger, A. & Lindquist, E. (2015) Dynamics of global forest area: Results from the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 920.Google Scholar
Koh, L.P. & Ghazoul, J. (2008) Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: Understanding the conflicts and finding opportunities. Biological Conservation, 141, 24502460.Google Scholar
Krosby, M., Tewksbury, J., Haddad, N.M. & Hoekstra, J. (2010) Ecological connectivity for a changing climate. Conservation Biology, 24, 16861689.Google Scholar
La Porta, N., Capretti, P., Thomsen, I.M., Kasanen, R., Hietala, A.M. & Von Weissenberg, K. (2008) Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 30, 177195.Google Scholar
Lazdinis, M., Roberge, J.-M., Kurlavičius, P., Mozgeris, G. & Angelstam, P. (2005) Afforestation planning and biodiversity conservation: Predicting effects on habitat functionality in Lithuania. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48, 331348.Google Scholar
LeBrun, J.J., Schneiderman, J.E., Thompson, F.R. et al. (2017) Bird response to future climate and forest management focused on mitigating climate change. Landscape Ecology, 32, 14331446.Google Scholar
Leech, D.I. & Crick, H.Q.P. (2007) Influence of climate change on the abundance, distribution and phenology of woodland bird species in temperate regions. Ibis, 149 (Suppl. 2), 128145.Google Scholar
Lemoine, N. & Böhning-Gaese, K. (2003) Potential impact of global climate change on species richness of long-distance migrants. Conservation Biology, 17, 577586.Google Scholar
Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F. & Fischer, J. (2006) General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 131, 433445.Google Scholar
Lõhmus, K. & Liira, J. (2013) Old rural parks support higher biodiversity than forest remnants. Basic and Applied Ecology, 14, 165173.Google Scholar
Luck, G.W., Davidson, P., Boxall, D. & Smallbone, L. (2011) Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature. Conservation Biology, 25, 816826.Google Scholar
Maklakov, A.A., Immler, S., Gonzalez-Voyer, A., Ronn, J. & Kolm, N. (2011) Brains and the city: Big-brained passerine birds succeed in urban environments. Biology Letters, 7, 730732.Google Scholar
Manning, A.D., Fischer, J. & Lindenmayer, D.B. (2006) Scattered trees are keystone structures: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 132, 311321.Google Scholar
Martin, J.-L., Drapeau, P., Fahrig, L. et al. (2012) Birds in cultural landscapes: Actual and perceived differences between northeastern North America and western Europe. In Birds and Habitat: Relationships in Changing Landscapes. Fuller, R.J. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 481515.Google Scholar
Marzluff, J.M., Clucas, B., Oleyar, M.D. & DeLap, J. (2016) The causal response of avian communities to suburban development: A quasi-experimental, longitudinal study. Urban Ecosystems, 19, 15971621.Google Scholar
Matthews, S.N., Iverson, L.R., Prasad, A.M. & Peters, M.P. (2011) Changes in potential habitat of 147 North American breeding bird species in response to redistribution of trees and climate following predicted climate change. Ecography, 34, 933945.Google Scholar
McKinney, M.L. (2006) Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biological Conservation, 127, 247260.Google Scholar
Melles, S., Glenn, S. & Martin, K. (2003) Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: Species-environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient. Ecology and Society, 7 (1), 5.Google Scholar
Mikusiński, G. (1997) Winter foraging of the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius in managed forest in south-central Sweden. Ornis Fennica, 74, 161166.Google Scholar
Millar, C.I., Stephenson, N.L. & Stephens, S.L. (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: Managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications, 17, 21452151.Google Scholar
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
Minor, E. & Urban, D. (2010) Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development. Urban Ecosystems, 13, 5171.Google Scholar
Mitchell, M.S., Reynolds-Hogland, M.J., Smith, M.L. et al. (2008) Projected long-term response of Southeastern birds to forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 256, 18841896.Google Scholar
Mönkkönen, M., Juutinen, A., Mazziotta, A. et al. (2014) Spatially dynamic forest management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns. Journal of Environmental Management, 134, 8089.Google Scholar
Mörtberg, U. & Wallentinus, H.-G. (2000) Red-listed forest bird species in an urban environment – Assessment of green space corridors. Landscape and Urban Planning, 50, 215226.Google Scholar
Newson, S.E., Johnston, A., Renwick, A.R., Baillie, S.R. & Fuller, R.J. (2012) Modelling large-scale relationships between changes in woodland deer and bird populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 278286.Google Scholar
Nixon, K., Silbernagel, J., Price, J., Miller, N. & Swaty, R. (2014) Habitat availability for multiple avian species under modeled alternative conservation scenarios in the Two Hearted River watershed in Michigan, USA. Journal for Nature Conservation, 22, 302317.Google Scholar
Noss, R.F. (2001) Beyond Kyoto: Forest management in a time of rapid climate change. Conservation Biology, 15, 578590.Google Scholar
Ockendon, N., Hewson, C.M., Johnston, A. & Atkinson, P.W. (2012) Declines in British-breeding populations of Afro-Palaearctic migrant birds are linked to bioclimatic wintering zone in Africa, possibly via constraints on arrival time advancement. Bird Study, 59, 111125.Google Scholar
Paillet, Y., Bergès, L., Hjältén, J. et al. (2010) Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: Meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conservation Biology, 24, 101112.Google Scholar
Pautasso, M. (2013) Phytophthora ramorum – A pathogen linking network epidemiology, landscape pathology and conservation biogeography. CAB Reviews, 8, no. 024.Google Scholar
Pautasso, M., Aas, G., Queloz, V. & Holdenrieder, O. (2013) European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback – A conservation biology challenge. Biological Conservation, 158, 3749.Google Scholar
Pearce-Higgins, J.W. & Green, R.E. (2014) Birds and Climate Change: Impacts and Conservation Responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Pereira, H.M., Leadley, P.W., Proença, V. et al. (2010) Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science, 330, 14961501.Google Scholar
Plieninger, T. (2012) Monitoring directions and rates of change in trees outside forests through multitemporal analysis of map sequences. Applied Geography, 32, 566576.Google Scholar
Potapov, P., Yaroshenko, A., Turubanova, S. et al. (2008) Mapping the world’s intact forest landscapes by remote sensing. Ecology and Society, 13, Article no. 51.Google Scholar
Preiss, E., Martin, J.-L. & Debussche, M. (1997) Rural depopulation and recent landscape changes in a Mediterranean region: Consequences to the breeding avifauna. Landscape Ecology, 12, 5161.Google Scholar
Ram, D., Axelsson, A.-L., Green, M., Smith, H.G. & Lindström, Å. (2017) What drives current population trends in forest birds – Forest quantity, quality or climate? A large-scale analysis from northern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 385, 177188.Google Scholar
Ramsfield, T.D., Bentz, B.J., Faccoli, M., Jactel, H. & Brockerhoff, E.G. (2016) Forest health in a changing world: Effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts. Forestry, 89, 245252.Google Scholar
Roberge, J.-M., Lämås, T., Lundmark, T., Ranius, T., Felton, A. & Nordin, A. (2015) Relative contributions of set-asides and tree retention to the long-term availability of key forest biodiversity structures at the landscape scale. Journal of Environmental Management, 154, 284292.Google Scholar
Roberge, J-M., Laudon, H., Björkman, C. et al. (2016) Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry. Ambio, 45 (Suppl. 2), 109123.Google Scholar
Rodewald, A.D. & Shustack, D.P. (2008) Urban flight: Understanding individual and population-level responses of Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds to urbanization. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 8391.Google Scholar
Rolstad, J., Majewski, P. & Rolstad, E. (1998) Black woodpecker use of habitats and feeding substrates in a managed Scandinavian forest. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 1123.Google Scholar
Root, T. 1988. Environmental factors associated with avian distributional boundaries. Journal of Biogeography, 15, 489505.Google Scholar
Rudel, T.K., Coomes, O.T., Moran, E. et al. (2005) Forest transitions: Towards a global understanding of land use change. Global Environmental Change, 15, 2331.Google Scholar
Rutz, C. (2008) The establishment of an urban bird population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 10081019.Google Scholar
Sandström, U.G., Angelstam, P. & Mikusiński, G. (2006) Ecological diversity of birds in relation to the structure of urban green space. Landscape and Urban Planning, 77, 3953.Google Scholar
Santos, T., Telleria, J.L., Diaz, M. & Carbonell, R. (2006) Evaluating the benefits of CAP reforms: Can afforestations restore bird diversity in Mediterranean Spain? Basic and Applied Ecology, 7, 483495.Google Scholar
Sanz, A.S.R., Fernandez, C., Mouillot, F., Ferrat, L., Istria, D. & Pasqualini, V. (2013) Long-term forest dynamics and land-use abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France. Ecology and Society, 18 (2), Article no. 38.Google Scholar
Schneider, S.H. (1992) Global climate change: Ecosystems effects. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 17, 142148.Google Scholar
Sekercioglu, C.H., Schneider, S.H., Fay, J.P. & Loarie, S.R. (2008) Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conservation Biology, 22, 140150.Google Scholar
Simonsson, P., Gustafsson, L. & Ostlund, L. (2015) Retention forestry in Sweden: Driving forces, debate and implementation 1968–2003. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 154173.Google Scholar
Sloan, S. & Sayer, J.A. (2015) Forest Resources Assessment of 2015 shows positive global trends but forest loss and degradation persist in poor tropical countries. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 134145.Google Scholar
Smeets, E.M.W. & Faaij, A.P.C. (2007) Bioenergy potentials from forestry in 2050: An assessment of the drivers that determine the potentials. Climatic Change, 81, 353390.Google Scholar
Stocks, B.J., Fosberg, M.A., Lynham, T.J. et al. (1998) Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Climatic Change, 38, 113.Google Scholar
Tang, L., Shao, G., Piao, Z. et al. (2010) Forest degradation deepens around and within protected areas in East Asia. Biological Conservation, 143, 12951298.Google Scholar
Tarr, N.M., Rubino, M.J., Costanza, J.K., McKerrow, A.J., Collazo, J.A. & Abt, R.C. (2017) Projected gains and losses of wildlife habitat from bioenergy-induced landscape change. GCB Bioenergy, 9, 909923.Google Scholar
Toyoshima, Y., Yamaura, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Yabuhara, Y. & Nakamura, F. (2013) Reconciling wood production with bird conservation: A regional analysis using bird distribution models and forestry scenarios in Tokachi district, northern Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 307, 5462.Google Scholar
Tracewski, L., Butchart, S.H.M., Donald, P.F., Evans, M., Fishpool, L.D.C. & Buchanan, G.M. (2016) Patterns of twenty-first century forest loss across a global network of important sites for biodiversity. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 2 (1), 3744.Google Scholar
Trumbore, S., Brando, P. & Hartmann, H. (2015) Forest health and global change. Science, 349, 814818.Google Scholar
Twedt, D.J., Uihlein, W.B. III & Blaine, E.A. (2006) A spatially explicit decision support model for restoration of forest bird habitat. Conservation Biology, 20, 100110.Google Scholar
UPPF (2017) United Nations Population Fund. Scholar
Versluijs, M., Eggers, S., Hjältén, J., Löfroth, T. & Roberge, J.-M. (2017) Ecological restoration in boreal forest modifies the structure of bird assemblages. Forest Ecology and Management, 401, 7588.Google Scholar
Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R.K., Leikola, N. & Luoto, M. (2008) Projected large-scale range reductions of northern-boreal land bird species due to climate change. Biological Conservation, 141, 13431353.Google Scholar
Visser, M.E. (2008) Keeping up with a warming world: Assessing the rate of adaptation to climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 649659.Google Scholar
Walmsley, J.D. & Godbold, D.L. (2010) Stump harvesting for bioenergy: A review of the environmental impacts. Forestry, 83, 1738.Google Scholar
Weih, M. (2004) Intensive short rotation forestry in boreal climates: Present and future perspectives. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, 13691378.Google Scholar
Wenhua, L. (2004) Degradation and restoration of forest ecosystems in China. Forest Ecology and Management, 201, 3341.Google Scholar
Williams, J.W. & Jackson, S.T. (2007) Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 475482.Google Scholar
Wilson, M.W., Gittings, T., Pithon, J., Kelly, T.C., Irwin, S. & O’Halloran, J. (2012) Bird diversity of afforestation habitats in Ireland: Current trends and likely impacts. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 112B, 5568.Google Scholar
Wotton, B.M., Nock, C.A. & Flannigan, M.D. (2010) Forest fire occurrence and climate change in Canada. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 19, 253271.Google Scholar
Zhu, K., Woodall, C.W. & Clark, J.S. (2012) Failure to migrate: Lack of tree range expansion in response to climate change. Global Change Biology, 18, 10421052.Google Scholar