Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-m8qmq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-16T20:48:59.061Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 28 - Severe sepsis and septic shock

from Section 4 - The clinical setting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2016

Robert G. Hahn
Linköpings Universitet, Sweden
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Rivers, E, Nguyen, B, Havstad, S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1368–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, MM, Fink, MP, Marshall, JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: 1250–6.Google Scholar
Brandstrup, B, Tonnesen, H, Beier-Holgersen, R, et al. Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial. Ann Surg 2003; 238: 641–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joshi, GP. Intraoperative fluid restriction improves outcome after major elective gastrointestinal surgery. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 601–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strom, T, Martinussen, T, Toft, P. A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial. Lancet 2010; 375: 475–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuthbertson, DP. Post-shock metabolic response. Lancet 1942; i: 433–47.Google Scholar
Mouncey, PR, Osborn, TM, Power, S, et al. Trial of early goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 1301–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kern, JW, Shoemaker, WC. Meta-analysis of hemodynamic optimization in high-risk patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 1686–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hiltebrand, LB, Krejci, V, tenHoevel, ME, Banic, A, Sigurdsson, GH. Redistribution of microcirculatory blood flow within the intestinal wall during sepsis and general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 658–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trzeciak, S, McCoy, JV, Phillip, DR, et al. Early increases in microcirculatory perfusion during protocol-directed resuscitation are associated with reduced multi-organ failure at 24 hours in patients with sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 2210–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivers, EP, Kruse, JA, Jacobsen, G, et al. The influence of early hemodynamic optimization on biomarker patterns of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2007; 35: 2016–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durairaj, L, Schmidt, GA. Fluid therapy in resuscitated sepsis: less is more. Chest 2008; 133: 252–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiedemann, HP, Wheeler, AP, Bernard, GR, et al. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2564–75.Google ScholarPubMed
Dellinger, RP, Levy, MM, Rhodes, , et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Crit Care Med 2013; 41: 580637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Velanovich, V. Crystalloid versus colloid fluid resuscitation: a meta-analysis of mortality. Surgery 1989; 105: 6571.Google ScholarPubMed
Finfer, S, Bellomo, R, Boyce, N, et al. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2247–56.Google ScholarPubMed
Trof, RJ, Sukul, SP, Twisk, JW, Girbes, AR, Groeneveld, AB. Greater cardiac response of colloid than saline fluid loading in septic and non-septic critically ill patients with clinical hypovolaemia. Intensive Care Med 2010; 36: 697701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myburgh, JA, Finfer, S, Bellomo, R, et al. CHEST Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group. Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1901–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rao, SV, Jollis, JG, Harrington, RA, et al. Relationship of blood transfusion and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. JAMA 2004; 292: 1555–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hebert, PC, Wells, G, Blajchman, MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 409–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vincent, JL, Baron, JF, Reinhart, K, et al. Anemia and blood transfusion in critically ill patients. JAMA 2002; 288: 1499–507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holst, LB, Haase, N, Wetterslev, J, et al. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock. N Engl J Med 2014; 371: 381–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Michard, F, Teboul, JL. Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients: a critical analysis of the evidence. Chest 2002; 121: 2000–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antonelli, M, Levy, M, Andrews, PJ, et al. Hemodynamic monitoring in shock and implications for management. International Consensus Conference, Paris, France, 27–28 April 2006. Intensive Care Med 2007; 33: 575–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Backer, D, Biston, P, Devriendt, J, et al. Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 779–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinder, F, Stubbe, HD, Van, AH, et al. Early multiple organ failure after recurrent endotoxemia in the presence of vasoconstrictor-masked hypovolemia. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: 903–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myburgh, JA, Higgins, A, Jovanovska, A, et al. A comparison of epinephrine and norepinephrine in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 2226–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats