Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-xbgml Total loading time: 1.602 Render date: 2022-08-18T20:00:48.057Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 1 - Conceptual and Strategic Issues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 August 2019

Patrick D. McGorry
Affiliation:
University of Melbourne
Ian B. Hickie
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
Get access

Summary

A fundamental aim of diagnosis is to guide treatment planning and predict illness course. Yet for too long psychiatric diagnosis, grounded on traditional silo-based approaches, has lacked clinical utility. This chapter explores the purpose of diagnosis and classification as well as the inability to validate diagnosis in psychiatry. It is proposed that new testable models are needed to improve the utility of diagnosis and support more personalised and sequential treatment selection. A number of new approaches have been put forward, including hierarchical and network-based methods, however at present, these offer limited value in guiding treatment selection. Clinical staging offers a viable solution. Clinical staging in psychiatry recognises that mental disorders are not static and discretely defined entities, but rather they are syndromes that overlap and develop in stages. The model ensures that interventions are proportional to both need and the risk of progressing to later stages and more established syndromes, which are likely to be comorbid, persistent, recurrent and disabling. Ultimately, it advocates a transdiagnostic approach to intervention, with a pre-emptive focus, that is based on risk-benefit considerations and patient needs. Clinical staging also provides a framework in which underlying biological mechanisms can be linked to each stage, to build a personalised and pre-emptive psychiatry.

Type
Chapter
Information
Clinical Staging in Psychiatry
Making Diagnosis Work for Research and Treatment
, pp. 1 - 80
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahuja, A., & McGorry, P. (2012, 23 March). Diagnostic disorder and how to help its recovery. Australian Financial Review.
Angell, M. (2011, 14 July). The illusions of psychiatry. New York Review of Books.CrossRef
Borsboom, D. (2017). A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boseley, S. (2012, 9 February). Psychologists fear US manual will widen mental illness diagnosis: mental disorders listed in publication that should not exist, warn UK experts. Guardian.
Carey, B. (2012, 19 January). New definition of autism will exclude many, study suggests. New York Times.
Carpenter, W. T., & van Os, J. (2011). Should attenuated psychosis syndrome be a DSM-5 diagnosis? American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 460463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Harrington, H., Israel, S., … Poulton, R. (2014). The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2(2), 119137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, F. S., & Varmus, H. (2015). A new initiative on precision medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(9), 793795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuijpers, P. (2003). Examining the effects of prevention programs on the incidence of new cases of mental disorders: the lack of statistical power. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(8), 13851391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuthbert, B. N., & Insel, T. R. (2010). Toward new approaches to psychotic disorders: the NIMH Research Domain Criteria project. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(6), 10611062.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, J. P., … Zaslavsky, A. M. (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA, 291(21), 25812590.Google Scholar
Dominguez, M. D., Wichers, M., Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., & van Os, J. (2011). Evidence that onset of clinical psychosis is an outcome of progressively more persistent subclinical psychotic experiences: an 8-year cohort study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(1), 8493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eaton, W. W., Badawi, M., & Melton, B. (1995). Prodromes and precursors: epidemiologic data for primary prevention of disorders with slow onset. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7), 967972.Google ScholarPubMed
Frances, A. (2010, 14 August). Good grief. New York Times.
Frances, A. (2013). Saving normal: an insider’s revolt against out-of-control psychiatric diagnosis, DSM-5, big pharma, and the medicalization of ordinary life. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
Fusar-Poli, P., & Yung, A. R. (2012). Should attenuated psychosis syndrome be included in DSM-5? Lancet, 379(9816), 591592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenberg, G. (2013). The book of woe: the DSM and the unmaking of psychiatry. New York: Blue Rider Press.Google Scholar
Jablensky, A. (2012). Prototypes, syndromes and dimensions of psychopathology: an open agenda for research. World Psychiatry, 11(1), 2223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jablensky, A. (2016). Psychiatric classifications: validity and utility. World Psychiatry, 15(1), 2631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Judd, L. L., Schettler, P. J., & Akiskal, H. S. (2002). The prevalence, clinical relevance, and public health significance of subthreshold depressions. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25(4), 685698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaymaz, N., Drukker, M., Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., Werbeloff, N., Weiser, M., … van Os, J. (2012). Do subthreshold psychotic experiences predict clinical outcomes in unselected non-help-seeking population-based samples? A systematic review and meta-analysis, enriched with new results. Psychological Medicine, 42(11), 22392253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R. E. (1975a). The role of diagnosis in psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Kendell, R. E. (1975b). The concept of disease and its implications for psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 305315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R. E., & Jablensky, A. (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S. (2016). The nature of psychiatric disorders. World Psychiatry, 15(1), 512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Zachar, P., & Craver, C. (2011). What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders? Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 11431150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., & Watson, D. (2018). A paradigm shift in psychiatric classification: the Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP). World Psychiatry, 17(1), 2425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linscott, R. J., & van Os, J. (2013). An updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 43(6), 11331149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D. (2013). The next stage for diagnosis: validity through utility. World Psychiatry, 12(3), 213215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Hartmann, J. A., Spooner, R., & Nelson, B. (2018). Beyond the ‘at risk mental state’ concept: transitioning to transdiagnostic psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 17(2), 133142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2006). Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safe and more effective interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(8), 616622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D., Nelson, B., Goldstone, S., & Yung, A. R. (2010). Clinical staging: a heuristic and practical strategy for new research and better health and social outcomes for psychotic and related mood disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(8), 486497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Purcell, R., Goldstone, S., & Amminger, G. P. (2011). Age of onset and timing of treatment for mental and substance use disorders: implications for preventive intervention strategies and models of care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24(4), 301306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Purcell, R., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2007). Clinical staging: a heuristic model for psychiatry and youth mental health. Medical Journal of Australia, 187(7 Suppl.), S40S42.Google ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, P. (2016). My way (2nd ed.). Newcastle, NSW: Principal Print.Google Scholar
National Research Council. (2011). Toward precision medicine: building a knowledge network for biomedical research and a new taxonomy of disease. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(12), 947957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reininghaus, U., Böhnke, J. R., Chavez-Baldini, U., Gibbons, R., Ivleva, E., Clementz, B. A., … Tamminga, C. A. (2018). Transdiagnostic dimensions of psychosis in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP). World Psychiatry, 18(1), 6776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reininghaus, U., Böhnke, J. R., Hosang, G., Farmer, A., Burns, T., McGuffin, P., & Bentall, R. P. (2016). Evaluation of the validity and utility of a transdiagnostic psychosis dimension encompassing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209(2), 107113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reininghaus, U., Priebe, S., & Bentall, R. P. (2013). Testing the psychopathology of psychosis: evidence for a general psychosis dimension. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39(4), 884895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutledge, R., & Osler, T. (1998). The ICD-9-based illness severity score: a new model that outperforms both DRG and APR-DRG as predictors of survival and resource utilization. Journal of Trauma, 45(4), 791799.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephan, K. E., Bach, D. R., Fletcher, P. C., Flint, J., Frank, M. J., Friston, K. J., … Breakspear, M. (2016a). Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 1: classification and diagnosis. Lancet Psychiatry, 3(1), 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephan, K. E., Binder, E. B., Breakspear, M., Dayan, P., Johnstone, E. C., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., … Friston, K. J. (2016b). Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 2: pathogenesis and aetiology. Lancet Psychiatry, 3(1), 8490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trusheim, M. R., Berndt, E. R., & Douglas, F. L. (2007). Stratified medicine: strategic and economic implications of combining drugs and clinical biomarkers. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 6(4), 287293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J., & Linscott, R. J. (2012). Introduction: the extended psychosis phenotype – relationship with schizophrenia and with ultrahigh risk status for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(2), 227230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, P. S., Demler, O., & Kessler, R. C. (2002). Adequacy of treatment for serious mental illness in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 92(1), 9298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woods, S. W., Walsh, B. C., Saksa, J. R., & McGlashan, T. H. (2010). The case for including Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms Syndrome in DSM-5 as a psychosis risk syndrome. Schizophrenia Research, 123(2–3), 199207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, A. R., & McGorry, P. D. (1996). The initial prodrome in psychosis: descriptive and qualitative aspects. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 30(5), 587599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., McGorry, P. D., McFarlane, C. A., Francey, S., Harrigan, S., … Jackson, H. J. (1998). Prediction of psychosis: a step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172(33), 1420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anttila, V., Bulik-Sullivan, B., Finucane, H. K., Walters, R. K., Bras, J., Duncan, L., … Neale, B. M. (2018). Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. Science, 360(6395), eaap8757.Google ScholarPubMed
