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Chapter 9 - Igneous rocks

Their mode of occurrence, classification, and plate tectonic setting

Cornelis Klein
Affiliation:
University of New Mexico
Anthony R. Philpotts
Affiliation:
University of Connecticut
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Summary

So far in this book we have classified rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic, and we have discussed the origin of magmas and igneous rocks using only a few common rock names, such as basalt, andesite, and granite. In this chapter, we consider the classification of igneous rocks in more detail, and we see, for example, that some rock types commonly occur together, whereas others are never associated. In Chapter 8, we learned about igneous rock-forming processes – why rocks melt, where they melt, and how they melt. We saw that the melting process controls the composition of the liquid, which determines the composition of magmas that ascend into the crust. We also learned about the physical properties of magma and of processes that can change its composition and, hence, the spectrum of igneous rocks it can form. We are in a position to use this knowledge, first, to describe where igneous rocks form; second, to learn how igneous rocks are classified; and finally, to relate igneous rocks to plate tectonics.

Type
Chapter
Information
Earth Materials
Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology
, pp. 236 - 287
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

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References

http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/aboutus/jlowenstern/other/software_jbl.html
http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu
Christiansen, R. L 1979 Cooling units and composite sheets in relation to caldera structureAsh Flow TuffsChapin, C. EElston, W. E.Geological Society of America Special PaperGoogle Scholar
de Boer, J. Z.Sanders, D. T 2002 Volcanoes in Human HistoryPrinceton University PressPrinceton, NJGoogle Scholar
Irvine, T. NBaragar, W.R.A 1971 A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocksCanadian Journal of Earth Science 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Maitre, R. W 1976 The chemical variability of some common igneous rocksJournal of Petrology 17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKenzie, W. S.Donaldson, C. H.Guilford, C. 1982 Atlas of Igneous Rocks and Their TexturesLongman Group Ltd.Harlow, Essex, UKGoogle Scholar
Wager, L. RBrown, G. M 1967 Layered Igneous RocksOliver & BoydGoogle Scholar

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