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The Causes of Epilepsy The Causes of Epilepsy
Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children
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Chapter 86 - Hydrocephalus and porencephaly

from Section 3 - Symptomatic epilepsy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2012

Simon D. Shorvon
Affiliation:
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London
Frederick Andermann
Affiliation:
Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute
Renzo Guerrini
Affiliation:
Child Neurology Unit, Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Florence
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Summary

This chapter discusses the epidemiology, clinical features and the occurrence of epilepsy in hydrocephalus and porencephaly. The most common causes of antenatal hydrocephalus include malformations of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways or, more extensively, the brain, and abnormal events during pregnancy. Acute infantile hydrocephalus can manifest with lethargy, stupor, vomiting, and oculomotor nerve palsy. The relationship between epilepsy and hydrocephalus is complex. In most children hydrocephalus is part of a clinical picture usually characterized by several neurological disabilities, e.g., cerebral palsy, motor problems, and mental retardation; epilepsy can be one of the symptoms of this encephalopathy of varying etiology. Most porencephalic lesions involve both the gray and white matter. Multicystic encephalomalacia or multicystic encephalopathy is another term used to define multiple cavities that involve large parts of the cerebral hemispheres. Epilepsy also occurs in approximately 10-30 percentage of infants with porencephalic lesions.
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The Causes of Epilepsy
Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children
, pp. 612 - 617
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

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