Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c47g7 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-16T23:19:52.760Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

36 - Diversity and Workplace Affect

The Impact of Revealing or Concealing a Stigma

from Part VI - New Perspectives on Workplace Affect

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 June 2020

Liu-Qin Yang
Affiliation:
Portland State University
Russell Cropanzano
Affiliation:
University of Colorado
Catherine S. Daus
Affiliation:
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Vicente Martínez-Tur
Affiliation:
Universitat de València, Spain
Get access

Summary

A stigmatized identity refers to some socially devalued aspect of a person that (typically) cannot be changed and evokes negative stereotypes, attitudes, and behaviors from others (Quinn & Earnshaw, 2013). With the increase of protective laws, individuals with a stigmatized identity face less formal discrimination than in the past but continue to face substantial subtle and interpersonal discrimination (Ruggs, Martinez, & Hebl, 2011). While the majority of stigma research has focused on visible stigmatized identities, many stigmatized identities are simply not visible. It is this latter category on which the current chapter focuses. Invisible stigmatized identities are devalued aspects that an individual is generally able to conceal from others. Invisible and/or concealable stigmas may include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ+) identities; some disabilities; and multiracial and religious identities. For the remainder of the chapter, we will refer to such identities as “concealable stigmas” or “invisible stigmas.”

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 493501.Google Scholar
Beals, K. P., Peplau, L. A., & Gable, S. L. (2009). Stigma management and wellbeing: The role of perceived social support, emotional processing, and suppression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 867879.Google Scholar
Berkley, R. A., Beard, R., & Daus, C. S. (2018). The emotional context of disclosing a concealable stigmatized identity: A conceptual model. Human Resource Management Review, 29(3), 428455.Google Scholar
Bowleg, L., Brooks, K., & Ritz, S. F. (2008). “Bringing home more than a paycheck”: An exploratory analysis of black lesbians’ experiences of stress and coping in the workplace. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12, 6984.Google Scholar
Boyce, A. S., Ryan, A. M., Imus, A. L., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). “Temporary worker, permanent loser?” A model of the stigmatization of temporary workers. Journal of Management, 33, 529.Google Scholar
Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279307.Google Scholar
Button, S. B. (2004). Identity management strategies utilized by lesbian and gay employees: A quantitative investigation. Group & Organization Management, 29, 470494.Google Scholar
Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 236256.Google Scholar
Clair, J. A., Beatty, J. E., & MacLean, T. L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30, 7895.Google Scholar
Colombetti, G. (2005). Appraising valence. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 103126.Google Scholar
Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87127.Google Scholar
Côté, S. & Morgan, L. M. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of the association between emotion regulation, job satisfaction, and intentions to quit. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 947962.Google Scholar
Croteau, J. M., Anderson, M. Z., & VanderWal, B. L. (2008). Models of workplace sexual identity disclosure and management: Reviewing and extending concepts. Group & Organization Management, 33, 532565.Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Griffith, K. H., & Hebl, M. R. (2002). The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming out” at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 11911199.Google Scholar
Joachim, G., & Acorn, S. (2000). Stigma of visible and invisible chronic conditions. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 243248.Google Scholar
Johnson, V. R., & Yarhouse, M. A. (2013). Shame in sexual minorities: Stigma, internal cognitions, and counseling considerations. Counseling and Values, 58, 85103.Google Scholar
Jones, K. P. (2017). To tell or not to tell? Examining the role of discrimination in the pregnancy disclosure process at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 239250.Google Scholar
Jordan, K. M., & Deluty, R. H. (1998). Coming out for lesbian women: Its relation to anxiety, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and social support. Journal of Homosexuality, 35, 4163.Google Scholar
Kelly, A. E. (2002). The psychology of secrets. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
Law, C. L., Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Hebl, M. R., & Akers, E. (2011). Trans-parency in the workplace: How the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 710723.Google Scholar
Lea, T., de Wit, J., & Reynolds, R. (2014). Minority stress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults in Australia: Associations with psychological distress, suicidality, and substance use. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 15711578.Google Scholar
LeBlanc, A. J., Frost, D. M., & Wight, R. G. (2015). Minority stress and stress proliferation among same‐sex and other marginalized couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 4059.Google Scholar
Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Is coming out always a “good thing”? Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 145152.Google Scholar
Linney, K. D. (2008). Work–family conflict and job satisfaction: Family resources as a buffer. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 100, 2430.Google Scholar
Logie, C. H., James, L., Tharao, W., & Loutfy, M. R. (2011). HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: A qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. PLoS medicine, 8, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001124Google Scholar
Madera, J. M., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. R. (2012). Bringing social identity to work: The influence of manifestation and suppression on perceived discrimination, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 165170.Google Scholar
Major, B., & Gramzow, R. H. (1999). Abortion as stigma: Cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 735745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marrs, S. A., & Staton, A. R. (2016). Negotiating difficult decisions: Coming out versus passing in the workplace. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 10, 4054.Google Scholar
Martinez, L. R., & Hebl, M. R. (2016). Adult survivors of childhood cancers’ identity disclosures in the workplace. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 10, 416424.Google Scholar
Mayfield Arnold, E., Rice, E., Flannery, D., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2008). HIV disclosure among adults living with HIV. AIDS Care, 20, 8092.Google Scholar
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674697.Google Scholar
Pachankis, J. E. (2007). The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: A cognitive–affective–behavioral model. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 328345.Google Scholar
Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2006). Social anxiety in young gay men. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 9961015.Google Scholar
Quinn, D. M., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009). Living with a concealable stigmatized identity: The impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 634651.Google Scholar
Quinn, D. M., & Earnshaw, V. A. (2013). Concealable stigmatized identities and psychological well‐being. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 4051.Google Scholar
Quinn, D. M., Williams, M. K., Quintana, F., Gaskins, J. L., Overstreet, N. M., Pishori, A., … & Chaudoir, S. R. (2014). Examining effects of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, internalization, and outness on psychological distress for people with concealable stigmatized identities. PloS One, 9, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096977Google Scholar
Ragins, B. R. (2004). Sexual orientation in the workplace: The unique work and career experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual workers. In Buckley, M. R., Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Wheeler, A. R. (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Volume 23, pp. 35129). Bingley, UK: Emerald.Google Scholar
Ragins, B. R. (2008). Disclosure disconnects: Antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Academy of Management Review, 33, 194215.Google Scholar
Ruggs, E. N., Martinez, L. R., & Hebl, M. R. (2011). How individuals and organizations can reduce interpersonal discrimination. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 2942.Google Scholar
Sabat, I., Trump, R., & King, E. (2014). Individual, interpersonal, and contextual factors relating to disclosure decisions of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1, 431440.Google Scholar
Sandelowski, M., Lambe, C., & Barroso, J. (2004). Stigma in HIV‐positive women. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36, 122128.Google Scholar
Sedlovskaya, A., Purdie-Vaughns, V. P., Eibach, R. P., LaFrance, M., Romero-Canyas, R., & Camp, N. P. (2013). Internalizing the closet: Concealment heightens the cognitive distinction between public and private selves. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 695715.Google Scholar
Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J. A., Salvatore, J., & Hill, D. M. (2006). Silence is not golden: The intrapersonal consequences of not confronting prejudice. In Levin, S & C. van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and group inequality: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 6581). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (2000). The hidden costs of hidden stigma. In Heatherton, T, Kleck, R, Hebl, M, & Hull, J (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 220242). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Stergiou-Kita, M., Pritlove, C., & Kirsch, B. (2016). The “big C” – stigma, cancer, and workplace discrimination. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 10, 10351050.Google Scholar
Stirratt, M. J., Meyer, I. H., Ouellette, S. C., & Gara, M. A. (2008). Measuring identity multiplicity and intersectionality: Hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS) of sexual, racial, and gender identities. Self and Identity, 7, 89111.Google Scholar
Stone, D. L., & Colella, A. (1996). A model of factors affecting the treatment of disabled individuals in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 21, 352401.Google Scholar
Talley, A. E., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2011). The moderator roles of coping style and identity disclosure on the relationship between perceived sexual stigma and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 28832903.Google Scholar
Testa, R. J., Michaels, M. S., Bliss, W., Rogers, M. L., Balsam, K. F., & Joiner, T. (2017). Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 125136.Google Scholar
Toth, K. E., & Dewa, C. S. (2014). Employee decision-making about disclosure of a mental disorder at work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 24, 732746.Google Scholar
Trau, R. N. C. (2015). The impact of discriminatory climate perceptions on the composition of interorganizational developmental networks, psychosocial support, and job and career attitudes of employees with an invisible stigma. Human Resource Management, 54, 345366, doi:10.1002/hrm.21630Google Scholar
Trau, R. N., Chuang, Y. T., Pichler, S., Lim, A., Wang, Y., & Halvorsen, B. (2018). The dynamic recursive process of community influences, LGBT-support policies and practices, and perceived discrimination at work. In Thomson, S. B. & Grandy, G (Eds.), Stigmas, work and organizations (pp. 7198). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Velez, B. L., Moradi, B., & Brewster, M. E. (2013). Testing the tenets of minority stress in workplace contexts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 532542.Google Scholar
Waldo, C. R. (1999). Working in a majority context: A structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 218232.Google Scholar
Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In Staw, B. M. & Cummings, L. L. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews (Volume 18, pp. 174). Greenwich, CT, and London, UK: Elsevier Science/JAI.Google Scholar
Wessel, J. L. (2017). The importance of allies and allied organizations: Sexual orientation disclosure and concealment at work. Journal of Social Issues, 73, 240254.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×