Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ttngx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T11:55:03.845Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

7 - Aristocratic Buddhism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 March 2008

Stanley Weinstein
Affiliation:
Yale University
Donald H. Shively
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
William H. McCullough
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Get access

Summary

THE PRELUDE TO HEIAN BUDDHISM

Since its introduction into Japan in the middle of the sixth century, the Buddhist religion experienced steady growth under the patronage of the imperial family and powerful clans who sponsored the founding of magnificent temples and monasteries, which they generously endowed with gifts of agricultural land to provide an economic base for the upkeep of these institutions. The rapid expansion of the church is evident in the following figures taken from eighth-century sources. A census conducted in the year 624 – less than a century after Buddhism made its appearance at the court – revealed that there were forty-six functioning monasteries in Japan that accommodated a total of 816 monks and 569 nuns. By the year 681 the number of monasteries in the capital region alone had grown to twenty-four. Larger monasteries capable of accommodating hundreds of monks appeared during the course of the seventh century. Thus an entry in the Nihon shoki for the year 690 notes that gifts of cloth were presented to some 3,363 monks residing in seven monasteries.

Although we lack reliable figures for the total number of monasteries in Japan at this time, it is possible to confirm on the basis of archaeological evidence, mainly tiles and foundation stones, the existence of at least two hundred temple sites dating from the Asuka-Hakuhō period (593–710). As might be expected, most of these sites are in Yamato Province, although a few are found as far west as Bitchū and as far east as Owari, which gives some indication of the diffusion of Buddhism in this early period.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 1999

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Akihiro, Kinda . “Heian-ki no Yamato bonchi ni okeru jōri jiwari naibu no tochi riyo.” Shirin 61.3 (May 1978).Google Scholar
Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. 151 vols. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1912–22.
Daibirushanakyō shiki. In Taishō shinshū daizōkyō, vol. 58. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1930.
Daiji, Hori . “Ryōgen no Nijūrokkajō kishō seitei no igi.” Shisō 25 (March 1967).Google Scholar
Daitō, Shimaji . Tendai kyōgaku shi. Tokyo: Meiji shoin, 1929.
Dengyō Daishi zenshū. 5 vols. Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho. 1926.
Eigaku yōki. In Gunsho ruijū. Vol. 15. Tokyo: Keizai zasshisha, 1905.
Enchin, . Yuisei, included in Yohō hennen zasshū. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 28. Tokyo: Yūseidō shuppambu, 1933.
Ennin, . Jūsan-jū kanjō hiroku, included in Tendai kahyō, kan 5, part 1. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 126. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1914.
Ennin, . Nittō shingu shōgyō mokuroku. In Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. Vol. 55. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1928.
Gakuin, Eizan , ed. Ganzan Jie Daishi no kenkyū Kyoto: Dōbōsha, 1984.
Gempei seisuiki. In Yūhōdō bunko. Vols. 16–17. Tokyo: Yūhōdō shoten, 1911–17.
Groner, Paul . Saichō: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School. Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press Buddhist Studies Series, 1985.
Gyōnen, . Sangoku Buppō denzū engi. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 101. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1913.Google Scholar
Hiroshi, Kiuchi . Dengyō Daishi no shōgai to shisō Regurusu bunko. Vol. 56. Tokyo: Daisan bummeisha 1976.
Hōryūji garan engi narabi ni ruki shizai chō. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 117. Tokyo: Yuseidō shuppambu, 1932.
Ichirō, Hori . “On the concept of Hijiri (Holy-Man).” Numen 5 (1958).Google Scholar
Ichirō, Hori . Kūya. Jimbutsu sōsho. Vol. 106. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1963.
Jigai, Shibuya ed. Kōtei zōho Tendai zasu ki. Tokyo: Daiichi shobō, 1973.
Jikō, Hazama . Tendaishū shi gaisetsu. Rev. by Ryō-jun, Ōkubo . Tokyo: Daizō shuppan, 1969.
Jinten ainōshō. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 150. Tokyo: Yūseidō shuppambu, 1933.
Junjirō, Takakusu , Kaigyoku, Watanabe, and Gemmyō, Ono , eds. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. 100 vols. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1924–34.
Junkyō, Washio . Kōshitsu to Bukkyō Tokyo: Daitō shuppansha, 1939.
Kaiei, . Kōya shunjū hennen shūroku. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 131. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1912.
Kakunyo, . Gaijashō. In Shinshū shōgyō zensho. Vol. 3. Kyoto: Ōyagi kōbundō, 1964.
Kamens, Edward . The Three Jewels: A Study and Translation of Minamoto Tamenori's Sanbōe. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1988.
Katsumi, Kuroita . Kōtei: kokushi no kenkyū:. 3 vols. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1931–36.
Katsutoshi, Ono . Nittō guhō junrai kōki no kenkyū. 4 vols. Tokyo: Suzuki gakujutsu zaidan, 1964–69.
Keiki, Yabuki . Amida Butsu no kenkyū. Rev. and en-larged ed. Tokyo: Meiji shoin, 1937.
Ken'i, . Kōbō Daishi go-den. In Zoku gunsho ruijū. Vol. 8. Tokyo: Keizai zasshisha, 1904.
Kenkō, Futaba . Kodai Bukkyō shisō-shi kenkyū Kyoto: Nagata bunshōdō, 1962.
Kōhō, . Tōbōki. In Zokuzoku gunsho ruijū. Vol. 12. Tokyo: Kokusho kankōkai, 1907.
Kōjō, . Denjutsu isshinkai mon. In Dengyō Daishi zenshū. Vol. 1. Shiga-ken, Shiga-gun, Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho, 1926.
Kokke no on-tame ni shuhō sen to kou hyō. Included in Henjō hakki seirei shū, kan 4. In Sangō shiiki. Seirei shū. Vol. 71 of Nihon koten bungaku taikei. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1965.
Kongōbuji, ed. Kōyasan senhyakunen shi. Kōyasan: Kongōbuji, 1942.
Konjaku monogatari shū. In Yoshio, Yamada, Tadao, Yamada, Hideo, Yamada, and Toshio, Yamada , eds. Vols. 22–25 of Nihon koten bungaku taikei. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1959–63.
Kōyū, Sonoda . “Heian Bukkyō no seiritsu” In Ienaga, Saburō , ed. Kodai hen. Vol. 1 of Nihon Bukkyō-shi. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1967.Google Scholar
Kōyū, Sonoda . “Heian Bukkyō.” In Kodai. Vol. 4 of Saburō, Ienaga, Shō, Ishimoda, Kiyoshi, Inoue et al., eds. Iwanami kōza: Nihon rekishi. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1962.Google Scholar
Kōyū, Sonoda . “Saichō to Tendai-shū.” In Nihon hen. Vol. 2 of Hajime, Nakamura, Kazuo, Kasahara, and Shūyū, Kanaoka , eds. Ajia Bukkyō shi. Tokyo: Kōsei shuppansha, 1974.Google Scholar
Kōyū, Tamura . Saichō. Jimbutsu sōsho. Vol. 193. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kō, 1988.
Kūkai, . Go-shōrai mokuroku. In Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. Vol. 55. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1928.
Kyōhan, . Daishi on-gyōjō shūki. In Zoku gunsho ruiju. Vol. 8. Tokyo: Keizai zasshisha, 1904.
Masafusa, Ōe . Gōdanshō. In Gunsho ruijū. Vol. 17. Tokyo: Keizai zasshisha, 1905.
Mifune Genkai, Ōmi Tō Daiwajō tōsei den. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 113. Yūseidō shuppambu, 1932.
Mitsusada, Inoue . Nihon Jōdo-kyō seiritsu-shi no kenkyū. Tokyo: Yamakawa shuppansha, 1956.
Mitsusada, Inoue . Nihon kodai kokka no kenkyū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1965.
Mizumaro, Ishida . Jōdo-kyō no tenkai. Tokyo: Shunjūsha, 1967.
Moritoku, Hirabayashi . Ryōgen. Jimbutsu sōsho. Vol. 173. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1976.
Mosaku, Ishida . Shakyō yori mitaru Nara-chō Bukkyō no kenkyū. Tokyo: Tōyō bunko, 1930.
Nihon shoki. Tarō, Sakamoto, Saburō, Ienaga, Mitsusada, Inoue, and Susumu, Ōno , eds. Vol. 67 of Nihon koten bungaku taikei. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1967.
Ninchū, . Eizan Daishi den. In Dengyō Daishi zenshū. Vol. 5. Shiga-ken, Shiga-gun, Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho, 1926.
Reischauer, Edwin O. Ennin's Travels in T'ang China. New York: Ronald Press, 1955.
Rizō, Takeuchi , ed. Nara ibun. Revised ed. 3 vols. Tokyo: Tōkyōdō, 1962.
Rizō, Takeuchi . Nara-chō jidai ni okeru jiin keizai no kenkyō. Tokyo: Ōokayama shoten, 1932.
Ryōdō, Shioiri and Gyōō, Kiuchi , eds. Saichō. Vol. 2 of Nihon meisō ronshū. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1982.
Ryōgen, . Nijūrokka jō kishō. In Rizō, Takeuchi ed., Heian ibun. Vol. 2. Tokyo: Tōkyō-dō, 1964.
Ryōgen, . Tengen sannen Chūdō kuyō gammon. In Koji ruien. Vol. 12. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1969.
Ryōkō, Kushida . Kūkai no kenkyū. Tokyo: Sankibō Busshorin, 1981.
Ryūshin, Katsuno . Hieizan to Kōyasan, Tokyo: Shibundō, 1959.
Ryūshin, Katsuno . Sōhei. Tokyo: Shibundō, 1955.
Saeki, Arikiyo . Dengyō Daishi den no kenkyū. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1992.
Saichō, . Dengyō Daishi shōrai Esshū roku. In Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. Vol. 55. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1928.
Saichō, . Kanshō Tendai-shū nembun gakushō shiki, included in Sange gakushō shiki. In Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. Vol. 74. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1931.
Saichō, . Kenkairon engi. In Dengyō Daishi zenshū Vol. 1. Shiga-ken, Shiga-gun, Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho, 1926.
Saichō, . Naishō Buppō sōjō kechimyaku fu. In Dengyō Daishi zenshū. Vol. 1. Shiga-ken, Shiga-gun, Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho, 1926.
Saichō, . Tendai Hokke-shū nembun tokudo gakushō myōchō, included in Jō Kenkairon hyō. In Dengyō Daishi zenshū Vol. 1. Shiga-ken, Shiga-gun, Sakamoto: Hieizan tosho kankōsho, 1926.
Sammon dōsha ki. In Gunsho ruijū. Vol. 15. Tokyo: Keizai zasshisha, 1905.
Sekiyo, Shimode . “Kūkai to Shingon-shū.” In Nihon hen. Vol. 2 of Hajime, Nakamura, Kazuo, Kasahara, and Shūyū, Kanaoka , eds. Ajia Bukkyō shi. Tokyo: Kōsei shuppansha, 1974.Google Scholar
Sekiyo, Shimode . “Shingon-shū no tenkai.” In Nihon hen. Vol. 2 of Hajime, Nakamura, Kazuo, Kasahara, and Shūyū, Kanaoka , eds. Ajia Bukkyō shi Tokyo: Kōsei shuppansha, 1974.Google Scholar
Shikō, . Jimon denki horoku. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 127. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1915.
Shinshō, Hanayama , trans. Ōjō yōshū, Iwanami bunko. Vols. 2992–96. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1942.
(Shintei zōho) Kokushi taikei. 60 vols. in 66. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1929–64.
Shiren, Kokan . Genkō Shakusho. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho Vol. 101. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1913.
Shōkō, Watanabe and Yūshō, Miyasaka . Shamon Kūkai. Chikuma sōsho. Vol. 84. Tokyo: Chikuma shobō, 1967.
Shūichi, Murayama . “Heian Bukkyō no tenkai”. In Saburō, Ienaga , ed. Kodai hen. Vol. 1 of Nihon Bukkyō-shi. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1967.Google Scholar
Shumpaku, Nakao . Dengyō Daishi Saichō no kenkyū Kyoto: Nagata bunshōdō, 1987.
Shunkyō, Katsumata . Mikkyō no Nihon-teki tenkai. Tokyo: Shunjūsha, 1970.
Sofū, sen'yōkai ed. Rankei yuionshō. In Kōbō Daishi zenshū, 3rd ed., rev. and enlarged. Vol. 5. Kōyasan: Mikkyō bunka kenkyūjo, 1966.
Sontsū, . Chishō Daishi nempu. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 28. Tokyo: Yuseidō shuppambu, 1933.
Sukefusa, Fujiwara . Shunki. In Tankaku sōsho. Vol. 1. Tokyo: Kokusho kankōkai, 1912.
Tamenori, Minamoto . Sambō ekotoba. In Dai Nihon Bukkyō zensho. Vol. 111. Tokyo: Bussho Kankōkai, 1913.
Tameyasu, Miyoshi . Shūi ōjō den. In Mitsusada, Inoue and Shōsuke, Ōsone , eds. Ōjō den. Hokke genki. Vol. 7 of Nihon shisō taikei. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1974.
Tōji chōja bunin. In Zokuzoku gunsho ruijū. Vol. 2. Tokyo: Kokusho kankōkai, 1907.
Weinstein, Stanley , “Imperial Patronage in T'ang Buddhism.” In Wright, Arthur F. and Twitchett, Denis ., eds. Perspectives on the T'ang. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
Weinstein, Stanley . “Beginnings of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan: The Neglected Tendai Tradition.” Journal of Asian Studies 34. 1 (1974).Google Scholar
Yasuhiko, Murai . Kodai kokka kaitai katei no kenkyū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1965.
Yasutane, Yoshishige . Nihon ōjō gokuraku ki. In Mitsusada, Inoue and Shō, Ōsone , eds. Ōjō den. Hokke genki. Vol. 7 of Nihon shisō taikei Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1974.
Yōkan, . Ōjō jūin. In Jōdo-shū zensho. Vol. 15. Tokyo: Sankibō Busshorin, 1971.
Yoshio, Yamada . Sambōe ryakuchū. Tokyo: Hōbunkan, 1951.
Yutaka, Takagi . “Tendai-shū no tenkai.” In Nihon hen. Vol. 2 of Hajime, Nakamura, Kazuo, Kasahara, and Shūyū, Kanaoka , eds. Ajia Bukkyō shi. Tokyo: Kōsei shuppansha, 1974.Google Scholar
Zennosuke, Tsuji . Nihon Bukkyō-shi: Jōsei hen: Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1944.
Zō Daisōjō Kūkai Wajō denki. In Kōbō Daishi zenshū. 3rd ed., rev. and enlarged. Shukan. Kōyasan: Mikkyō bunka kenkyūjo, 1967.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×