Banati, R., & Hickie, I. B. (2009). Therapeutic signposts: using biomarkers to guide better treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disordersMedical Journal of Australia190(4), S26S32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartholomeusz, C. F., Cropley, V. L., Wannan, C., Di Biase, M., McGorry, P. D., & Pantelis, C. (2017). Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging modelAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry51(5), 455476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berk, M., Brnabic, A., Dodd, S., Kelin, K., Tohen, M., Malhi, G. S., … McGorry, P. D. (2011). Does stage of illness impact treatment response in bipolar disorder? Empirical treatment data and their implication for the staging model and early interventionBipolar Disorders13(1), 8798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosci, F., & Fava, G. A. (2013). Staging of mental disorders: systematic reviewPsychotherapy and Psychosomatics82(1), 2034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cross, S. P., Hermens, D. F., & Hickie, I. B. (2016). Treatment patterns and short‐term outcomes in an early intervention youth mental health serviceEarly Intervention in Psychiatry10(1), 8897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cross, S. P., Hermens, D. F., Scott, E. M., Ottavio, A., McGorry, P. D., & Hickie, I. B. (2014). A clinical staging model for early intervention youth mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 65(7), 939943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cross, S. P., Scott, J., & Hickie, I. B. (2017). Predicting early transition from sub-syndromal presentations to major mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 3(5), 223227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuthbert, B. N., & Insel, T. R. (2013). Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoCBMC Medicine, 11, 126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dohm, K., Redlich, R., Zwitserlood, P., & Dannlowski, U. (2017). Trajectories of major depression disorders: a systematic review of longitudinal neuroimaging findingsAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry51(5), 441454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duffy, A. (2014). Toward a comprehensive clinical staging model for bipolar disorder: integrating the evidenceCanadian Journal of Psychiatry59(12), 659666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duffy, A., Malhi, G. S., & Grof, P. (2017). Do the trajectories of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia follow a universal staging model? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 62(2), 115122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Early Psychosis Guidelines Writing Group and EPPIC National Support Program. (2016). Australian clinical guidelines for early psychosis (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health.
Fava, G. A., & Kellner, R. (1993). Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classificationActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87(4), 225230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frank, E., Nimgaonkar, V. L., Phillips, M. L., & Kupfer, D. J. (2015). All the world’s a (clinical) stage: rethinking bipolar disorder from a longitudinal perspectiveMolecular Psychiatry20(1), 2331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galletly, C., Castle, D., Dark, F., Humberstone, V., Jablensky, A., Killackey, E., … Tran, N. (2016). Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disordersAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry50(5), 410472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, G. (2013). The book of woe: the DSM and the unmaking of psychiatry. New York: Blue Rider Press.Google Scholar
Hamilton, B. A., Naismith, S. L., Scott, E. M., Purcell, S., & Hickie, I. B. (2011). Disability is already pronounced in young people with early stages of affective disorders: data from an early intervention serviceJournal of Affective Disorders131(1), 8491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, M. P., Hetrick, S. E., Mihalopoulos, C., Baker, D., Browne, V., Chanen, A. M., … McGorry, P. D. (2017). Targeting mental health care attributes by diagnosis and clinical stage: the views of youth mental health clinicians. Medical Journal of Australia207(10), 1926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hegelstad, W. T. V., Larsen, T. K., Auestad, B., Evensen, J., Haahr, U., Joa, I., … McGlashan, T. (2012). Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study: effects on 10-year outcomeAmerican Journal of Psychiatry169(4), 374380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., Lagopoulos, J., Lee, R. S., Guastella, A. J., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. B. (2013). Neuropsychological profile according to the clinical stage of young persons presenting for mental health careBMC Psychology1(1), 8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hetrick, S. E., Parker, A. G., Hickie, I. B., Purcell, R., Yung, A. R., & McGorry, P. D. (2008). Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: towards a clinical staging modelPsychotherapy and Psychosomatics77(5), 263270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hickie, I. B., Scott, E. M., Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., Guastella, A. J., Kaur, M., … McGorry, P. D. (2013a). Applying clinical staging to young people who present for mental health careEarly Intervention in Psychiatry7(1), 3143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hickie, I. B., Scott, J., Hermens, D. F., Scott, E. M., Naismith, S. L., Guastella, A. J., … McGorry, P. D. (2013b). Clinical classification in mental health at the cross-roads: which direction next? BMC Medicine11(1), 125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hilferty, F., Cassells, R., Muir, K., Duncan, A., Christensen, D., Mitrou, F., … Katz, I. (2015). Is headspace making a difference to young people’s lives? Final report of the independent evaluation of the headspace program. Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW Australia.Google Scholar
Insel, T. R. (2007). The arrival of preemptive psychiatryEarly Intervention in Psychiatry1(1), 56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R., & Jablensky, A. (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnosesAmerican Journal of Psychiatry160(1), 412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey ReplicationArchives of General Psychiatry62(6), 593602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., & Price, R. H. (1993). Primary prevention of secondary disorders: a proposal and agendaAmerican Journal of Community Psychology21(5), 607633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., & Poulton, R. (2003). Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohortArchives of General Psychiatry60(7), 709717.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lagopoulos, J., Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. B. (2012). Frontal lobe changes occur early in the course of affective disorders in young peopleBMC Psychiatry12(1), 4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lichtenstein, P., Yip, B. H., Björk, C., Pawitan, Y., Cannon, T. D., Sullivan, P. F., & Hultman, C. M. (2009). Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based studyLancet373(9659), 234239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D. (2010). Staging in neuropsychiatry: a heuristic model for understanding, prevention and treatmentNeurotoxicity Research18(3–4), 244255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D. (2013). The next stage for diagnosis: validity through utilityWorld Psychiatry12(3), 213215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D. (2017). Youth mental health: building beyond the brand. Medical Journal of Australia, 207(10), 428429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2006). Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safer and more effective interventionsAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry40(8), 616622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., Keshavan, M., Goldstone, S., Amminger, P., Allott, K., Berk, M., … Hickie, I. (2014). Biomarkers and clinical staging in psychiatryWorld Psychiatry13(3), 211223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P., Killackey, E., Lambert, T., & Lambert, M. (2005). Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(1–2), 130.Google Scholar
McGorry, P. D., Killackey, E., & Yung, A. (2008). Early intervention in psychosis: concepts, evidence and future directionsWorld Psychiatry7(3), 148156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., & Nelson, B. (2016). Why we need a transdiagnostic staging approach to emerging psychopathology, early diagnosis, and treatmentJAMA Psychiatry73(3), 191192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D., Nelson, B., Goldstone, S., & Yung, A. R. (2010). Clinical staging: a heuristic and practical strategy for new research and better health and social outcomes for psychotic and related mood disordersCanadian Journal of Psychiatry55(8), 486497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Purcell, R., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2007). Clinical staging: a heuristic model for psychiatry and youth mental healthMedical Journal of Australia, 187(7), S40S42.Google ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., & van Os, J. (2013). Redeeming diagnosis in psychiatry: timing versus specificityLancet381(9863), 343345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., … Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry49(10), 980989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naismith, S. L., Hermens, D. F., Ip, T. K., Bolitho, S., Scott, E., Rogers, N. L., & Hickie, I. B. (2012). Circadian profiles in young people during the early stages of affective disorderTranslational Psychiatry2(5), e123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Mental Health Commission (NMHC). (2014). Contributing lives, thriving communities: report of the national review of mental health programmes and services. Canberra: NMHC.
Nelson, B., Amminger, G. P., Yuen, H. P., Wallis, N., Kerr, M. J., Dixon, L., … McGorry, P. D. (2018). Staged treatment in early psychosis: a sequential multiple assignment randomised trial of interventions for ultra high risk of psychosis patients. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 12(3), 292306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, B., Yuen, H. P., Wood, S. J., Lin, A., Spiliotacopoulos, D., Bruxner, A., … Yung, A. R. (2013). Long-term follow-up of a group at ultra high risk (‘prodromal’) for psychosis: the PACE 400 studyJAMA Psychiatry70(8), 793802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Romaniuk, H., Mackinnon, A., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., … Moran, P. (2014). The prognosis of common mental disorders in adolescents: a 14-year prospective cohort studyLancet383(9926), 14041411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Purcell, R., Jorm, A. F., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., Amminger, G. P., … McGorry, P. D. (2015). Demographic and clinical characteristics of young people seeking help at youth mental health services: baseline findings of the Transitions StudyEarly Intervention in Psychiatry9(6), 487497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Regier, D. A., Narrow, W. E., Clarke, D. E., Kraemer, H. C., Kuramoto, S. J., Kuhl, E. A., & Kupfer, D. J. (2013). DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, part II: test–retest reliability of selected categorical diagnosesAmerican Journal of Psychiatry170 (1), 5970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rickwood, D. J., Mazzer, K. R., Telford, N. R., Parker, A. G., Tanti, C. J., & McGorry, P. D. (2015). Changes in psychological distress and psychosocial functioning in young people visiting headspace centres for mental health problemsMedical Journal of Australia202(10), 537542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rickwood, D. J., Telford, N. R., Parker, A. G., Tanti, C. J., & McGorry, P. D. (2014). headspace: Australia’s innovation in youth mental health – who are the clients and why are they presenting? Medical Journal of Australia200(2), 108111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, E. M., Hermens, D. F., Glozier, N., Naismith, S. L., Guastella, A. J., & Hickie, I. B. (2012a). Targeted primary care-based mental health services for young AustraliansMedical Journal of Australia196(2), 136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, E. M., Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., White, D., Whitwell, B., Guastella, A. J., … Hickie, I. B. (2012b). Thoughts of death or suicidal ideation are common in young people aged 12 to 30 years presenting for mental health careBMC Psychiatry12(1), 234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, E. M., Robillard, R., Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., Rogers, N. L., Ip, T. K., … Hickie, I. B. (2016). Dysregulated sleep–wake cycles in young people are associated with emerging stages of major mental disordersEarly Intervention in Psychiatry10(1), 6370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, J., Hickie, I. B., & McGorry, P. (2012c). Pre-emptive psychiatric treatments: pipe dream or a realistic outcome of clinical staging models? Neuropsychiatry2(4), 263266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, J., Leboyer, M., Hickie, I., Berk, M., Kapczinski, F., Frank, E., … McGorry, P. (2013). Clinical staging in psychiatry: a cross-cutting model of diagnosis with heuristic and practical value. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 243245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, J., Paykel, E., Morriss, R., Bentall, R., Kinderman, P., Johnson, T., … Hayhurst, H. (2006). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry188(4), 313320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treasure, J., Stein, D., & Maguire, S. (2015). Has the time come for a staging model to map the course of eating disorders from high risk to severe enduring illness? An examination of the evidenceEarly Intervention in Psychiatry9(3), 173184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsuang, M. T., Bar, J. L., Stone, W. S., & Faraone, S. V. (2004). Gene–environment interactions in mental disordersWorld Psychiatry3(2), 7383.Google ScholarPubMed
Altman, H., Collins, M., & Mundy, P. (1997). Subclinical hallucinations and delusions in nonpsychotic adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38(4), 413420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Angst, J., Gamma, A., Benazzi, F., Ajdacic, V., Eich, D., & Rössler, W. (2003). Toward a re-definition of subthreshold bipolarity: epidemiology and proposed criteria for bipolar-II, minor bipolar disorders and hypomania. Journal of Affective Disorders, 73(1–2), 133146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barabási, A.-L. (2010). Bursts: the hidden patterns behind everything we do, from your e-mail to bloody crusades. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
Barabási, A. L. (2012). The network takeover. Nature Physics, 8(1), 1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barabási, A. L., Albert, R., & Jeong, H. (1999). Mean-field theory for scale-free random networks. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 272(1), 173187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barabási, A. L., Gulbahce, N., & Loscalzo, J. (2011). Network medicine: a network-based approach to human disease. Nature Reviews Genetics, 12(1), 5668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P., De Sousa, P., Varese, F., Wickham, S., Sitko, K., Haarmans, M., & Read, J. (2014). From adversity to psychosis: pathways and mechanisms from specific adversities to specific symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(7), 10111022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P., Wickham, S., Shevlin, M., & Varese, F. (2012). Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(4), 734740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borsboom, D. (2017). A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2013). Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borsboom, D., Cramer, A. O. J., Schmittmann, V. D., Epskamp, S., & Waldorp, L. J. (2011). The small world of psychopathology. PLoS One, 6(11), e27407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bos, E. H., & De Jonge, P. (2014). ‘Critical slowing down in depression’ is a great idea that still needs empirical proof. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(10), E878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bos, E. H., & Wanders, R. B. K. (2016). Group-level symptom networks in depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(4), 411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., van Borkulo, C. D., Borsboom, D., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2016). The network structure of psychopathology in a community sample of preadolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(4), 599606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boschloo, L., van Borkulo, C. D., Rhemtulla, M., Keyes, K. M., Borsboom, D., & Schoevers, R. A. (2015). The network structure of symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. PLoS One, 10(9), e0137621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breakspear, M. (2006). The nonlinear theory of schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(1), 2035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breetvelt, E. J., Boks, M. P. M., Numans, M. E., Selten, J. P., Sommer, I. E. C., Grobbee, D. E., … Geerlings, M. I. (2010). Schizophrenia risk factors constitute general risk factors for psychiatric symptoms in the population. Schizophrenia Research, 120(1–3), 184190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bringmann, L. F., Vissers, N., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Kuppens, P., Peeters, F., … Tuerlinckx, F. (2013). A network approach to psychopathology: new insights into clinical longitudinal data. PLoS One, 8(4), e60188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckholtz, J. W., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012). Psychopathology and the human connectome: toward a transdiagnostic model of risk for mental illness. Neuron, 74(6), 9901004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buckley, P. F., Miller, B. J., Lehrer, D. S., & Castle, D. J. (2009). Psychiatric comorbidities and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35(2), 383402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bystritsky, A., Nierenberg, A. A., Feusner, J. D., & Rabinovich, M. (2012). Computational non-linear dynamical psychiatry: a new methodological paradigm for diagnosis and course of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(4), 428435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P., Kwapil, T. R., Eckblad, M., & Zinser, M. C. (1994). Putatively psychosis-prone subjects 10 years later. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(2), 171183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collip, D., Myin-Germeys, I., & van Os, J. (2008). Does the concept of ‘sensitization’ provide a plausible mechanism for the putative link between the environment and schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(2), 220225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costantini, G., Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., Perugini, M., Mõttus, R., Waldorp, L. J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2015). State of the aRt personality research: a tutorial on network analysis of personality data in R. Journal of Research in Personality, 54, 1329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Van Der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 137150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Vos, S., Wardenaar, K. J., Bos, E. H., Wit, E. C., & De Jonge, P. (2015). Decomposing the heterogeneity of depression at the person-, symptom-, and time-level: latent variable models versus multimode principal component analysis. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 15(1), 88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dominguez, M. D. G., Saka, M. C., Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., & van Os, J. (2010). Early expression of negative/disorganized symptoms predicting psychotic experiences and subsequent clinical psychosis: a 10-year study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(9), 10751082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eaton, W. W., Badawi, M., & Melton, B. (1995). Prodromes and precursors: epidemiologic data for primary prevention of disorders with slow onset. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7), 967972.Google ScholarPubMed
Epskamp, S., Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., Schmittmann, V. D., & Borsboom, D. (2011). Qgraph: network representations of relationships in data. R Package Version 0.4 10.
Eyre, H. A., Singh, A. B., & Reynolds, C. (2016). Tech giants enter mental health. World Psychiatry, 15(1), 2122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleming, S., Shevlin, M., Murphy, J., & Joseph, S. (2014). Psychosis within dimensional and categorical models of mental illness. Psychosis, 6(1), 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frances, A. J., & Widiger, T. (2012). Psychiatric diagnosis: lessons from the DSM-IV past and cautions for the DSM-5 future. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 109130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, W. (1992). Chaos in psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry, 31(11), 10791081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fried, E. I. (2015). Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fried, E. I., & Nesse, R. M. (2014). The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning. PLoS One, 9(2), e90311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fried, E. I., & Nesse, R. M. (2015). Depression sum-scores don’t add up: why analyzing specific depression symptoms is essential. BMC Medicine, 13(1), 72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fried, E. I., Nesse, R. M., Guille, C., & Sen, S. (2015). The differential influence of life stress on individual symptoms of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 131(6), 465471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P., Bonoldi, I., Yung, A. R., Borgwardt, S., Kempton, M. J., Valmaggia, L., … McGuire, P. (2012). Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(3), 220229.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P., Yung, A. R., McGorry, P., & van Os, J. (2014). Lessons learned from the psychosis high-risk state: towards a general staging model of prodromal intervention. Psychological Medicine, 44(1), 1724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galderisi, S., Rucci, P., Kirkpatrick, B., Mucci, A., Gibertoni, D., Rocca, P., … Maj, M. (2018). Interplay among psychopathologic variables, personal resources, context-related factors, and real-life functioning in individuals with schizophrenia: a network analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(4), 396404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Girvan, M., & Newman, M. E. J. (2002). Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(12), 78217826.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goekoop, R., & Goekoop, J. G. (2014). A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology. PLoS One, 9(11), e112734.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamaker, E. L. (2012). Why researchers should think ‘within-person’: a paradigmatic rationale. In Mehl, M. R. and Conner, T. S. (Eds), Handbook of research methods for studying daily life (pp. 4361). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hanssen, M., Bak, M., Bijl, R., Vollebergh, W., & van Os, J. (2005). The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(2), 181191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haslam, N., Holland, E., & Kuppens, P. (2012). Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research. Psychological Medicine, 42(5), 903920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hetrick, S. E., Parker, A. G., Hickie, I. B., Purcell, R., Yung, A. R., & McGorry, P. D. (2008). Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: towards a clinical staging model. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77(5), 263270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, S. K., Reilly, J. L., Harris, M. S. H., Rosen, C., Marvin, R. W., DeLeon, O., & Sweeney, J. A. (2009). A comparison of neuropsychological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis patients with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 113(2–3), 167175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hosenfeld, B., Bos, E. H., Wardenaar, K. J., Conradi, H. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., Visser, I., & De Jonge, P. (2015). Major depressive disorder as a nonlinear dynamic system: bimodality in the frequency distribution of depressive symptoms over time. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1), 222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huber, M. T., Braun, H. A., & Krieg, J. C. (2004). Recurrent affective disorders: nonlinear and stochastic models of disease dynamics. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 14(2), 635652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyman, S. E. (2010). The diagnosis of mental disorders: the problem of reification. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 155179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Insel, T. R. (2014). The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project: precision medicine for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(4), 395397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Insel, T., Cuthbert, B., Garvey, M., Heinssen, R., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K., … Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 748751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isvoranu, A. M., Borsboom, D., van Os, J., & Guloksuz, S. (2016). A network approach to environmental impact in psychotic disorder: brief theoretical framework. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(4), 870873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johns, L. C., & van Os, J. (2001). The continuity of psychotic experiences in the general population. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(8), 11251141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapur, S., Phillips, A. G., & Insel, T. R. (2012). Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(12), 11741179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelleher, I., Connor, D., Clarke, M. C., Devlin, N., Harley, M., & Cannon, M. (2012a). Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies. Psychological Medicine, 42(9), 18571863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelleher, I., Devlin, N., Wigman, J. T. W., Kehoe, A., Murtagh, A., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2014). Psychotic experiences in a mental health clinic sample: implications for suicidality, multimorbidity and functioning. Psychological Medicine, 44(8), 16151624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelleher, I., Keeley, H., Corcoran, P., Lynch, F., Fitzpatrick, C., Devlin, N., … Cannon, M. (2012b). Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 201(1), 2632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelleher, I., Lynch, F., Harley, M., Molloy, C., Roddy, S., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2012c). Psychotic symptoms in adolescence index risk for suicidal behavior: findings from 2 population-based case-control clinical interview studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(12), 12771283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R., & Jablensky, A. (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S. (2005a). ‘A gene for…’: the nature of gene action in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(7), 12431252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendler, K. S. (2005b). Toward a philosophical structure for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(3), 433440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendler, K. S., & Gardner, C. O. Jr (1998). Boundaries of major depression: an evaluation of DSM-IV criteria. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(2), 172177.Google ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Zachar, P., & Craver, C. (2011). What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders? Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 11431150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, M. S., Cashmere, J. D., Miewald, J., & Yeragani, V. K. (2004). Decreased nonlinear complexity and chaos during sleep in first episode schizophrenia: a preliminary report. Schizophrenia Research, 71(2–3), 263272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, M. S., DeLisi, L. E., & Seidman, L. J. (2011). Early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states. Schizophrenia Research, 126(1–3), 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005a). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H., Demler, O., Falloon, I. R., Gagnon, E., Guyer, M., … Wu, E. Q. (2005b). The prevalence and correlates of nonaffective psychosis in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Biological Psychiatry, 58(8), 668676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., … Williams, D. R. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(5), 378385.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Ormel, J., Petukhova, M., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Russo, L. J., … Üstün, T. B. (2011). Development of lifetime comorbidity in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(1), 90100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Price, R. H., & Wortman, C. B. (1985). Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 531572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koller, D., Friedman, N., & Getoor, L. B. T. (2007). Graphical models in a nutshell. In Getoor, L. & Taskar, B. (Eds), Statistical relational learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Krabbendam, L., Myin-Germeys, I., De Graaf, R., Vollebergh, W., Nolen, W. A., Eidema, J., & van Os, J. (2004). Dimensions of depression, mania and psychosis in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 34(7), 11771186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kramer, I., Simons, C. J. P., Wigman, J. T. W., Collip, D., Jacobs, N., Derom, C., … Wichers, M. (2014). Time-lagged moment-to-moment interplay between negative affect and paranoia: new insights in the affective pathway to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(2), 278286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 111133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2011). A dimensional-spectrum model of psychopathology: progress and opportunities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(1), 1011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, R. F., & Piasecki, T. M. (2002). Toward a dimensional and psychometrically-informed approach to conceptualizing psychopathology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(5), 485499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kupfer, D. J., First, M. B., & Regier, D. A. (2008). A research agenda for DSM-V. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Kuppens, P., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2010). Emotional inertia and psychological maladjustment. Psychological Science, 21(7), 984991.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lauritzen, S. L. (1996). Graphical models. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lazer, D., Pentland, A., Adamic, L., Aral, S., Barabasi, A. L., Brewer, D., … Van Alstyne, M. (2009). Social science: computational social science. Science, 323(5915), 721723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, A., Nelson, B., & Yung, A. R. (2012). ‘At-risk’ for psychosis research: where are we heading? Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 21(4), 329334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linscott, R. J., & van Os, J. (2013). An updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 43(6), 11331149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loh, M., Rolls, E. T., & Deco, G. (2007). A dynamical systems hypothesis of schizophrenia. PLoS Computational Biology, 3(11), 22552265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maj, M. (2016). The need for a conceptual framework in psychiatry acknowledging complexity while avoiding defeatism. World Psychiatry, 15(1), 12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maric, N., Krabbendam, L., Vollebergh, W., De Graaf, R., & van Os, J. (2003). Sex differences in symptoms of psychosis in a non-selected, general population sample. Schizophrenia Research, 63(1–2), 8995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. (2011). Transition to adulthood: the critical period for pre-emptive, disease-modifying care for schizophrenia and related disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(3), 524530.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D. (2013). Early clinical phenotypes, clinical staging, and strategic biomarker research: building blocks for personalized psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry, 74(6), 394395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2006). Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safer and more effective interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(8), 616622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Killackey, E., & Yung, A. R. (2007). Early intervention in psychotic disorders: detection and treatment of the first episode and the critical early stages. Medical Journal of Australia, 187(7 Suppl.), S8S10.Google ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., & Nelson, B. (2016). Why we need a transdiagnostic staging approach to emerging psychopathology, early diagnosis, and treatment. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(3), 191192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P., & van Os, J. (2013). Redeeming diagnosis in psychiatry: timing versus specificity. Lancet, 381(9863), 343345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGrath, J. J., Saha, S., Al-Hamzawi, A., Alonso, J., Bromet, E. J., Bruffaerts, R., … Kessler, R. C. (2015). Psychotic experiences in the general population: a cross-national analysis based on 31 261 respondents from 18 countries. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(7), 697705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGrath, J. J., Saha, S., Al-Hamzawi, A., Andrade, L., Benjet, C., Bromet, E. J., … Kessler, R. C. (2016). The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(10), 9971006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNally, R. J. (2016). Can network analysis transform psychopathology? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 95104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNally, R. J., Robinaugh, D. J., Wu, G. W. Y., Wang, L., Deserno, M. K., & Borsboom, D. (2015). Mental disorders as causal systems: a network approach to posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(6), 836849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milgram, S. (1967). The small world problem. Psychology Today, 2(1), 6067.Google Scholar
Milton, J., & Black, D. (1995). Dynamic diseases in neurology and psychiatry. Chaos, 5(1), 813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49 , 377412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myin-Germeys, I., Krabbendam, L., & van Os, J. (2003). Continuity of psychotic symptoms in the community. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16(4), 443449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, M. (2010). Networks: an introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson, B. M., Holm, G., Hultman, C. M., & Ekselius, L. (2015). Cognition and autonomic function in schizophrenia: inferior cognitive test performance in electrodermal and niacin skin flush non-responders. European Psychiatry, 30(1), 813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nuevo, R., Chatterji, S., Verdes, E., Naidoo, N., Arango, C., & Ayuso-Mateos, J. L. (2012). The continuum of psychotic symptoms in the general population: a cross-national study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(3), 475485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odgers, C. L., Mulvey, E. P., Skeem, J. L., Gardner, W., Lidz, C. W., & Schubert, C. (2009). Capturing the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms with dynamical systems models. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(5), 575582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F., & Skvoretz, J. (2010). Node centrality in weighted networks: generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks, 32(3), 245251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozomaro, U., Wahlestedt, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2013). Personalized medicine in psychiatry: problems and promises. BMC Medicine, 11(1), 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parnas, J. (2014). The RDoC program: psychiatry without psyche? World Psychiatry, 13(1), 4647.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, M. P., & Braff, D. L. (2003). Chaos and schizophrenia: does the method fit the madness? Biological Psychiatry, 53(1), 311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, M. P., Geyer, M. A., & Braff, D. L. (1996). Use of methods from chaos theory to quantify a fundamental dysfunction in the behavioral organization of schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(5), 714717.Google ScholarPubMed
Pe, M. L., Kircanski, K., Thompson, R. J., Bringmann, L. F., Tuerlinckx, F., Mestdagh, M., … Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Emotion-network density in major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(2), 292300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perlis, R. H., Uher, R., Ostacher, M., Goldberg, J. F., Trivedi, M. H., Rush, A. J., & Fava, M. (2011). Association between bipolar spectrum features and treatment outcomes in outpatients with major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 351360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, M. R. (2016). Would the use of dimensional measures improve the utility of psychiatric diagnoses? World Psychiatry, 15(1), 3839.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pickles, A., & Angold, A. (2003). Natural categories or fundamental dimensions: on carving nature at the joints and the rearticulation of psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15(3), 529551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., Murray, R., & Harrington, H. (2000). Children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(11), 10531058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenman, S., Korten, A., Medway, J., & Evans, M. (2003). Dimensional vs categorical diagnosis in psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 107(5), 378384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosmalen, J. G. M., Wenting, A. M. G., Roest, A. M., De Jonge, P., & Bos, E. H. (2012). Revealing causal heterogeneity using time series analysis of ambulatory assessments: application to the association between depression and physical activity after myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(4), 377386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossi, A., & Daneluzzo, E. (2002). Schizotypal dimensions in normals and schizophrenic patients: a comparison with other clinical samples. Schizophrenia Research, 54(1–2), 6775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rössler, W., Hengartner, M. P., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Haker, H., Gamma, A., & Angst, J. (2011). Sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in young adults are risk factors for subsequent common mental disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 131(1–3), 1823.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rössler, W., Riecher-Rössler, A., Angst, J., Murray, R., Gamma, A., Eich, D., … Gross, V. A. (2007). Psychotic experiences in the general population: a twenty-year prospective community study. Schizophrenia Research, 92(1–3), 114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutigliano, G., Valmaggia, L., Landi, P., Frascarelli, M., Cappucciati, M., Sear, V., … Fusar-Poli, P. (2016). Persistence or recurrence of non-psychotic comorbid mental disorders associated with 6-year poor functional outcomes in patients at ultra high risk for psychosis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 203, 101110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmittmann, V. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2013). Deconstructing the construct: a network perspective on psychological phenomena. New Ideas in Psychology, 31(1), 4353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, J., Leboyer, M., Hickie, I., Berk, M., Kapczinski, F., Frank, E., … McGorry, P. (2013). Clinical staging in psychiatry: a cross-cutting model of diagnosis with heuristic and practical value. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(4), 243245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaffer, F., McCraty, R., & Zerr, C. L. (2014). A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shevlin, M., Murphy, J., Dorahy, M. J., & Adamson, G. (2007). The distribution of positive psychosis-like symptoms in the population: a latent class analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey. Schizophrenia Research, 89(1–3), 101109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, K. P., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Social networks and health. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 405429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stefanis, N. C., Hanssen, M., Smirnis, N. K., Avramopoulos, D. A., Evdokimidis, I. K., Stefanis, C. N., … van Os, J. (2002). Evidence that three dimensions of psychosis have a distribution in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 32(2), 347358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Terluin, B., de Boer, M. R., & de Vet, H. C. (2016). Differences in connection strength between mental symptoms might be explained by differences in variance: reanalysis of network data did not confirm staging. PLoS One, 11(11), e0155205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tien, A. Y., & Eaton, W. W. (1992). Psychopathologic precursors and sociodemographic risk factors for the schizophrenia syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(1), 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torous, J., & Baker, J. T. (2016). Why psychiatry needs data science and data science needs psychiatry connecting with technology. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(1), 34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tschacher, W., Scheier, C., & Hashimoto, Y. (1997). Dynamical analysis of schizophrenia courses. Biological Psychiatry, 41(4), 428437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Borkulo, C. D., Borsboom, D., Epskamp, S., Blanken, T. F., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Waldorp, L. J. (2014). A new method for constructing networks from binary data. Scientific Reports, 4, 5918.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Borkulo, C., Boschloo, L., Borsboom, D., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Lourens, J. W., & Schoevers, R. A. (2015). Association of symptom network structure with the course of longitudinal depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(12), 12191226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Leemput, I. A., Wichers, M., Cramer, A. O. J., Borsboom, D., Tuerlinckx, F., Kuppens, P., … Scheffer, M. (2014). Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset and termination of depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(1), 8792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Os, J., Gilvarry, C., Bale, R., Van Horn, E., Tattan, T., White, I., & Murray, R. (1999). A comparison of the utility of dimensional and categorical representations of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 595606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Os, J., Krabbendam, L., Myin-Germeys, I., & Delespaul, P. (2005). The schizophrenia envirome. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 141145.Google ScholarPubMed
van Os, J., Linscott, R. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., & Krabbendam, L. (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness–persistence–impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 39(2), 179195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J., & Reininghaus, U. (2016). Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population. World Psychiatry, 15(2), 118124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verdoux, H., & van Os, J. (2002). Psychotic symptoms in non-clinical populations and the continuum of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 54(1–2), 5965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verdoux, H., van Os, J., Maurice-Tison, S., Gay, B., Salamon, R., & Bourgeois, M. (1998). Is early adulthood a critical developmental stage for psychosis proneness? A survey of delusional ideation in normal subjects. Schizophrenia Research, 29(3), 247254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vieta, E., Reinares, M., & Rosa, A. R. (2011). Staging bipolar disorder. Neurotoxicity Research, 19(2), 279285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vinogradov, S., King, R. J., & Huberman, B. A. (1992). An associationist model of the paranoid process: application of phase transitions in spreading activation networks. Psychiatry (New York), 55(1), 7994.Google ScholarPubMed
