Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c4f8m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-15T06:01:36.954Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

26 - Development of Delegitimization and Animosity in the Context of Intractable Conflict

from Part III - Prejudice Reduction and Analysis in Applied Contexts

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 November 2016

Daniel Bar-Tal
Affiliation:
Tel Aviv University
Talia Avrahamzon
Affiliation:
Australian National University
Chris G. Sibley
Affiliation:
University of Auckland
Fiona Kate Barlow
Affiliation:
University of Queensland
Get access

Summary

Understanding acquisition and development of stereotypes and prejudice by young children in the context of intractable conflicts is a special challenge for social, developmental, and political psychologists, because these concepts play a major role in the dynamics of the hostile intergroup relations between the rivals (i.e., the parties involved in intractable conflicts). In this type of conflict, societies, as a result of the severe conditions of life, develop and later maintain sociopsychological repertoires, of which extremely negative stereotypes and strong prejudice are an inseparable part. The very negative stereotypes are denoted in delegitimization, defined as follows:

Categorization of a group, or groups, into extremely negative social categories that exclude it, or them, from the sphere of human groups that act within the limits of acceptable norms and/or values, since these groups are viewed as violating basic human norms or values and therefore deserve maltreatment.

(Bar-Tal & Hammack, 2012, p. 30)

Prejudice refers to the attitude that people hold toward another group (e.g., Leyens, Yzerbyt, & Schadron, 1994; Stroebe & Insko, 1989). However, in the context of intractable conflict, the negative attitude experienced by rival society members is strong. Therefore, we refer to such prejudice as animosity, which conjures emotions of hatred and anger, to stress its particular nature (see Jung et al., 2002). Though delegitimization and animosity are learned similarly as are all stereotypes and attitudes, they are special reflections of the context of intractable conflicts. They are acquired by children as a direct result of their exposure to violence, and other experiences as well, and are imparted to them implicitly and explicitly by agents of socialization. These agents include the family, as well as those at institutionalized levels, through educational systems, media, or political organizations. This chapter elucidates the unique process of the early acquisition of delegitimization (very negative stereotyping) and animosity (very strong prejudice) by children who grow up in societies that are involved in intractable conflict with all its implications. First, the chapter elaborates on the nature of the intractable conflicts, as the unique context in which children develop and acquire their intergroup repertoire of stereotypes and prejudice.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aboud, F. (1988). Children and prejudice. New York: Blackwell.
Aboud, F. E., & Doyle, A. B. (1996). Parental and peer influences on children's racial attitudes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(3/4), 371–383.Google Scholar
Adwan, S., Bar-Tal, D., & Wexler, B. (2016). Portrayal of the other in Palestinian and Israel schoolbooks: A comparative study. Political Psychology, 37, 201–217.Google Scholar
Alexander, M. G., Brewer, M. B., & Herrmann, R. K. (1999). Images and affect: A functional analysis of out-groups stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 78–93.Google Scholar
Apple, M. W. (1979). Ideology and curriculum. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Augoustinos, M., & Rosewarne, D. L. (2001). Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 143–156.Google Scholar
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thoughts and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bar-On, D. (2005). Empirical criteria for reconciliation in practice. Intervention, 3(3), 180–191.Google Scholar
Bar-Tal, D. (1996). Development of social categories and stereotypes in early childhood: The case of “The Arab” concept formation, stereotype, and attitudes by Jewish children in Israel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 341–370.Google Scholar
Bar-Tal, D. (1998). Societal beliefs in times of intractable conflict: The Israeli case. International Journal of Conflict Management, 9, 22–50.Google Scholar
Bar-Tal, D. (2000). Shared beliefs in a society: Social psychological analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bar-Tal, D. (2001). Why does fear override hope in societies engulfed by intractable conflict, as it does in the Israeli society? Political Psychology, 22, 601–627.Google Scholar
Bar-Tal, D. (2003). Collective memory of physical violence: Its contribution to the culture of violence. In Cairns, E. & Roe, M. D. (Eds.), The role of memory in ethnic conflict (pp. 77–93). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bar-Tal, D. (2007). Living with the conflict: Sociopsychological analysis of the Israeli-Jewish society. Jerusalem: Carmel (in Hebrew).
Bar-Tal, D. (2013). Intractable conflicts: Sociopsychological foundations and dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bar-Tal, D., Abutbul, G., & Raviv, A. (2014). The culture of conflict and its routinization. In Kinnvall, C., Capelos, T., Dekker, H., & Nesbitt-Larking, P. (Eds.), Handbook of global political psychology (pp. 407–427). London: Palgrave.
Bar-Tal, D., Diamond, A., & Nasie, M. (in press). The political socialization of young children in intractable conflicts. International Journal of Behavioral Development.
Bar-Tal, D., & Halperin, E. (2011). Sociopsychological barriers to conflict resolution. In Bar-Tal, D. (Ed.), Intergroup conflicts and their resolution: A social psychological perspective. New York: Psychology Press.
Bar-Tal, D., & Hammack, P. L. (2012). Conflict, delegitimization, and violence. In Tropp, L. R. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of intergroup conflict (pp. 29–52). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bar-Tal, D., & Ozer, I. (2009). How ethos of conflict is transmitted during Holocaust Day, Memorial Day, and Independence Day by teachers of kindergartens in mixed city. Unpublished manuscript (in Hebrew).
Bar-Tal, D., Sharvit, K., Halperin, E., & Zafran, A. (2012). Ethos of conflict: The concept and its measurement. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 18, 40–61.Google Scholar
Bar-Tal, D., Spivak, K., & Castel-Bazelet, I. (2003). Collective memory of children in kindergarten (age 5–6) as a function of religiosity. Unpublished manuscript (in Hebrew).
Bar-Tal, D., & Teichman, Y. (2005). Stereotypes and prejudice in conflict: Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bar-Tal, D., Teichman, Y., & Zohar, O. (1994). Young children's stereotype of “an Arab” as reported in an interview and represented in drawings. Unpublished manuscript.
Bar-Tal, D., & Zoltak, S. (1989). Images of an Arab and Jewish-Arab relations in school readers. Megamot, 32, 301–317 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
Barrett, M. (2007). Children's knowledge, beliefs and feelings about nations and national groups. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Barrett, M., & Short, J. (1992). Images of European people in a group of 5–10 year old English school children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 10(4), 339–365.Google Scholar
Bekerman, Z., & Maoz, I. (2005). Troubles with identity: Obstacles to coexistence education in conflict ridden societies. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 5, 341–357.Google Scholar
Ben-Dov, I. (2000). Development of category, stereotype and prejudice toward Arabs among Jewish children of pre-school age (3–6). PhD dissertation, Tel Aviv University.
Ben Shabat, C. (2010). Collective memory and ethos of conflict acquisition during childhood: Comparing children attending state-secular and state-religious schools in Israel. Master thesis submitted to School of Education, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Bennett, M., Lyons, E., Sani, F., & Barrett, M. (1998). Children's subjective identification with the group and in-group favoritism. Developmental Psychology 34, (5), 902–909.Google Scholar
Bekerman, Z., & Zembylas, M. (2012). Teaching contested narratives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bigler, R., Brown, C., & Markell, M. (2001). When groups are not created equal: Effects of group status on the formation of intergroup attitudes in children. Child Development, 72(4), 1151–1162.Google Scholar
Black-Gutman, D., & Hickson, F. (1996). The relationship between racial attitudes and social-cognitive development in children: An Australian study. Developmental Psychology, 32(3), 448–456.Google Scholar
Blankemeyer, M., Walker, K., & Svitak, E. (2009). The 2003 war in Iraq: An ecological analysis of American and Northern Irish children's perceptions. Childhood, 16, 229–247.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, P. (1973). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In Brown, R. (Ed.), Knowledge, education and cultural change (pp. 71–112). London: Tavistock.
Boykin, A. W., & Toms, F. D. (1985). Black child socialization. In McAdoo, H. P. & McAdoo, J. L. (Eds.), Black children: Social, educational and parental environments (pp. 159–173). Los Angeles: Sage.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Brown, R. (2000). Social identity theory: Past achievements, current problems and future challenges. European Journals of Social Psychology, 30, 745–778.Google Scholar
Byrne, S., Standish, K., Arnold, J., Fissuh, E., & Irvin, C. (2009). Economic aid: The end of phase II and the impact on sustainable peacebuilding in Northern Ireland. Journal of Intervention and State Building, 3, 345–363.Google Scholar
Cairns, E. (1987). Caught in crossfire: Children and the Northern Ireland conflict. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Cairns, E. (1996). Children in political violence. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Cairns, E. D., Hunter, D., & Herring, L. (1980). Young children's awareness of violence in Northern Ireland: The influence of Northern Irish television in Scotland and Northern Ireland. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 3–6.Google Scholar
Cole, M. (1992). Culture and cognitive development: From cross-cultural comparisons to model systems of cultural mediation. In Healy, A. F., Kosslyn, S. M., & Shiffrin, R. M. (Eds.), Essays in honor of William K. Estes (pp. 279–305). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Connolly, P. (2002). Researching young children's perspectives on “the Troubles” in Northern Ireland. Child Care in Practice, 8(1), 58–64.Google Scholar
Connolly, P. (2012). Too young to notice? Young children's attitudes toward, and awareness of, ethnic divisions, Public Lecture, 28 November, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia.
Connolly, P., Fitzpatrick, S., Gallagher, T., & Harris, P. (2006). Addressing diversity and inclusion in the early years in conflict-affected societies: A case study of the Media Initiative for Children – Northern Ireland. International Journal for Early Years Education, 14(3), 263–278.Google Scholar
Connolly, P., Kelly, B., & Smith, A. (2009). Ethnic habitus and young children: A case study of Northern Ireland. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 17, 217–232.Google Scholar
Covell, K. (1996). National and gender differences in adolescents’ war attitudes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19, 871–883.Google Scholar
Dawson, R., Prewitt, P., & Dawson, K. (1977). Political socialization. Boston: Little Brown.
Deng, L. Y. F. (2012). “Parenting about peace”: Exploring Taiwanese parents’ and children's perceptions in a shared political and sociocultural context. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 61, 115–128.Google Scholar
Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.Google Scholar
Devine, P. G., Plant, E. A., Amodio, D. M., Harmon-Jones, E., & Vance, S. L. (2002). The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: The role of motivations to respond without prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 835–848.Google Scholar
Devine-Wright, P. (2003). A theoretical overview of memory and conflict. In Cairns, E. & Roe, M. D. (Eds.), The role of memory in ethnic conflict (pp. 9–33). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dovidio, J. F., Evans, N. E., & Tyler, R. B. (1986). Racial stereotypes: The content of their cognitive representations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 22–37.Google Scholar
Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Beach, K. R. (2001). Implicit and explicit attitudes: Examination of the relationship between measures of intergroup bias. In Brown, R. & Gaertner, S. L. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intergroup processes (pp. 175–197). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Doyle, A. B., & Aboud, F. E. (1995). A longitudinal study of White children's racial prejudice as a social-cognitive development. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 41(2), 209–228.Google Scholar
Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). From American city to Japanese village: A cross-cultural investigation of implicit race attitudes. Child Development, 77, 1268–1281.Google Scholar
Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Children and social groups: A developmental analysis of implicit consistency in Hispanic Americans. Self and Identity, 6, 238–255.Google Scholar
Dunham, Y., Chen, E. E., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Two signatures of implicit intergroup attitudes: Developmental invariance and early enculturation. Psychological Science, 24(6), 860–868.Google Scholar
Durante, F., Volpato, C. & Fiske, S. T. (2010). Using the stereotype content model to examine group depictions in fascism: An archival approach. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 465–483.Google Scholar
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude structure and function. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., & Lindzey, G. (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 269–322). New York: MacGraw-Hill.
Edres, S. (2006). The images of Arabs and Jews held by Arab children as a function of age and town. Unpublished master's thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Eldan, M. (2006). Imparting collective memory by secular and religious kindergarten teachers. Unpublished master's thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Feldman, S. (2003). Enforcing social conformity: A theory of authoritarianism. Political Psychology, 24, 41–74.Google Scholar
Fiske, S. T. (1989). Examining the role of intent: Toward understanding its role in stereotyping and prejudice. In Uleman, J. S. & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 253–283). New York: Guilford Press.
Furman, M. (1999). Army and war: Collective narratives of early childhood in contemporary Israel. In Lomsky-Feder, E. & Ben-Ari, E. (Eds.), The military and militarism in Israeli society (pp. 141–168). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Gallagher, E., & Cairns, E. (2011). National identity and in-group/out-group attitudes: Catholic and Protestant children in Northern Ireland, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 58–73.Google Scholar
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Goodnow, J. J. (1990). The socialization of cognition: What's involved? In Stigler, J. W., Shweder, R. A., & Herdt, G. (Eds.), Cultural psychology (pp. 259–286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gopher, U. (2006). Antecedents to the ethos of conflict in Israeli-Jewish society. Master's thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Hadjipavlou, M. (2007). The Cyprus conflict: Root causes and implications for peacebuilding. Journal of Peace Research, 44(3), 349–365.Google Scholar
Hailey, S. E., & Olson, K. R. (2013). A social psychologist's guide to the development of racial attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 457–469.Google Scholar
Hess, R. D., & Torney, J. V. (2005). The development of political attitudes in children. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Higgins, E. T., King, G. A., & Mavin, G. H. (1982). Individual construct accessibility and subjective impressions and recall. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 35–47.Google Scholar
Hirschfeld, L. A. (1996). Race in the making. Cognition, culture, and the child's construction of human kinds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hughes, D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 747–770.Google Scholar
Husain, S. A., Nair, J., Holcomb, W., Reid, J. C., Vargas, V., & Nair, S. S. (1998). Stress reactions of children and adolescents in war and siege conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1718–1719.Google Scholar
Israeli-Diner, G. (1993). Stereotypes of Arabs among nursery-school children. Unpublished master's thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A. W., & Sulloway, F. (2003). Exceptions that prove the rule: Using a theory of motivated social cognition to account for ideological incongruities and political anomalies. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 383–393.Google Scholar
Jung, K., Ang, H. S., Leong, M. S., Tan, J. S., Pornpitakpan, C., & Kau, K. A. (2002). A typology of animosity and its cross-national validation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 525–539.Google Scholar
Kagan, J., & Moss, H. A. (1962). Birth to maturity. New York: Wiley
Katz, P. A., & Kofkin, J. A. (1997). Race, gender and young children. In Luthar, S., Burack, J., Cicchetti, D., & Weisz, J. (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on risk and pathology (pp. 51–74). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Keen, S. (1986). Faces of the enemy: Reflections of the hostile imagination. San Fransisco: Harper and Row.
Kriesberg, L. (1998). Intractable conflicts. In Weiner, E. (Ed.), The handbook of interethnic coexistence (pp. 332–342). New York: Continuum.
Kowalski, K. (2003). The emergence of ethnic and racial attitudes in preschool-aged children. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(6), 677–690.Google Scholar
Landau, S. F., Gvirsman, S. D., Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F., Boxer, P., Ginges, J., & Shikaki, K. (2010). The effects of exposure to violence on aggressive behavior: The case of Arab and Jewish children in Israel. In Österman, K. (Ed.), Indirect and direct aggression (pp. 321–343). Berlin: Peter Lang.
Lemish, D., & Götz, M. (Eds.). (2007). Children and media in times of conflict and war. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
Leyens, J. P., Yzerbyt, V., & Schadron, G. (1994). Stereotypes and social cognition. London: Sage.
Maccoby, E. E., (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006–1017.Google Scholar
MacDonald, D. B. (2002). Balkan holocausts? Serbian and Croatian victim-centered propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Macksoud, M., & Aber, L. (1996). The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67, 70–88.Google Scholar
Masalha, S. (2003). Children and violent conflict: A look at the inner world of Palestinian children via their dreams. Palestine-Israel. Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 10, 62–70 Google Scholar
MacMullin, C., & Odeh, J. (1999). What is worrying children in the Gaza Strip? Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30, 55–70.Google Scholar
McIntyre, A., & Thusi, T. (2003). Children and youth in Sierra Leone's peace-building process. African Security Review, 12(2), 73–80.Google Scholar
Meijer, A. (1985). Child psychiatric sequelae of maternal war stress. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 72, 505–511.Google Scholar
Mertan, B. (2011). Children's perception of national identity and in-group/out-group attitudes: Turkish-Cypriot school children. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 74–86.Google Scholar
Miljević-Ridjički, R., & Lugomer-Armano, G. (1994). Children's comprehension of war. Child Abuse Review, 3, 134–144.Google Scholar
Milner, D. (1983). Children and race: Ten years on. East Grinstead, Sussex: West Lock Educational Co. Ltd.
Muldoon, O. T., & Trew, K. (2000). Children's experience and adjustment to conflict related events in Northern Ireland. Peace Psychology: Journal of Peace and Conflict, 6(2), 157–176 Google Scholar
Myers-Bowman, K. S., Walker, K., & Myers-Walls, J. A. (2005). “Differences between war and peace are big”: Children from Yugoslavia and the United States describe peace and war. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 11, 177–198.Google Scholar
Myers-Walls, J. A., Myers-Bowman, K. S., & Pelo, A. (1993). Parents as educators about war and peace. Family Relations, 42, 66–73.Google Scholar
Nasie, M., Diamond, A. H., & Bar-Tal, D. (in press). Young children in intractable conflicts: The Israeli case. Personality and Social Psychology Review.
Nasie, M., Bar-Tal, D., & Shnaidman, O. (2014). Activists in Israeli radical peace organizations: Their personal stories about joining and taking part in these organizations. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 20, 313–329.Google Scholar
Nesdale, D., & Flesser, D. (2001). Social identity and the development of children's group attitudes. Child Development, 72(2), 506–517.Google Scholar
Niemi, R., & Sobieszek, B. (1977). Political socialization. Annual Review of Sociology, 3, 209–233.Google Scholar
O'Malley, C. J., Blankemeyer, M., Walker, K., & Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2007). Children's reported communication with their parents about war. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 1639–1662.Google Scholar
Oppenheimer, L. (2006). The development of enemy images: A theoretical contribution. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 12(3), 269–292.Google Scholar
Oppenheimer, L. (2011). Comparative analyses: Are there discernable patterns in the development of and relationships among national identification and in-group/out-group attitudes? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 116–132.Google Scholar
Oppenheimer, L., & Barrett, M. (2011). National identity and in-group/out-group attitudes in children: The role of sociohistorical settings. An introduction to the special issue. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 1–4.Google Scholar
Oppenheimer, L., & Midzic, E. (2011). National identification and in-group/out-group attitudes with Bosniak and Serbian children in Bosnia. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 43–57.Google Scholar
Oren, N. (2005). The impact of major events in the Arab-Israeli conflict on the ethos of conflict of the Israeli Jewish society (1967–2000). Doctoral dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.
Oren, N. (2009). The Israeli ethos of conflict 1967–2005. Working Paper #27. Fairfax, VA: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University. Retrieved from http://icar.gmu.edu/wp_27oren.pdf
Ovadia, G. (1993). Stereotypes toward Arabs of kindergarten-age children. Unpublished master's thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Papadakis, Y. (2008). History education in divided Cyprus: A comparison of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot school books on the “history of Cyprus.” PRIO report 2/2008. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute.
Papadakis, Y., Perstianis, N., & Welz, G. (Eds.). (2006). Divided Cyprus: Modernity, history, and an island in conflict. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Perera, S. (1991). Teaching and learning hatred: The role of education and socialization in Sri Lankan ethnic conflict. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Povrzanovic, M. (1997). Children, war and nation: Croatia 1991–4. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 4, 81–102.Google Scholar
Podeh, E. (2002). The Arab-Israeli conflict in Israeli history textbooks, 1948–2000. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Priest, N., Walton, J., White, F., Kowal, E., & Paradies, Y. (2014). Understanding the complexities of ethnic-racial socialization processes for both minority and majority groups: A 30-year systematic review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, 139–155.Google Scholar
Raabe, T., & Beelmann, A. (2011). Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: A multinational meta-analysis of age difference. Child Development, 82(6), 1715–1737.Google Scholar
Raviv, A., Bar-Tal, D., Koren-Silveshatz, L., & Raviv, A. (1999). Beliefs about war, conflict and peace in Israel as a function of developmental, cultural and situational factors. In Raviv, A., Oppenheimer, L., & Bar-Tal, D. (Eds.), How children understand war and peace (pp. 161–189). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Reizábal, L., & Ortiz, G. (2011). National identity and ingroup/out-group attitudes with Basque and Basque-Spanish children growing up in the Basque Country. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 98–115.Google Scholar
Rokeach, M. (1964). The three Christs of Ypsilanti. New York: New York Review of Books.
Ross, M. H. (1998). The cultural dynamics of ethnic conflict. In Jacquin, D., Oros, A., & Verweij, M. (Eds.), Culture in world politics (pp. 156–186). Houndmills: Macmillan.
Rutland, A. (1999). The development of national prejudice, in-group favoritism and self-stereotypes in British children. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38(1), 55–70.Google Scholar
Scribner, S. (1990). A sociocultural approach to the study of mind. In Greenberg, G. & Tobach, E. (Eds.), Theories of the evolution of knowing. The T. C. Schneirla Conference Series (Vol. 4, pp. 107–120). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sears, D. O., & Levy, S. (2003). Childhood and adult political development. In Sears, D. O., Huddy, L., & Jervis, R. (Eds.), Oxford handbook of political psychology (pp. 60–109). New York: Oxford University Press.
Shamai, M. (2001). Parents’ perceptions of their children in a context of shared political uncertainty. Child and Family Social Work, 6, 249–260.Google Scholar
Sharvit, K. (2007). Activation of the ethos of conflict while coping with stress resulting from intractable conflict. PhD dissertation, Tel Aviv University.
Sharvit, K. (2014). How conflict begets conflict: Activation of the ethos of conflict in times of distress in a society involved in an intractable conflict. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 252–261.Google Scholar
Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R. & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup cooperation and competition: The Robbers Cave experiment, Norman, OK: University Book Exchange.
Slocum-Bradley, N. (Ed.). (2008). Promoting conflict or peace through identity, London: Ashgate.
Slone, M. (2009). Growing up in Israel: Lessons on understanding the effects of political violence on children. In Barber, B.K. (Ed.), Adolescents and war: How youth deal with political violence (pp. 81–104). New York: Oxford University Press.
Straker, G., Mendelsohn, M., Moosa, F., & Tudin, P. (1996). Violent political contexts and the emotional concerns of township youth. Child Development, 67, 46–54.Google Scholar
Stroebe, W., & Insko, C. A. (1989). Stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination: Changing conceptions in theory and research. In Bar-Tal, D., Graumann, C. F., Kruglanski, A. W., & Stroebe, W. (Eds.), Stereotyping and prejudice (pp. 3–34). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51(2), 273–286.Google Scholar
Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization. Social identity, and social comparison. In Tajfel, H. (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups (pp. 61–76). London: Academic Press.
Teichman, Y. (2001). The development of Israeli children's images of Jews and Arabs and their expression in human figure drawings. Developmental Psychology, 37, 749–761.Google Scholar
Teichman, Y., & Bar-Tal, D. (2008). Acquisition and development of shared psychological intergroup repertoire in a context of an intractable conflict. In Quintana, S. M. & McKown, C. (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child (pp. 452–482). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Tetlock, P. E. (1989). Structure and function in political belief systems. In Pratkanis, A. R., Breckler, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 129–152). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tint, B. (2010). History, memory and intractable conflict. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 27(3), 239–256.Google Scholar
Trimikliniotis, N. (2013). Sociology of reconciliation: Learning from comparing violent conflicts and reconciliation processes. Current Sociology, 61, 244.Google Scholar
Van Dijk, T. A. (1998). Ideology: A multidisciplinary approach. London: Sage.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Warshel, Y. (2007). “As though there is peace”: Opinions of Jewish-Israeli children about watching Rechov Sumsum/Shara'a Simsim amidst armed political conflict. In Lemish, D. & Götz, M. (Eds.), Children and media in times of conflict and war (pp. 309–332). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×