Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 0.443 Render date: 2021-12-07T10:36:45.250Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

5 - Caretaker conventions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2015

Brian Galligan
University of Melbourne
Scott Brenton
Australian National University, Canberra
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Constitutional Conventions in Westminster Systems
Controversies, Changes and Challenges
, pp. 91 - 115
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2015

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbott, Tony 2013. Communication – 06 August. Available at:
Adonis, Andrew 2013. 5 Days in May: The Coalition and Beyond. London: Biteback Publishing.Google Scholar
Australian Public Service Commission 2014. APS Values. Available at:
Boston, Jonathan, Levine, Stephen, McLeay, Elizabeth, Roberts, Nigel, and Schmidt, Hannah 1998. ‘Caretaker government and the evolution of caretaker conventions in New Zealand’. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review. 28 (4): 629–48.Google Scholar
Bowden, James W. J. and MacDonald, Nicholas A. 2012. ‘Writing the unwritten: the officialization of constitutional convention in Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia’. Journal of Parliamentary and Political Law. 6 (2): 366400.Google Scholar
Brown, Gordon 2010. ‘Towards a new politics’. Speech to the Institute for Public Policy Research, 10 February. Available at:
Cameron, David 2011. ‘Foreword by the Prime Minister’. The Cabinet Manual: A Guide to Laws, Conventions and Rules on the Operation of Government, 1st ed. Available at:
Canada Public Service Commission 2014. Public Service Employment Act. Available at:
Cappe, Mel 2013. ‘The Caretaker Convention: Part II’. The Inside Agenda Blog, 5 March. Available at:
Codd, Michael 1996. ‘National elections: Caretaker conventions and arrangements for transition’, Australian Institute of Administrative Law (AIAL) Forum No. 10.
Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPM&C) 1987. ‘Caretaker conventions and other pre-election practices’, Annual Report 1986–87, AGPS, Canberra.PubMed
Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPM&C) 2010. Guidelines for Post-election Consultations with Independent Members, AGPS, Canberra.
Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPM&C) 2013. Guidance on Caretaker Conventions, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Canberra.
Costar, Brian 2012. ‘Seventeen days to power: Making a minority government’. In Simms, Marian and Wanna, John (eds.), Julia 2010: The Caretaker Election. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
Dicey, A.V. 1959. Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 10th ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education Ltd.Google Scholar
Franks, C.E.S (Ned.) 2011. ‘Observations: Parliaments, 1945–2008: Dissolution, Elections, First Sittings, Etc.’ in Public Policy Forum Towards Guidelines on Government Formation: Facilitating Openness and Efficiency in Canada’s Governance. Final Report April 2012. Available at:
Government of Canada 2008. Guidelines on the Conduct of Ministers, Secretaries of State, Exempt Staff and Public Servants during an Election. Document released under Access to Information Act. Available at:
Gustafson, Barry 2000. His Way: A Biography of Robert Muldoon. Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
Hazell, Robert and Riddell, Peter 2010. A Draft Caretaker convention for the UK Modelled on that in Australia and New Zealand. Supplementary Memorandum to Justice Committee. Available at:
Heard, Andrew 1989. ‘Recognizing the variety among constitutional conventions’. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 22 (1): 6381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heard, Andrew 1991. Canadian Constitutional Conventions: The Marriage of Law and Politics. Toronto: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Heppell, Timothy 2013. ‘The fall of the Brown government, 2010’, in Heppell, Timothy and Theakston, Kevin (eds.), How Labour Governments Fall. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hood Phillips, Owen, Jackson, Paul and Leopold, Patricia 2001. Constitutional and Administrative Law, 8th ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
House of Commons Justice Committee 2010. ‘Constitutional processes following a general election’. Fifth Report of Session 2009–10. HC 396. Available at:
House of Commons Political and Constitutional Reform Committee 2011. ‘Lessons from the process of Government formation after the 2010 General Election’. Fourth Report of Session 2010–11. HC 528, 28 January.
Jaconelli, Joseph 2005. ‘Do constitutional conventions bind?Cambridge Law Review 64 (1): 149–76.Google Scholar
Killey, Ian 2009. Constitutional Conventions in Australia: An Introduction to the Unwritten Rules of Australia’s Constitutions. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.Google Scholar
Kitteridge, Rebecca 2006. ‘The Cabinet Manual: Evolution with time’. Presented at 8th Annual Public Law Forum, 20–21 March.
Laver, Michael and Shepsle, Kenneth A. 2004. ‘Cabinet government in theoretical perspective’, in Laver, Michael and Shepsle, Kenneth A. (eds.), Cabinet Ministers and Parliamentary Government. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Laws, David 2010. 22 Days in May, 2nd ed. London: Biteback Publishing.Google Scholar
Marmor, Andrei 2007. ‘Deep conventions’. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research LXXIV (3): 586610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Geoffrey 1984. Constitutional Conventions: The Rules and Forms of Political Accountability. Oxford Scholarship Online. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198762027.001.0001.Google Scholar
Marshall, Geoffrey 2003. ‘The constitution: Its theory and interpretation’, in Bogdanor, V. (ed.), The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Marshall, Geoffrey and Moodie, Graeme C. 1971. Some Problems of the Constitution. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Menzies, Jennifer and Tiernan, Anne 2014. Caretaker Conventions in Australasia, 2nd ed. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
Morozow, Anna 2013. ‘Asylum seeker policy ads fine to run during election campaign’, Auditor-General rules, ABC News, 15 August.
New Zealand Cabinet Office 2011. ‘Constitutional procedures after the election’. Circular (11) 05.
New Zealand Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2008. Cabinet Manuel. Wellington: NZPM&C.
New Zealand State Services Commission 2014. Standards of Integrity and Conduct. Available at:
O’Donnell, Gus 2011. ‘Preface by the Cabinet Secretary’. The Cabinet Manual: A Guide to Laws, Conventions and Rules on the Operation of Government, 1st ed. Available at:
Parliament of Canada 1995. ‘Special Senate Committee on the Pearson Airport Agreements’. Minority Report. Available at:
Public Policy Forum 2012. ‘Towards guidelines on Government formation: Facilitating Openness and Efficiency in Canada’s Governance’. Final Report. Available at:–21.pdf.
Reid, Gordon 1977. ‘Commentaries’, in Evans, Gareth (ed.), Labor and the Constitution: Essays and Commentaries on Constitutional Controversies of the Whitlam Years in Australian Government. Melbourne: Heinemann.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R.A.W. 2014. ‘Recovering the ‘craft’ of public administration in network governance’. Plenary address to the International Political Science Association World Congress. Montreal, 19–24 July.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R.A.W. and Tiernan, Anne 2014. Lessons in Governing: A Profile of Prime Ministers’ Chiefs of Staff. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R.A.W., Wanna, John and Weller, Patrick 2009. Comparing Westminster. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, Monique 2013. ‘Government accused of violating caretaker conventions over asylum seeker ad blitz’. ABC News, 10 August.
Russell, Peter H. 2009. ‘The need for agreement on fundamental conventions of parliamentary democracy’. National Journal of Constitutional Law 27 (Constitutional Update 2009): 205–15.Google Scholar
Tiernan, Anne and Menzies, Jennifer 2007. Caretaker Conventions in Australasia: Minding the Shop for Government. Canberra: ANU e-press.Google Scholar
United Kingdom Cabinet Office 2010. Directory of Civil Service Guidance, Vol. 2. Available at:
United Kingdom Cabinet Office 2015. General Election Guidance. Available at:
United Kingdom Government 2010. Statutory Guidance: The Civil Service Code. Available at:
Wanna, John 2014. ‘Australia’s future as a “Westminster Democracy” – threats to combat, stark choices to make’. Australian Journal of Public Administration. 73 (1): 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watt, Ian 2013. Communication – 09 August 2013. Available at:
Wheare, Kenneth 1951. Modern Constitutions. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zussman, David 2013. Off and Running: The Prospects and Pitfalls of Government Transitions in Canada. University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats