Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 1.011 Render date: 2022-08-13T22:20:50.908Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

3 - Arabic Literary Prose, Adab Literature, and the Formation of Islamicate Imperial Culture

from Part I - Genealogies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2021

Debjani Ganguly
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
Get access

Summary

This chapter addresses how Arabic, besides being the scriptural and liturgical language of Islam, came to be the lingua franca of a world empire and its literary heritage. The chapter is divided into two parts, with the first subdivided into three sections examining the professional and literary careers of three chancellery secretaries of the late Umayyad empire, namely, Sālim Abū-l-ʿAlāʾ, ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib, and Ibn-al-Muqaffaʿ, who briefly also served the early ʿAbbāsid dynasty; and how their contributions, both of translations and original works, laid the foundations of Islamicate imperial culture and of adab literature—a new style of Arabic written prose which, by way of translation, was to become part of premodern world literature. The second part of the chapter provides a brief survey of the genres, subgenres, and audiences of the literatures of adab within the Arabic literary tradition of the Middle Ages.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

ʿAbbās, Iḥsān, ed. 1988. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd ibn-Yaḥyā al-Kātib wa-mā tabaqqā min rasāʾilih wa-rasāʾil Sālim Abī-l-ʿAlāʾ. Dār aš-Šurūq.Google Scholar
Arazi, Albert. 1999. “L’adab, les critiques et les genres littéraires dans la culture arabe médiévale.” Israel Oriental Studies, Vol. 19: 2238.Google Scholar
Arazi, Albert. , and Ben-Shammai, H. 1995. “Risāla.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. VIII. Brill, 532–39.Google Scholar
Askari, Nasrin. 2016. The Medieval Reception of the Shāhnāma as a Mirror for Princes. Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
al-Azmeh, Aziz. 1997. Muslim Kingship: Power and the Sacred in Muslim, Christian and Pagan Polities. Tauris.Google Scholar
al-Azmeh, Aziz 2014. The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allāh and His People. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacharach, Jere L. 2014. “Material Evidence and Narrative Sources: Teaching and Studying Numismatic Evidence.” In Material Evidence and Narrative Sources: Interdisciplinary Studies of the History of the Muslim Middle East, ed. Talmon-Heller, Daniella J. and Cytryn-Silverman, Katia. Brill, 1529.Google Scholar
al-Balāḏurī, Aḥmad ibn-Yaḥyā. 2001. Ansāb al-ašrāf. Ed. ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz ad-Dūrī. Vol. IV, pt. 2. Steiner.Google Scholar
Beeston, A. F. L. 1983. “The Role of Parallelism in Arabic Prose.” In Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, ed. Beeston, A. F. L., Johnstone, T. M., Serjeant, R. B, et al. Cambridge University Press, 180–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beeston, A. F. L. 1990. “al-Hamadhānī, al-Ḥarīrī and the Maqāmāt Genre.” In ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres, ed. Ashtiany, Julia, Johnstone, T. M., Latham, J. D., et al. Cambridge University Press, 125–35.Google Scholar
Bielawski, Józef, ed. 1970. Lettre d’Aristote à Alexandre sur la politique envers les cités. Zakład narodowy imienia Ossolińskich.Google Scholar
van Bladel, Kevin. 2004. “The Iranian Characteristics and Forged Greek Attributions in the Arabic Sirr al-asrār (Secret of Secrets).” Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, Vol. 57: 151–72.Google Scholar
van Bladel, Kevin. 2010. “Iranian Hellenism.” In The Classical Tradition, ed. Grafton, Anthony, Most, Glenn W., and Settis, Salvatore. Harvard University Press, 486–87.Google Scholar
Blankinship, Khalid Yahya. 1994. The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hishām Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads. SUNY Press.Google Scholar
de Blois, François. 1990. Burzōy’s Voyage to India and the Origin of the Book of Kalīlah Wa Dimnah. Royal Asiatic Society.Google Scholar
Bohas, George, Guillaume, Jean-Patrick, and Kouloughli, Djamel. 1990. The Arabic Linguistic Tradition. Routledge.Google Scholar
Bonebakker, Seeger A. 1990. “Adab and the Concept of Belles-Lettres.” InʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres, ed. Ashtiany, Julia, Johnstone, T. M., Latham, J. D., et al. Cambridge University Press, 1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borg, Gert. 2009. “History of Sajʿ.” In Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, ed. Versteegh, Kees. Vol. IV. Brill, pp. 104–6.Google Scholar
Bosworth, Clifford E. 1969. “Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Khwārazmī on the Technical Terms of the Secretary’s Art: A Contribution to the Administrative History of Mediaeval Islam.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 12, No. 2: 113–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bosworth, Clifford E. 1983. “The Persian Impact on Arabic Literature.” In Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, ed. Beeston, A. F. L., Johnstone, T. M., Serjeant, R. B., et al. Cambridge University Press, 483–96.Google Scholar
Bosworth, Clifford E. 1988. “Mirrors for Princes.” In Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. Meisami, Julie Scott and Starkey, Paul. Vol. II. Routledge, 527–29.Google Scholar
Bosworth, Clifford E. 1990. “Administrative Literature.” In Religion, Learning and Science in the ʿAbbasid Period, ed. Young, M. J. L., Latham, J. D., and Serjeant, R. B.. Cambridge University Press, 155–67.Google Scholar
von Bothmer, Hans-Caspar Graf. 1981. Kalīla und Dimna: Ibn al-Muqaffaʿs Fabelbuch in einer mittelalterlichen Bilderhandschrift – Cod. arab. 616 der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München. Reichert.Google Scholar
Böwering, Gerhard. 1984. “The Adab Literature of Classical Sufism: Anṣārī’s Code of Conduct.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. University of California Press, 6287.Google Scholar
Brinkhaus, Horst. 2008. “Das indische Pañcatantra als Quelle von Kalīla wa-Dimna.” In Von listigen Schakalen und törichten Kamelen: Die Fabel in Orient und Okzident., ed. Fansa, Mamoun and Reichert, Eckhard Grunewald., 5566.Google Scholar
Brockelmann, Carl. 1926. “Naṣr ibn Muzāḥim, der älteste Geschichtsschreiber der Schia.” Zeitschrift für Semitistik und verwandte Gebiete, Vol. 4: 123.Google Scholar
Brockelmann, Carl 1990. “Kalīla wa Dimna.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. IV. Brill, 503–6.Google Scholar
Brown, Peter. 1984. “Late Antiquity and Islam: Parallels and Contrasts.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. University of California Press, 2337.Google Scholar
Burnett, Charles S. F. 1988. “The Eadwine Psalter and the Western Tradition of the Onomancy in Pseudo-Aristotle’s Secret of Secrets.” Archives d’histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge, Vol. 55: 143–67.Google Scholar
Canard, Marius, Cahen, Claude, and Deny, J.. 1960. “Armīniya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. I. Brill, 634–40.Google Scholar
Chabbi, Jacqueline. 1997. Le seigneur des tribus: l’islam de Mahomet. Éditions CNRS.Google Scholar
Cheikho, Louis. 1905. Kalīla wa-Dimna. Imprimerie Catholique.Google Scholar
Cooperson, Michael. 2005. “Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (circa 723–759).” In Arabic Literary Culture, 500–925, ed. Cooperson, Michael and Toorawa, Shawkat M.. Gale, 150–63.Google Scholar
Crone, Patricia. 1980. Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crone, Patricia 2004. God’s Rule, Government and Islam: Six Centuries of Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Crone, Patricia, and Hinds, Martin. 1986. God’s Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Daiber, Hans. 2015. “Das Kitāb al-Ādāb al-kabīr des Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ als Ausdruck griechischer Ethik, islamischer Ideologie und iranisch-sassanidischer Hofetikette.” Oriens, Vol. 43, Nos. 3–4: 273–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
al-Duri, A. A. 1991. “Dīwān.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. II. Brill, 323–27.Google Scholar
Elias, Norbert. 2000. The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Blackwell.Google Scholar
van Ess, Josef. 1981. “Some Fragments of the Muʿāraḍat al-Qurʾān.” In Studia Arabica et Islamica: Festschrift for Iḥsān ʿAbbās on His Sixtieth Birthday, ed. Wadād al-Qāḍī. American University of Beirut Press, 151–63.Google Scholar
van Ess, Josef. 1991–92. Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: Eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam. Vols. I–II. De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Fähndrich, Hartmut. 1990. “Der Begriff ‘adab’ und sein literarischer Niederschlag.” In Orientalisches Mittelalter, ed. Wolfhart Heinrichs, AULA, 326–45.Google Scholar
Forster, Regula. 2006. Das Geheimnis der Geheimnisse: die arabischen und deutschen Fassungen des pseudo-aristotelischen Sirr al-asrār, Secretum secretorum. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
Gabrieli, Francesco. 1960a. “Adab.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. I. Brill, 175–76.Google Scholar
Gabrieli, Francesco. 1960b. “Āʾīn.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. I. Brill, 306307.Google Scholar
Gabrieli, Francesco. 1986. “Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. III. Brill, 883–85.Google Scholar
Gaullier-Bougassas, C., Bridges, M., and Tilliette, J.-Y., eds. 2015. Trajectoires européennes du ‘Secretum secretorum’ du Pseudo-Aristote (XIIIe-XVIe siècle). Brepols Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goitein, Shelomo D. 1949. “A Turning Point in the History of the Muslim State (Apropos of Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ’s Kitāb al-Ṣaḥāba).” Islamic Culture, Vol. 23: 120–35.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1965–66. “Les ‘Rasāʾil ʾArisṭāṭālīsa ʾilā-l-Iskandar’ de Sālim Abū-l-ʿAlāʾ et l’activité culturelle à l’époque omayyade,” Bulletin d’études orientales, Vol. 19: 783.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1967. “Le roman épistolaire classique conservé dans la version arabe de Sālim Abū-l-ʿAlāʾ.” Le Muséon, Vol. 80: 211–64.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1969. “La Nihāyatu-l-ʿarab fi aḫbāri-l-furs wa-l-ʿarab (Première partie).” Bulletin d’études orientales, Vol. 22: 1567.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1973. “La Nihāyatu-l-ʿarab fī aḫbāri-l-furs wa-l-ʿarab et les ‘Siyaru mulūki-l-ʿaǧam’ du Ps. Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ.” Bulletin d’études orientales, Vol. 26: 83184.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. ed. 1975. “La ‘Siyāsatu l-ʿāmmiyya’ et l’influence iranienne sur la pensee politique islamique.” Acta Iranica, Vol. 6: 33287.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1976. “L’origine et les métamorphoses du ‘Sirr al-asrār’.” Archives d’histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age, Vol. 43: 7112.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1980. “La diffusion du ‘Secretum Secretorum’ dans l’Europe occidentale.” Archives d’histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen âge, Vol. 48: 770.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1982. “Remarques sur la formation et l’interprétation du Sirr al-ʾasrār.” In Pseudo-Aristotle, the Secret of Secrets: Sources and Influences, ed. Ryan, W. F. and Schmitt, Charles B.. Warburg Institute, 333.Google Scholar
Grignaschi, Mario. 1993. “La figure d’Alexandre chez les Arabes et sa genèse.” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, Vol. 3, No. 2: 205–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruendler, Beatrice. 2013. “Les versions arabes de Kalīla wa-Dimna: une transmission et une circulation mouvantes.” In Énoncés sapientiels et littérature exemplaire: une intertextualité complexe, ed. Ortola, Marie-Sol, Presses universitaires de Lorraine, 387418.Google Scholar
Gutas, Dimitri. 1975. Greek Wisdom Literature in Arabic Translation: A Study of the Graeco-Arabic Gnomologia. American Oriental Society.Google Scholar
Gutas, Dimitri. 1990. “Ethische Schriften im Islam.” In Orientalisches Mittelalter, ed. Wolfhart Heinrichs, AULA, 346–65.Google Scholar
Gutas, Dimitri. 1998. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early ʿAbbāsid Society (2nd–4th/8th–10th Centuries). Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutas, Dimitri. 2006. “The Greek and Persian Background of Early Arabic Encyclopedism.” In Organizing Knowledge: Encyclopædic Activities in the Pre-Eighteenth Century Islamic World, ed. Endress, Gerhard. Brill, 91101.Google Scholar
Gutas, Dimitri. 2009. “On Graeco-Arabic Epistolary ‘Novels’.” Review of The Correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great: An Anonymous Greek Novel in Letters in Arabic Translation, by Maróth, Miklós. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 12, No. 1: 5970.Google Scholar
Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko. 2002. Maqama: A History of a Genre. Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko. 2006. “The Essay and Debate (al-Risāla and al-Munāẓara).” In Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period, ed. Roger Allen and D. S. Richards. Cambridge University Press, 134–45.Google Scholar
Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko. 2014. “Adab Arabic, Early Developments.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al. 3rd ed. Fasc. 3. Brill, 434.Google Scholar
Hámori, András P. 2007. “Anthologies, Arabic Literature (Pre-Mongol Period).” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al. 3rd ed. Fasc. 1. Brill, 118–24.Google Scholar
Hasse, Dag Nikolaus. 2016. Success and Suppression: Arabic Sciences and Philosophy in the Renaissance. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawting, Gerald R. 2000. The First Dynasty of Islam. 2nd ed. Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Heinrichs, Wolfhart. 1993. “Review of ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres, ed. Julia Ashtiany, T. M. Johnstone, J. D. Latham, et al.” al-ʿArabiyya, Vol. 26: 129–37.Google Scholar
Heinrichs, Wolfhart. 1995. “The Classification of the Sciences and the Consolidation of Philology in Classical Islam.” In Centres of Learning: Learning and Location in Pre-modern Europe and the Near East, ed. Drijvers, J. W. and MacDonald, A. A.. Brill, 119–39.Google Scholar
Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1974. The Venture of Islam: The Classical Age of Islam. Vol. I.University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horst, Heribert. 1987. “Die Entstehung der adab-Literatur und ihre Arten.” In Grundriß der arabischen Philologie, Literaturwissenschaft, ed. Gätje, Helmut. Vol. II. Reichert, 208–20.Google Scholar
ibn-Isḥāq, Ḥunayn. 1985. Ādāb al-falāsifa. Ed. al-Badawī, ʿAbd-ar-Raḥmān. Maʿhad al-Maḫṭūṭāt al-ʿArabīya.Google Scholar
Kavey, Allison. 2007. Books of Secrets: Natural Philosophy in England, 1550–1600. University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, H. 1982. “A Genre in Classical Arabic: The Adab Encyclopedia.” In Proceedings, Union européenne des arabisants et islamisants: 10th Congress, Edinburgh, 9–16 September 1980, ed. Robert Hillenbrand, s.n., 3442.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, H. 1988. “Adab.” In Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. Meisami, Julie Scott and Starkey, Paul. Vol. I. Routledge, 5456.Google Scholar
Knauth, Wolfgang. 1975. Das altiranische Fürstenideal von Xenophon bis Ferdousi: nach den antiken und einheimischen Quellen dargestellt. Steiner.Google Scholar
Kraemer, Joel L. 1992. Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. 2nd rev. ed. Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latham, J. Derek. 1983. “The Beginnings of Arabic Prose Literature: The Epistolary Genre.” In Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, ed. Beeston, A. F. L., Johnstone, T. M., Serjeant, R. B., et al. Cambridge University Press, 154–79.Google Scholar
Latham, J. Derek 1990. “Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ and Early ʿAbbasid Prose.” In ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres, ed. Julia Ashtiany, T. M. Johnstone, J. D. Latham, , et al. Cambridge University Press, 4877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latham, J. Derek 1992. “Review of Burzōy’s Voyage to India and the Origin of the Book of Kalīlah Wa Dimnah, by François de Blois.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 2, No. 1: 8588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latham, J. Derek 1998. “Ebn al-Moqaffaʿ.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Yarshater, Ehsan. Vol. VIII. Mazda Publishers, 3943.Google Scholar
Leder, Stefan, and Kilpatrick, Hilary. 1992. “Classical Arabic Prose Literature: A Researchers’ Sketch Map.” Journal of Arabic Literature, Vol. 23, No. 1: 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowry, Joseph E. 2005. “Ibn Qutaybah (circa 828–889).” In Arabic Literary Culture, 500–925, ed. Cooperson, Michael and Toorawa, Shawkat M.. Gale, 172–83.Google Scholar
Macuch, M. 2009. “Pahlavi Literature.” In The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran, ed. Ronald E. Emmerick and Maria Macuch. I. B. Tauris, 116–96.Google Scholar
Mahdi, Muhsin S. 1995. The Thousand and One Nights. Brill.Google Scholar
Makdisi, George. 1990. The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West, with Special Reference to Scholasticism. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Manzalaoui, Mahmoud. 1971. “The Pseudo-Aristotelian Kitāb Sirr al-Asrār: Facts and Problems.” Oriens, Vols. 23–24, No. 1: 147257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manzalaoui, Mahmoud. 1977. Secretum Secretorum: Nine English Versions. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Marlow, Louise. 2007. “Advice and Advice Literature.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al., 3rd ed. Fasc. 1. Brill, 3458.Google Scholar
Maróth, Miklós, ed. 2006. The Correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great: An Anonymous Greek Novel in Letters in Arabic Translation. The Avicenna Institute of Middle Eastern Studies.Google Scholar
Marrou, H. I. 1956. A History of Education in Antiquity. Trans. George Lamb. University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Marsham, Andrew. 2009. Rituals of Islamic Monarchy: Accession and Succession in the First Muslim Empire. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad K. 2007. “Adab al-qāḍī.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al., 3rd ed. Fasc. 3. Brill, 7982.Google Scholar
Masud, Muhammad K. 2008. “Adab al-muftī.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al., 3rd ed. Fasc. 2. Brill, 3336.Google Scholar
Mitter, Ulrike. 2005. “Origin and Development of the Islamic Patronate.” In Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam, ed. Bernards, Monique and Nawas, John A.. Brill, 70133.Google Scholar
Monroe, James T. 1983. The Art of Badīʿ az-Zamān al-Hamadhānī as Picaresque Narrative. American University of Beirut.Google Scholar
Montgomery, James E. 2002. “Ẓarīf.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Th. Bianquis, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. XI. Brill, 460.Google Scholar
Montgomery, James E 2005. “al-Jahiz (circa 776–868 or 869).” In Arabic Literary Culture, 500–925, ed. Cooperson, Michael and Toorawa, Shawkat M.. Gale, 231–42.Google Scholar
Morony, Michael G. 1984. Iraq after the Muslim Conquest. Princeton University.Google Scholar
al-Musawi, Muhsin. 2006. “Pre-Modern Belletristic Prose.” In Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period, ed. Roger Allen and D. S. Richards. Cambridge University Press, 101–33.Google Scholar
Nawas, John A. 2015. al-Maʾmūn, the Inquisition, and the Quest for Caliphal Authority. Lookwood Press.Google Scholar
Norris, H. T. 1990. “Shuʿūbiyya in Arabic Literature.” In ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres, ed. Julia Ashtiany, T. M. Johnstone, J. D. Latham, , et al. Cambridge University Press, 3147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohlander, Erik S. 2009. “Adab in Ṣūfism.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al. 3rd ed. Fasc. 1. Brill, 4042.Google Scholar
O’Kane, Bernard. 2011. “Kalīla wa Demna iii. Illustrations.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Yarshater, Ehsan. Vol. XV, Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 395–97.Google Scholar
Omidsalar, Mahmoud. 2011. “Kalīla wa Demna ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kalila-demna-ii.Google Scholar
Orfali, Bilal. 2012. “A Sketch Map of Arabic Poetry Anthologies up to the Fall of Baghdad.” Journal of Arabic Literature, Vol. 43: 2959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pellat, Charles. 1985. “i. Adab in Arabic Literature.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater. Vol. I. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 439–44.Google Scholar
al-Qāḍī, Wadād. 1992. “Early Islamic State Letters: The Question of Authenticity.” In The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East: Problems in the Literary Source Material, ed. Cameron, Averil and Conrad, Lawrence I.. Vol. I. Darwin Press, 215–75.Google Scholar
al-Qāḍī, Wadād 1993. “The Impact of the Qurʾān on the Epistolography of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd.” In Approaches to the Qurʾān, ed. Hawting, G. R. and Shareef, Abdul-Kader A. Routledge, 285313.Google Scholar
al-Qāḍī, Wadād 2005. “ʿAbd al-Hamid al-Katib (circa 689–750).” In Arabic Literary Culture, 500–925, ed. Cooperson, Michael and Toorawa, Shawkat M.. Gale, 311.Google Scholar
al-Qāḍī, Wadād 2009. “ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Fleet, Kate, Krämer, Gudrun, Matringe, Denis, et al. 3rd ed. Fasc. 1. Brill, 47.Google Scholar
al-Qāḍī, Wadād 2010. “The Names of Estates in State Registers before and after the Arabization of the ‘Dīwāns’.” In Umayyad Legacies Medieval Memories from Syria to Spain, ed. Borrut, Antoine and Cobb, Paul M.. Brill, 255–80.Google Scholar
[Kadi, Wadad ]. 2014. “Identity Formation of the Bureaucracy of the Early Islamic State: ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd’s ‘Letter to the Secretaries’.” In Mediterranean Identities in the Premodern Era: Entrepôts, Islands, Empires, ed. Watkins, John and Reyerson, Kathryn L.. Ashgate, 141–54.Google Scholar
Kadi, Wadad 2019. “The Myriad Sources of the Vocabulary of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib (d. 132/750).” Arabica, Vol. 66, Nos. 3–4: 207302.Google Scholar
Qutbuddin, Tahera. 2019. Arabic Oration: Art and Function. Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
al-Rahim, Ahmed H. 2018. The Creation of Philosophical Tradition: Biography and the Reception of Avicenna’s Philosophy from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century A.D. Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
al-Rahim, Ahmed H. Forthcoming. “Handbooks of Professional Ethics (Ādāb) in Islamicate Civilization: A Conspectus.” In The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Ethics, ed. Mustafa Shah. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Reisman, David C. 2004. “Professional Medical Ethics from a Foreign Past.” In Islamic Philosophy, Science, Culture, and Religion: Studies in Honor of Dimitri Gutas, ed. Opwis, Felicitas and Reisman, David. Brill, 2639.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Dwight F. 2006. “A Thousand and One Nights: A History of the Text and Its Reception.” In Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period, ed. Roger Allen and D. S. Richards. Cambridge University Press, 270–91.Google Scholar
Riedel, Dagmar. 2011. “Kalīla wa Demna i. Redactions and Circulation.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater. Vol. XV. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 386–95.Google Scholar
Robinson, Chase F. 2007. ʿAbd al-Malik. Oneworld.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, Franz. 1970. Knowledge Triumphant: The Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam. Brill.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, Franz. 1975. Gambling in Islam. Brill.Google Scholar
Ryan, W. F., and Schmitt, Charles B., eds. 1982. Pseudo-Aristotle, the Secret of Secrets: Sources and Influences. Warburg Institute.Google Scholar
Sadan, J. 1993. “Nadīm.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al., 2nd ed. Vol. VII. Brill, 849–52.Google Scholar
Sahas, Daniel J. 1972. John of Damascus on Islam: The “Heresy of the Ishmaelites.” Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Irene. 1990. Das Bild des Richters in der “adab al-qāḍī”-Literatur. Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Schoeler, Gregor. 2006. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam. Trans. Uwe Vagelpohl, ed. Montgomery, James E.. Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schöller, Marco. 2001. “Zum Begriff des ‘islamischen Humanismus’.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 151, No. 2: 275320.Google Scholar
Schönig, Hannelore. 1985. Das Sendschreiben des ʿAbdalḥamīd b. Yaḥyā (gest. 132/750) an den Kronprinzen ʿAbdallāh b. Marwān II. Steiner.Google Scholar
Sellheim, Rudolf. 1986. “Kitāb.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. V. Brill, 207208.Google Scholar
Sellheim, Rudolf, and Sourdel, Dominique. 1990. “Kātib.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Th. Bianquis, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. IV, Brill, 754–57.Google Scholar
Serjeant, R. B. 1983. “Early Arabic Prose.” In Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, ed. Beeston, A. F. L., Johnstone, T. M., Serjeant, R. B., et al. Cambridge University Press, 114–53.Google Scholar
Shaked, Shaul. 1987. “Andarz and Andarz Literature in Pre-Islamic Iran.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Yarshater, Ehsan. Vol. II. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1116.Google Scholar
Stern, S. M. 1970. Aristotle on the World State. Cassirer.Google Scholar
Stewart, Devin. 2006. “The Maqāma.” In Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period, ed. Roger Allen and D. S. Richards. Cambridge University Press, 145–58.Google Scholar
Tafażżolī, Aḥmad. 1984. “Āʾīn-nāma.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater. Vol. I. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 691–92.Google Scholar
Toorawa, Shawkat M. 2004. “Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr Versus al-Jāḥiẓ, or: Defining the Adīb.” In ʿAbbasid Studies: Occasional Papers of the School of ʿAbbasid Studies, Cambridge, 6–10 July 2002, ed. Montgomery, James E.. Peeters, 247–62.Google Scholar
Watson, Andrew M. 1983. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Werner, Jaeger. 1943–45. Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture. Trans. Gilbert Highet. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Williams, Steven J. 1994. “Roger Bacon and His Edition of the Pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum secretorum.” Speculum, Vol. 69, No. 1: 5773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Steven J. 2003. The Secret of Secrets: The Scholarly Career of a Pseudo-Aristotelian Text in the Latin Middle Ages. University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yarshater, Ehsan. 1988. “The Persian Presence in the Islamic World.” In The Persian Presence in the Islamic World, ed. Hovannisian, Richard G. and Sabagh, Georges. Cambridge University Press, 4125.Google Scholar
Zakeri, Mohsen. 1995. Sasanid Soldiers in Early Muslim Society: The Origins of ʿAyyārān and Futuwwa. Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Zakeri, Mohsen 2004. “Ādāb al-falāsifa: The Persian Content of an Arabic Collection of Aphrorisms.” Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, Vol. 57: 173–90.Google Scholar
Zakeri, Mohsen 2007. Persian Wisdom in Arabic Garb: ʿAlī b. ʿUbayda al-Rayḥānī (d. 219/834) and His Jawāhir al-kilam wa-farāʾid al-ḥikam. Vol. I. Brill.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Q. 2002. “Wazīr i, in the Arab World, 1. the ʿAbbāsids.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. Bearman, P., Th. Bianquis, Bosworth, Clifford E., et al. 2nd ed. Vol. XI. Brill, 185–88.Google Scholar
Zonta, M. 2003. “Pseudo-Aristotle, Secretum secretorum.” In Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques, Supplément, ed. Jean-Marie Flamand, Richard Goulet, and Maroun Aouad. CNRS, 648–51.Google Scholar
Zwettler, Michael. 1978. The Oral Tradition of Classical Arabic Poetry: Its Character and Implications. Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×