Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-66nw2 Total loading time: 0.656 Render date: 2021-11-29T16:01:21.217Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 7 - Hypothalamic Regulation of Prolactin Secretion

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2018

Michael Wilkinson
Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia
S. Ali Imran
Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia
Get access
Clinical Neuroendocrinology
An Introduction
, pp. 118 - 133
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ben-Jonathan, N, LaPensee, C R & LaPensee, E W. (2008). What can we learn from rodents about prolactin in humans? Endocr Revs 29, 141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, V, Young, J, Chanson, P & Binart, N. (2015). New insights in prolactin: pathological implications. Nat Revs Endocr 11, 265275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, M E, Kanyicska, B, Lerant, A & Nagy, G. (2000). Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Revs 80, 15231631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aggarwal, S K, Carter, G T, Sullivan, M D, ZumBrunnen, C, Morrill, R & Mayer, J D. (2009). Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future direction. J Opioid Manag 5, 153168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Dahmani, K, Mohammad, S, Imran, F et al. (2016). Sellar masses: An epidemiological study. Can J Neurol Sci 43, 291297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Assies, J, Schellekens, A P & Touber, J L. (1980). The value of an intravenous TRH test for the diagnosis of tumoural prolactinaemia. Acta Endocr 94, 439449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Athanasoulia-Kaspar, A P, Popp, K H & Stalla, G K. (2018). Neuropsychiatric and metabolic aspects of dopaminergic therapy: perspectives from an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist. Endocr Connections 7, R88R94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aydin, S, Dag, E, Ozkan, Y et al. (2011). Time-dependent changes in the serum levels of prolactin, nesfatin-1 and ghrelin as a marker of epileptic attacks young male patients. Peptides 32, 12761280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barni, S, Lissoni, P, Paolorossi, F et al. (1987). Effects of radical mastectomy on prolactin blood levels in patients with breast cancer. Europ J Cancer Oncol 23, 11411145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ben-Jonathan, B & Hnasko, R. (2001). Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor. Endocr Revs 22, 724763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ben-Jonathan, N, LaPensee, C R & LaPensee, E W. (2008). What can we learn from rodents about prolactin in humans? Endocr Revs 29, 141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, V, Young, J, Chanson, P & Binart, N. (2015). New insights in prolactin: pathological implications. Nat Revs Endocr 11, 265275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brennan, M J. (2013). The effect of opioid therapy on endocrine function. Am J Med 126, S12S18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caufriez, A, Leproult, R, L’Hermite-Baleriaux, M, Moreno-Reyes, R & Copinschi, G. (2009). A potential role of endogenous progesterone in modulation of GH, prolactin and thyrotrophin secretion during normal menstrual cycle. Clin Endocr 71, 535542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuny, T, Barlier, A, Feelders, R et al. (2015). Medical therapies in pituitary adenomas: current rationale for the use and future perspectives. Annales d’Endocr 76, 4358.Google ScholarPubMed
Doknic, M, Pekic, S, Zarkovic, M et al. (2002). Dopaminergic tone and obesity: an insight from prolactinomas treated with bromocriptine. Europ J Endocr 147, 7784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dudas, B, Baker, M, Rotoli, G, Grignol, G, Bohn, M C & Merchenthaler, I. (2010). Distribution and morphology of the catecholaminergic neural elements in the human hypothalamus. Neurosci 171, 187195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehara, Y, Siler, T M & Yen, S S C. (1976). Effects of high doses of estrogen on prolactin and growth hormone release. Am J Obstet Gynecol 125, 455458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenstein, S A, Antenor-Dorsey, J A V, Gredysa, D M et al. (2013). A comparison of D2 receptor specific binding in obese and normal-weight individuals using PET with (N-[11 C] methyl)benperidol. Synapse 67, 748756.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Exton, M S, Kruger, T H C, Koch, M et al. (2001). Coitus-induced orgasm stimulates prolactin secretion in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocr 26, 287294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fahie-Wilson, M & Smith, T P. (2013). Determination of prolactin: the macroprolactin problem. Best Pract Res Clin Endocr Metab 27, 725742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, M E, Kanyicska, B, Lerant, A & Nagy, G. (2000). Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Revs 80, 15231631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freemark, M, Fleenor, D, Driscoll, P, Binart, N & Kelly, P A. (2001). Body weight and fat deposition in prolactin receptor-deficient mice. Endocr 142, 532537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusco, A, Lugli, F, Sacco, E et al. (2011). Efficacy of the combined cabergoline and octreotide treatment in a case of a dopamine-agonist resistant macroprolactinoma. Pituitary 14, 351357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garas, A, Trypsianis, G, Kallitsaris, A, Milingos, S & Messinis, I E. (2006). Oestradiol stimulates prolactin secretion in women through oestrogen receptors. Clin Endocr 65, 638642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garin, M C, Burns, C M, Kaul, S & Cappola, A R. (2013). The human experience with ghrelin administration. J Clin Endocr Metab 98, 18261837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gautvik, K M, Tashjian, A H, Kourides, I A et al. (1974). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is not the sole physiological mediator of prolactin release during suckling. New Engl J Med 290, 11621165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gehlbach, D L, Bayliss, P & Rosa, C. (1989). Prolactin and thyrotropin responses to nursing during the puerperium. J Reprod Med 34, 295298.Google ScholarPubMed
Gomez-Merino, D, Drogou, C, Chennaoui, M, Tiollier, E, Mathieu, J & Guezennec, C Y. (2005). Effects of combined stress during intense training on cellular immunity, hormones and respiratory infections. Neuroimmunomod 12, 164172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goyal, N, Gore, M A & Shankar, R. (2008). Galactorrhea and amenorrhea in burn patients. Burns 34, 825828.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenman, Y, Tordjman, K & Stern, N. (1998). Increased body weight associated with prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas: weight loss with normalization of prolactin levels. Clin Endocr 48, 547553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hackney, A C, Davis, H C & Lane, A R. (2015). Exercise augments the nocturnal prolactin rise in exercise-trained men. Therap Adv Endocr Metab 6, 217222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haddad, P M & Wieck, A. (2004). Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia: mechanisms, clinical features and management. Drugs 64, 22912314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harmon, J & Aliapoulios, M D. (1972). Gynecomastia in marihuana users. N Engl J Med 287, 936.Google ScholarPubMed
Harvey, S, Martínez-Moreno, C G, Luna, M & Arámburo, C. (2015). Autocrine/paracrine roles of extrapituitary growth hormone and prolactin in health and disease: an overview. Gen Comp Endocr 220, 103111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaney, AP & Melmed, S. (2004). Molecular targets in pituitary tumours. Nature Revs Cancer 4, 285295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hekimsoy, Z, Kafesçiler, S, Güçlü, F & Özmen, B. (2010). The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr J 57, 10111015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillard, C J. (2015). Endocannabinoids and the endocrine system in health and disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol 231, 317339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobs, L S, Snyder, P J, Wilber, J F, Utiger, R D & Daughaday, W H. (1971). Increased serum prolactin after administration of synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in man. J Clin Endocr Metab 33, 996998.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaquet, P, Ouafik, L, Saveanu, A et al. (1999). Quantitative and functional expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human prolactinomas. J Clin Endocr Metab 84, 32683276.Google ScholarPubMed
Kalleinen, N, Polo-Kantola, P, Irjala, K et al. (2008). 24-hour serum levels of growth hormone, prolactin, and cortisol in pre- and postmenopausal women: the effect of combined estrogen and progestin treatment. J Clin Endocr Metab 93, 16551661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karaca, Z, Tanriverdi, F, Unluhizarci, K & Kelestimur, F. (2010). Pregnancy and pituitary disorders. Eur J Endocr 162, 453475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katsuren, E, Ishikawa, S, Honda, K & Saito, T. (1997). Galactorrhoea and amenorrhoea due to an intradural neurinoma originating from a thoracic intercostal nerve radicle. Clin Endocr 46, 631636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kok, P, Roelfsema, F, Frölich, M, Meinders, A E & Pijl, H. (2004). Prolactin release is enhanced in proportion to excess visceral fat in obese women. J Clin Endocr Metab 89, 44454449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kok, P, Roelfsema, F, Langendonk, J G et al. (2006). Increased circadian prolactin release is blunted after body weight loss in obese premenopausal women. Am J Physiol Endocr Metab 290, E218E224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopelman, P G. (2000). Physiopathology of prolactin secretion in obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disorders 24, Suppl 2, S104S108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kovacs, K, Horvath, E, Syro, L V et al. (2007). Temozolomide therapy in a man with an aggressive prolactin-secreting pituitary neoplasm: morphological findings. Hum Pathol 38, 185189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krüger, T H C, Hartmann, U & Schedlowski, M. (2005). Prolactinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms underlying sexual arousal and orgasm in humans. World J Urol 23, 130138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Labad, J, Stojanovic-Perez, A, Montalvo, I et al. (2015). Stress biomarkers as predictors of transition to psychosis in at-risk mental states: Roles for cortisol, prolactin and albumin. J Psych Res 60, 163169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Latta, F, Leproult, R, Tasali, E et al. (2005). Sex differences in nocturnal growth hormone and prolactin secretion in healthy older adults: relationships with sleep EEG variables. Sleep 28, 15191524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lennartsson, A-K & Jonsdottir, I H. (2011). Prolactin in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women. Psychoneuroendocr 36, 15301539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macrea, M M, Martin, T J & Zagrean, L. (2010). Infertility and obstructive sleep apnea: the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on serum prolactin levels. Sleep Breath 14, 253257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maggi, M, Buvat, J, Corona, G, Guay, A & Torres, L O. (2013). Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med 10, 661677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malarkey, W B, Hall, J C, Pearl, D K, Kiecolt-Glaser, J K & Glaser, R. (1991). The influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour concentrations of growth hormone and prolactin. J Clin Endocr Metab 73, 10891092.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marano, R J & Ben-Jonathan, N. (2014). Minireview: Extrapituitary prolactin: an update on the distribution, regulation, and functions. Mol Endocr 28, 622633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maule, W J. (2015). Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy? Br J Biomed Sci 72, 8591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNeilly, A S. (2001). Lactational control of reproduction. Reprod Fertil Dev 13, 583590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melmed, S & Kleinberg, D. (2008). Anterior pituitary. In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th Edition. Kronenberg, H M, Melmed, S, Polonsky, K S & Larsen, P R, Eds. (Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier), 185.Google Scholar
Merdin, A, Merdin, FA, Gündüz, S, Bozcuk, H & Coşkun, H S. (2016). Opioid endocrinopathy: a clinical problem in patients with cancer pain. Exp Therap Med 11, 18191822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morley, J E, Dawson, M, Hodgkinson, H & Kalk, W J. (1977). Galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia associated with chest wall injury. J Clin Endocr Metab 45, 931935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newey, PJ, Gorvin, CM, Cleland, SJ et al. (2013). Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. N Engl J Med 369, 20122020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newey, P J, Gorvin, C M & Thakker, R V. (2014). Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. N Engl J Med 370, 977978.Google ScholarPubMed
Nicoletti, I, Filipponi, P, Fedeli, L, Ambrosi, F, Gregorini, G & Santeusanio, F. (1984). Testosterone-induced hyperprolactinaemia in a patient with a disturbance of hypothalamo-pituitary regulation. Acta Endocr 105, 167172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noel, G L, Suh, H K, Stone, J G & Frantz, A G. (1972). Human prolactin and growth hormone release during surgery and other conditions of stress. J Clin Endocr Metab 35, 840851.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noel, G L, Suh, H K & Frantz, A G. (1974). Prolactin release during nursing and breast stimulation in postpartum and non-postpartum subjects. J Clin Endocr Metab 38, 413423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Normandin, M D, Zheng, M-Q, Lin, K-S et al. (2015). Imaging the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in humans with [11 C] OMAR: assessment of kinetic analysis methods, test–retest reproducibility, and gender differences. J Cerebral Blood Flow 35, 13131322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olafsdottir, A & Schlechte, J. (2006). Management of resistant prolactinomas. Nat Clin Pract Endocr Metab 2, 552561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pagotto, U, Marsicano, G, Fezza, F et al. (2001). Normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas express cannabinoid receptor type 1 and synthesize endogenous cannabinoids: first evidence for a direct role of cannabinoids on hormone modulation at the human pituitary level. J Clin Endocr Metab 86, 26872696.Google ScholarPubMed
Palkovits, M, Harvey-White, J, Liub, J et al. (2008). Regional distribution and effects of postmortal delay on endocannabinoid content of the human brain. Neurosci 152, 10321039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pivonello, R, Waaijers, M, Kros, J M et al. (2016). Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland. Endocrine 57, 314325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ranganathan, M, Braley, G, Pittman, B et al. (2009). The effects of cannabinoids on serum cortisol and prolactin in humans. Psychopharmacol 203, 737744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodin, A, Stridsberg, M & Gordh, T. (2010). Opioid endocrinopathy: a clinical problem in patients with chronic pain and long-term oral opioid treatment. Clin J Pain 26, 374380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roelfsema, F, Pijl, H, Keenan, D M & Veldhuis, J D. (2012). Prolactin secretion in healthy adults is determined by gender, age and body mass index. PLoS One 7, e31305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rojas Vega, S, Hollmann, W & Strüder, H K. (2011). Influences of exercise and training on the circulating concentration of prolactin in humans. J Neuroendocr 24, 395402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samson, S L, Hamrahian, A H & Ezzat, S. (2015). Clinical relevance of macroprolactin in the absence or presence of true hyperprolactinemia. Endocr Pract 21, 14271435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saraç, F P, Ozgen, A G, Saygili, F & Yilmaz, C. (2008). Prolactin levels and examination with breast ultrasound or mammography. Adv Therap 25, 5966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sathyapalan, T, González, S & Atkin, S L. (2009). Effect of long-term, high-dose estrogen treatment on prolactin levels: a retrospective analysis. Climacteric 12, 427430.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheithauer, B W, Sano, T, Kovacs, K T, Young, W F Jr, Ryan, N & Randall, R V. (1990). The pituitary gland in pregnancy: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 69 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 65, 461474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sodi, R, Fikri, R, Diver, M, Ranganath, L & Vora, J. (2005). Testosterone replacement-induced hyperprolactinaemia: case report and review of the literature. Ann Clin Biochem 42, 153159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stokes, K A, Gilbert, K L, Hall, G M, Andrews, R C & Thompson, D. (2013). Different responses of selected hormones to three types of exercise in young men. Eur J Appl Physiol 113, 775783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanner, M J, Hadlow, N C & Wardrop, R. (2011). Variation of female prolactin levels with menopausal status and phase of menstrual cycle. Aust NZ J Obs Gyn 51, 321324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tay, C C K, Glasier, A F & McNeilly, A S. (1996). Twenty-four hour patterns of prolactin secretion during lactation and the relationship to suckling and the resumption of fertility in breast-feeding women. Hum Reprod 11, 950955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tikk, K, Sookthai, D, Johnson, T et al. (2014). Prolactin determinants in healthy women: a large cross-sectional study within the EPIC cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23, 25322542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Veldhuis, J D, Iranmanesh, A, Johnson, M L & Lizarralde, G. (1990). Twenty-four-hour rhythms in plasma concentrations of adenohypophyseal hormones are generated by distinct amplitude and/or frequency modulation of underlying pituitary secretory bursts. J Clin Endocr Metab 71, 16161623.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhelst, J, Abs, R, Maiter, D et al. (1999). Cabergoline in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: A study in 455 patients. J Clin Endocr Metab 84, 25182522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Veselinovic, T, Schorn, H, Vernaleken, I B, Schiffl, K, Klomp, M & Grunder, G. (2011). Impact of different antidopaminergic mechanisms on the dopaminergic control of prolactin secretion. J Clin Psychopharmacol 31, 214220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voicu, V, Medvedovici, A, Ranetti, A E & Radulescu, F S. (2013). Drug-induced hypo- and hyperprolactinemia: mechanisms, clinical and therapeutic consequences. Exp Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 9, 955968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volkow, N D & McLellan, A T. (2016). Opioid abuse in chronic pain: Misconceptions and mitigation strategies. New Engl J Med 375, 12531263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vuong, C, Van Uum, S H M, O’Dell, L E, Lutfy, K & Friedman, T C. (2010). The effects of opioids and opioid analogs on animal and human endocrine systems. Endocr Revs 31, 98132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, J, Pisreflli, G, Polli, A, Ferrari, C I, Ismail, I & Scanlon, M F. (1994). A comparison of cabergoline and bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea. New Engl J Med 331, 904909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weikel, JC, Wichniak, A, Ising, M et al. (2003). Ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in humans. Am J Physiol Endocr Metab 284, E407E415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wierman, M E, Nappi, R E, Avis, N et al. (2010). Endocrine aspects of women’s sexual function. J Sex Med 7, 561585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, D, Gray, D P, Simmonds, M, Rashiq, S, Sobolev, I & Morrish, D W. (2011). Opioid analgesics suppress male gonadal function, but opioid use in men and women does not correlate with symptoms of sexual dysfunction. Pain Res Manag 16, 311316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, A, Anderson Eloy, J, Couldwell, W T & Liu, J K. (2015). Update on prolactinomas. Part 2: Treatment and management strategies. J Clin Neurosci 22, 15681574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yasuo, S, Unfried, C, Kettner, M, Geisslinger, G & Korf, H W. (2010). Localization of an endocannabinoid system in the hypophysial pars tuberalis and pars distalis of man. Cell Tissue Res 342, 273281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats