Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-s7zjg Total loading time: 0.288 Render date: 2022-01-26T14:09:50.425Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }
This chapter is part of a book that is no longer available to purchase from Cambridge Core

13 - Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements

Get access

Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This chapter synthesizes information from the relevant literature on policies, instruments and co-operative arrangements, focusing mainly on new information that has emerged since the Third Assessment Report (TAR). It reviews national policies, international agreements and initiatives of sub-national governments, corporations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

National policies

The literature on climate change continues to reflect the wide variety of national policies and measures that are available to governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include regulations and standards, taxes and charges, tradable permits, voluntary agreements, subsidies, financial incentives, research and development programmes and information instruments. Other policies, such as those affecting trade, foreign direct investment, consumption and social development goals, can also affect GHG emissions. Climate change policies, if integrated with other government polices, can contribute to sustainable development in developed and developing countries alike.

Reducing emissions across all sectors and gases requires a portfolio of policies tailored to fit specific national circumstances. While the advantages and disadvantages of any one given instrument can be found in the literature, four main criteria are widely used by policymakers to select and evaluate policies: environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, distributional effects (including equity) and institutional feasibility. Other more specific criteria, such as effects on competitiveness and administrative feasibility, are generally subsumed within these four.

The literature provides a great deal of information for assessing how well different instruments meet these criteria, although it should be kept in mind that all instruments can be designed well or poorly and to be stringent or lax and politically attractive or unattractive. In addition, all instruments must be monitored and enforced to be effective.

Type
Chapter
Information
Climate Change 2007 - Mitigation of Climate Change
Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC
, pp. 745 - 808
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
1
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×