Vollema, M. G., & Hoijtink, H. (2000). The multidimensionality of self-report schizotypy in a psychiatric population: an analysis using multidimensional Rasch models. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26(3), 565575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wanders, R. B. K., Wardenaar, K. J., Kessler, R. C., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Meijer, R. R., & De Jonge, P. (2015). Differential reporting of depressive symptoms across distinct clinical subpopulations: what DIFference does it make? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78(2), 130136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wardenaar, K. J., & De Jonge, P. (2013). Diagnostic heterogeneity in psychiatry: towards an empirical solution. BMC Medicine, 11(1), 201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wardenaar, K. J., Van Veen, T., Giltay, E. J., Den Hollander-Gijsman, M., Penninx, B. W. J. H., & Zitman, F. G. (2010). The structure and dimensionality of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) in patients with depressive disorders and healthy controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125(1–3), 146154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks. Nature, 393, 440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiser, M., van Os, J., & Davidson, M. (2005). Time for a shift in focus in schizophrenia: from narrow phenotypes to broad endophenotypes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 203205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werbeloff, N., Drukker, M., Dohrenwend, B. P., Levav, I., Yoffe, R., van Os, J., … Weiser, M. (2012). Self-reported attenuated psychotic symptoms as forerunners of severe mental disorders later in life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(5), 467475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wichers, M. (2014). The dynamic nature of depression: a new micro-level perspective of mental disorder that meets current challenges. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 13491360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wichers, M., & Groot, P. C. (2016). Critical slowing down as a personalized early warning signal for depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85(2), 114116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wichers, M., Wigman, J. T. W., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2015). Micro-level affect dynamics in psychopathology viewed from complex dynamical system theory. Emotion Review, 7(4), 362367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widiger, T. A., & Clark, L. A. (2000). Toward DSM-V and the classification of psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 946963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widiger, T. A., & Samuel, D. B. (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions? A question for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 494504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wigman, J. T. W., De Vos, S., Wichers, M., van Os, J., & Bartels-Velthuis, A. A. (2017). A transdiagnostic network approach to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43(1), 122132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wigman, J. T. W., Van Nierop, M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Lieb, R., Beesdo-Baum, K., Wittchen, H. U., & van Os, J. (2012). Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity: implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(2), 247257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wigman, J. T. W., van Os, J., Borsboom, D., Wardenaar, K. J., Epskamp, S., Klippel, A., … Wichers, M. (2015). Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders: cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach. Psychological Medicine, 45(11), 23752387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigman, J. T. W., van Os, J., Thiery, E., Derom, C., Collip, D., Jacobs, N., & Wichers, M. (2013). Psychiatric diagnosis revisited: towards a system of staging and profiling combining nomothetic and idiographic parameters of momentary mental states. PLoS One, 8(3), e59559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Yang, A. C., & Tsai, S. J. (2013). Is mental illness complex? From behavior to brain. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 45, 253257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yung, A. R., Buckby, J. A., Cotton, S. M., Cosgrave, E. M., Killackey, E. J., Stanford, C., … McGorry, P. D. (2006). Psychotic-like experiences in nonpsychotic help-seekers: associations with distress, depression, and disability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(2), 352359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., Yuen, H. P., & McGorry, P. D. (2004). Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophrenia Research, 67(2–3), 131142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arzouan, Y., Moses, E., Peled, A., & Levit-Binnun, N. (2014). Impaired network stability in schizophrenia revealed by TMS perturbations. Schizophrenia Research, 152(1), 322324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bak, M., Drukker, M., Hasmi, L., & van Os, J. (2016). An n=1 clinical network analysis of symptoms and treatment in psychosis. PLoS One, 11(9), e0162811.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bedi, G., Carrillo, F., Cecchi, G. A., Slezak, D. F., Sigman, M., Mota, N. B., … Corcoran, C. M. (2015). Automated analysis of free speech predicts psychosis onset in high-risk youths. NPJ Schizophrenia, 1, 15030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birchwood, M. (1995). Early intervention in psychotic relapse: cognitive approaches to detection and management. Behaviour Change, 12, 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borsboom, D. (2017). A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. (2013). Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bystritsky, A., Nierenberg, A. A., Feusner, J. D., & Rabinovich, M. (2012). Computational non-linear dynamical psychiatry: a new methodological paradigm for diagnosis and course of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(4), 428435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cannon, T. D., Yu, C., Addington, J., Bearden, C. E., Cadenhead, K. S., Cornblatt, B. A., … Kattan, M. W. (2016). An individualized risk calculator for research in prodromal psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(10), 980988.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, S. R., Cole, J. J., Pace, M. L., Batt, R., Brock, W. A., Cline, T., … Weidel, B. (2011). Early warnings of regime shifts: a whole-ecosystem experiment. Science, 332(6033), 10791082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conrad, K. (1958). Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns. Stuttgart: Thieme.Google Scholar
Dai, L., Vorselen, D., Korolev, K. S., & Gore, J. (2012). Generic indicators for loss of resilience before a tipping point leading to population collapse. Science, 336(6085), 11751177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunlop, P., Clark, C. D., & Hindmarsh, R. C. A. (2008). Bed ribbing instability explanation: testing a numerical model of ribbed moraine formation arising from coupled flow of ice and subglacial sediment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 113(F3), F03005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Early Warning Signals Toolbox. What is a critical transition? Retrieved from www.early-warning-signals.org/theory/what-is-a-critical-transition.
Fowler, A. C. (2010a). The formation of subglacial streams and mega-scale glacial lineations. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 466(2123), 31813201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, A. C. (2010b). The instability theory of drumlin formation applied to Newtonian viscous ice of finite depth. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 466(2121), 26732694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fusar-Poli, P., Borgwardt, S., Bechdolf, A., Addington, J., Riecher-Rossler, A., Schultze-Lutter, F., … Yung, A. (2013). The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(1), 107120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P., & Schultze-Lutter, F. (2016). Predicting the onset of psychosis in patients at clinical high risk: practical guide to probabilistic prognostic reasoning. Evidence Based Mental Health, 19(1), 1015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gharibzadeh, S., Zendehrouh, S., Vafadoost, M., & Bakouie, F. (2011). Is the functional state of schizophrenic patients located in the vicinity of a bifurcation point? Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 23(2), E11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Globus, G. G., & Arpaia, J. P. (1994). Psychiatry and the new dynamics. Biological Psychiatry, 35(5), 352364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guloksuz, S., Pries, L. K., & van Os, J. (2017). Application of network methods for understanding mental disorders: pitfalls and promise. Psychological Medicine, 47(16), 27432752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartmann, J., Nelson, B., Ratheesh, A., Treen, D., & McGorry, P. D. (2019). At-risk studies and clinical antecedents of psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression: a scoping review in the context of clinical staging. Psychological Medicine, 49(2), 177189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartmann, J., Nelson, B., Spooner, R., Amminger, G. P., Chanen, A., Davey, C. G., … McGorry, P. D. (in press). Broad clinical high-risk mental state (CHARMS): methodology of a cohort study validating criteria for pluripotent risk. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, in press.
Hickie, I. B., Scott, E. M., Hermens, D. F., Naismith, S. L., Guastella, A. J., Kaur, M., … McGorry, P. D. (2013). Applying clinical staging to young people who present for mental health care. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 7(1), 3143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofmann, S. G., Curtiss, J., & McNally, R. J. (2016). A complex network perspective on clinical science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(5), 597605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isvoranu, A. M., Borsboom, D., van Os, J., & Guloksuz, S. (2016). A network approach to environmental impact in psychotic disorder: brief theoretical framework. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(4), 870873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isvoranu, A. M., van Borkulo, C. D., Boyette, L. L., Wigman, J. T., Vinkers, C. H., Borsboom, D.; Group Investigators. (2017). A network approach to psychosis: pathways between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43(1), 187196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaspers, K. (1963). General psychopathology. Trans. Hamilton, J. H. a. M. W.. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Koutsouleris, N., Meisenzahl, E. M., Davatzikos, C., Bottlender, R., Frodl, T., Scheuerecker, J., … Gaser, C. (2009). Use of neuroanatomical pattern classification to identify subjects in at-risk mental states of psychosis and predict disease transition. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(7), 700712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenton, T. M. (2011). Early warning of climate tipping points. Nature Climate Change, 1, 201209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levit-Binnun, N., Litvak, V., Pratt, H., Moses, E., Zaroor, M., & Peled, A. (2010). Differences in TMS-evoked responses between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls can be observed without a dedicated EEG system. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(3), 332339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loh, M., Rolls, E. T., & Deco, G. (2007). A dynamical systems hypothesis of schizophrenia. PLoS Computational Biology, 3(11), e228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lysaker, P. H., Dimaggio, G., Buck, K. D., Callaway, S. S., Salvatore, G., Carcione, A., … Stanghellini, G. (2011). Poor insight in schizophrenia: links between different forms of metacognition with awareness of symptoms, treatment need, and consequences of illness. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52(3), 253260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mandell, A. J., & Selz, K. A. (1992). Dynamical systems in psychiatry: now what? Biological Psychiatry, 32(4), 299301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D. (2007). Issues for DSM-V: clinical staging – a heuristic pathway to valid nosology and safer, more effective treatment in psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(6), 859860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D. (2010). Risk syndromes, clinical staging and DSM V: new diagnostic infrastructure for early intervention in psychiatry. Schizophrenia Research, 120(1–3), 4953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P. D. (2013). Early clinical phenotypes, clinical staging, and strategic biomarker research: building blocks for personalized psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry, 74(6), 394395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P. D., Hickie, I. B., Yung, A. R., Pantelis, C., & Jackson, H. J. (2006). Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safer and more effective interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(8), 616622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., & Nelson, B. (2016). Why we need a transdiagnostic staging approach to emerging psychopathology, early diagnosis, and treatment. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(3), 191192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, P., & van Os, J. (2013). Redeeming diagnosis in psychiatry: timing versus specificity. Lancet, 381(9863), 343345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minkowski, E. (1926). La Notion de Perte de Contact Vital avec la Réalité et ses Applications en Psychopathologie. Paris: Jouve & Cie.Google Scholar
Myin-Germeys, I., Oorschot, M., Collip, D., Lataster, J., Delespaul, P., & van Os, J. (2009). Experience sampling research in psychopathology: opening the black box of daily life. Psychological Medicine, 39(9), 15331547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, B., McGorry, P. D., Wichers, M., Wigman, J. T. W., & Hartmann, J. (2017). Moving from static to dynamic models of the onset of mental disorder. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(5), 528534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odgers, C. L., Mulvey, E. P., Skeem, J. L., Gardner, W., Lidz, C. W., & Schubert, C. (2009). Capturing the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms with dynamical systems models. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(5), 575582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olde Rikkert, M. G., Dakos, V., Buchman, T. G., Boer, R., Glass, L., Cramer, A. O., … Scheffer, M. (2016). Slowing down of recovery as generic risk marker for acute severity transitions in chronic diseases. Critical Care Medicine, 44(3), 601606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parnas, J., & Henriksen, M. G. (2014). Disordered self in the schizophrenia spectrum: a clinical and research perspective. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 22(5), 251265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, M. P., & Braff, D. L. (2003). Chaos and schizophrenia: does the method fit the madness? Biological Psychiatry, 53, 311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poston, T., & Steward, I. (1978). Catastrophe theory and its applications. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
Scheffer, M. (2009). Critical transitions in nature and society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Scheffer, M. (2010). Complex systems: foreseeing tipping points. Nature, 467(7314), 411412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S. R., Lenton, T. M., Bascompte, J., Brock, W., Dakos, V., … Vandermeer, J. (2012). Anticipating critical transitions. Science, 338(6105), 344348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultze-Lutter, F. (2009). Subjective symptoms of schizophrenia in research and the clinic: the basic symptoms concept. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35(1), 58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, D. W. (1985). Catastrophe theory applications in clinical psychology: a review. Current Psychological Research and Reviews, 4(1), 6986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strobl, E. V., Eack, S. M., Swaminathan, V., & Visweswaran, S. (2012). Predicting the risk of psychosis onset: advances and prospects. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 6(4), 368379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tschacher, W., Scheier, C., & Hashimoto, Y. (1997). Dynamical analysis of schizophrenia courses. Biological Psychiatry, 41(4), 428437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Borkulo, C., Boschloo, L., Borsboom, D., Penninx, B. W., Waldorp, L. J., & Schoevers, R. A. (2015). Association of symptom network structure with the course of longitudinal depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(12), 12191226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Leemput, I. A., Wichers, M., Cramer, A. O. J., Borsboom, D., Tuerlinckx, F., Kuppens, P., … Scheffer, M. (2014). Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset and termination of depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(1), 8792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Os, J. (2013). The dynamics of subthreshold psychopathology: implications for diagnosis and treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(7), 695698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J., & Linscott, R. J. (2012). Introduction: the extended psychosis phenotype – relationship with schizophrenia and with ultrahigh risk status for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(2), 227230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veraart, A. J., Faassen, E. J., Dakos, V., van Nes, E. H., Lurling, M., & Scheffer, M. (2012). Recovery rates reflect distance to a tipping point in a living system. Nature, 481(7381), 357359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinogradov, S., King, R. J., & Huberman, B. A. (1992). An associationist model of the paranoid process: application of phase transitions in spreading activation networks. Psychiatry, 55(1), 7994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wichers, M. (2014). The dynamic nature of depression: a new micro-level perspective of mental disorder that meets current challenges. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 13491360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wichers, M., Groot, P. C., & Psychosystems, ESM Group, EWS Group. (2016). Critical slowing down as a personalized early warning signal for depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85(2), 114116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wichers, M., Wigman, J. T. W., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2015). Micro-level affect dynamics in psychopathology viewed from complex dynamical system theory. Emotion Review, 7(4), 362367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigman, J. T., Collip, D., Wichers, M., Delespaul, P., Derom, C., Thiery, E., … van Os, J. (2013a). Altered transfer of momentary mental states (ATOMS) as the basic unit of psychosis liability in interaction with environment and emotions. PLoS One, 8(2), e54653.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wigman, J. T. W., van Os, J., Thiery, E., Derom, C., Collip, D., Jacobs, N., & Wichers, M. (2013b). Psychiatric diagnosis revisited: towards a system of staging and profiling combining nomothetic and idiographic parameters of momentary mental states. PLoS One, 8(3), e59559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yuen, H. P., & Mackinnon, A. (2016). Performance of joint modelling of time-to-event data with time-dependent predictors: an assessment based on transition to psychosis data. PeerJ, 4, e2582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yuen, H. P., Mackinnon, A., & Nelson, B. (2018). A new method for analysing transition to psychosis: joint modelling of time‐to‐event outcome with time‐dependent predictors. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 27(1), e1588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, A. R., Nelson, B., Thompson, A., & Wood, S. J. (2010). The psychosis threshold in ultra high risk (prodromal) research: is it valid? Schizophrenia Research, 120(1–3), 16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed