Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4rdrl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-17T11:59:07.905Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

15 - The Role of Fathers in Caregiving

from Part III - Parental Factors That Impact Parenting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 December 2022

Amanda Sheffield Morris
Oklahoma State University
Julia Mendez Smith
University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Get access


We review the literature on how fathers contribute to their children’s development from early childhood to adolescence. First, we set the stage by giving a brief profile of who fathers are in the United States. Second, we summarize the theoretical and methodological approaches used to conceptualize and assess the role of fathers in caregiving. Third, we synthesize the empirical literature on the important correlates of father involvement and provide a critical analysis of the ways father involvement in caregiving is related to children’s cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Lastly, we discuss implications to inform best practices and policies pertaining to this research and end with future directions.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abraham, E. & Feldman, R. (2018). The neurobiology of human allomaternal care; implications for fathering, coparenting, and children’s social development. Physiology & Behavior, 193, 2534. Scholar
Adamsons, K. & Johnson, S. K. (2013). An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4), 589599. ScholarPubMed
Alamillo, J., Friend, D., & Wood, R. G. (2020). Improving Healthy Marriage and Relationship Education (HMRE) programs for unmarried couples with children. OPRE Report 2020-88. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
Aldoney, D. & Cabrera, N. J. (2016). Raising American citizens: Socialization goals of low-income immigrant Latino mothers and fathers of young children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 36073618.–016-0510-xGoogle Scholar
Amato, P. R. & Gilbreth, J. G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and children’s well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 557573. Scholar
Apter-Levi, Y., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2014). Oxytocin and vasopressin support distinct configurations of social synchrony. Brain Research, 1580, 124132. ScholarPubMed
Astone, N. M., Karas, A., & Stolte, A. (2016). Fathers’ time with children: Income and residential differences. Urban Institute. Scholar
Baker, C. E. (2013). Fathers’ and mothers’ home literacy involvement and children’s cognitive and social emotional development: Implications for family literacy programs. Applied Developmental Science, 17, 184197. Scholar
Baker, C. E. (2014). African American fathers’ contributions to children’s early academic achievement: Evidence from two-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort. Early Education & Development, 25, 1935, Scholar
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 4388.Google ScholarPubMed
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 56, 8396. Scholar
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From external regulation to self‐regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Development, 81, 326339. Scholar
Bianchi, S. M., Sayer, L. C., Milkie, M. A., & Robinson, J. P. (2012). Housework: Who did, does or will do it, and how much does it matter? Social Forces, 91, 5563. Scholar
Bornstein, M. H. (2006). Parenting science and practice. In Renninger, K. A., Sigel, I. E., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice (p. 893949). John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In Lerner, R. M. & Damon, W. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793828). John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
Bronte-Tinkew, J., Moore, K. A., & Carrano, J. (2006). The father-child relationship, parenting styles, and adolescent risk behaviors in intact families. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 850881. Scholar
Bruner, J. S. & Bornstein, M. H. (1989). On interaction. In Bornstein, M. H. & Bruner, J. S. (Eds.), Interaction in human development (pp. 17). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020). Average hours per day parents spent caring for and helping household children as their main activity –2019 [Table]. U.S. Department of Labor. Scholar
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020). Employment characteristics of families –2019 [Data set]. U.S. Department of Labor. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J. (2012). An ecological view of the socialization process of Latino children. In Odom, S. L., Pungello, E. P., & Gardner-Neblett, N. (Eds.), Infants, toddlers, and families in poverty: Research implications for early child care (pp. 257280). The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Cabrera, N., Brooks-Gunn, J., Moore, K., West, J., Boller, K., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (2002). Bridging research and policy: Including fathers of young children in national studies. In Tamis-LeMonda, C., & Cabrera, N. (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 489523). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Cabrera, N., Cook, G., McFadden, K., & Bradley, R. (2011). Father residence and father-child relationship quality: Peer relationships and externalizing behavioral problems. Family Science, 2, 109119. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Fagan, J., Wight, V., & Schadler, C. (2011). Influence of mother, father, and child risk on parenting and children’s cognitive and social behaviors. Child Development, 82, 19852005. ScholarPubMed
Cabrera, N. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Bradley, R. H., & Roggman, L. (2007). Modeling the dynamics of paternal influences on children over the life course. Applied Development Science, 11, 185189. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Bradley, R. H., & Roggman, L. (2014). The ecology of father-child relationships: An expanded model. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 6, 336354. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Hofferth, S. L., & Chae, S. (2011). Patterns and predictors of father–infant engagement across race/ethnic groups. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 365375. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Jeong Moon, U., Fagan, J., West, J., & Aldoney, D. (2020). Cognitive stimulation at home and in child care and children’s preacademic skills in two‐parent families. Child Development, 91, 17091717. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Karberg, E., Malin, J. L., & Aldoney, D. (2017). The magic of play: Low-income mothers’ and fathers’ playfulness and children’s emotion regulation and vocabulary skills. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38, 757771. Scholar
Cabrera, N., Ryan, R., Shannon, J. et al. (2004). Low-income biological fathers’ involvement in their toddlers’ lives: The Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Study. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 2, 530.Google Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Ryan, R. M., Mitchell, S. J., Shannon, J. D., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2008). Low-income, nonresident father involvement with their toddlers: Variation by fathers’ race and ethnicity. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 643647. Scholar
Cabrera, N. J., Shannon, J. D., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (2007). Fathers’ influence on their children’s cognitive and emotional development: From toddlers to pre-K. Applied Development Science, 11, 208213. Scholar
Cabrera, N., Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71, 127136. Scholar
Carlson, M. (2006). Family Structure, Father Involvement, and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 137154. Scholar
Carlson, S. M., Mandell, D. J., & Williams, L. (2004). Executive function and theory of mind: Stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology, 40, 11051122. Scholar
Carlson, S. M., Zelazo, P. D., & Faja, S. (2013). Executive function. In Zelazo, P. D. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology, Vol. 1: Body and mind (pp. 706743). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, C. A., Pritchard, V. E., & Woodward, L. J. (2010). Preschool executive functioning abilities predict early mathematics achievement. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1761191. ScholarPubMed
Coates, E. E., & Phares, V. (2019). Pathways linking nonresident father involvement and child outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 16811694.–019-01389-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coleman, P. K. (2003). Perceptions of parent–child attachment, social self‐efficacy, and peer relationships in middle childhood. Infant and Child Development, 12, 351368. Scholar
Coley, R. L. (2003). Daughter–father relationships and adolescent psychosocial functioning in low-income African American families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 867875. Scholar
Cox, M. J., & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243267. ScholarPubMed
Current Population Survey, 2020 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. (2020). America’s families and living arrangement—2020 [Table series]. U.S. Census Bureau. Scholar
Diener, M. L., Isabella, R. A., Behunin, M. G., & Wong, M. S. (2008). Attachment to mothers and fathers during middle childhood: Associations with child gender, grade, and competence. Social Development, 17, 84101. Scholar
Duursma, E. (2014). The effects of fathers’ and mothers’ reading to their children on language outcomes of children participating in Early Head Start in the United States. Fathering: A Journal of Theory and Research about Men as Parents, 12, 283302. Scholar
Duursma, E. (2016). Who does the reading, who the talking? Low-income fathers and mothers in the US interacting with their young children around a picture book. First Language, 36, 465484. Scholar
Easterbrooks, M. A., & Goldberg, W. A. (1984). Toddler development in the family: Impact of father involvement and parenting characteristics. Child Development, 55, 740752. ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., & Morris, A. S. (2002). Children’s emotion-related regulation. In Kail, R. V. (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior, Vol. 30 (pp. 189229). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N. & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion‐related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75(2), 334339. Scholar
Flouri, E. (2008). Fathering and adolescents’ psychological adjustment: The role of fathers’ involvement, residence and biology status. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34, 152161. ScholarPubMed
Gentzler, A. L., Contreras‐Grau, J. M., Kerns, K. A., & Weimer, B. L. (2005). Parent–child emotional communication and children’s coping in middle childhood. Social Development, 14, 591612. Scholar
Gerhardt, M., Feng, X., Wu, Q., Hooper, E. G., Ku, S., & Chan, M. H. (2020). A naturalistic study of parental emotion socialization: Unique contributions of fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 34, 204214. Scholar
Gettler, L. T., Mcdade, T. W., & Kuzawa, C. W. (2011). Cortisol and testosterone in Filipino young adult men: Evidence for co‐regulation of both hormones by fatherhood and relationship status. American Journal of Human Biology, 23, 609620. ScholarPubMed
Gordon, I., Pratt, M., Bergunde, K., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2017). Testosterone, oxytocin, and the development of human parental care. Hormones and behavior, 93, 184192. Scholar
Gordon, I., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Leckman, J. F., & Feldman, R. (2010). Prolactin, oxytocin, and the development of paternal behavior across the first six months of fatherhood. Hormones and Behavior, 58, 513518. Scholar
Grusec, J. E. (2017). A domains-of-socialization perspective on children’s social development. In Budwig, N., Turiel, E., & Zelazo, P. D. (Eds.), New perspectives on human development (p. 165181). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Haskins, A. R. (2015). Paternal incarceration and child-reported behavioral functioning at age 9. Social Science Research, 52, 1833. Scholar
Huerta, M., Adema, W., Baxter, J., Han, W., Lausten, M., Lee, R., & Waldfogel, J. (2013). Fathers’ leave, fathers’ involvement and child development: Are they related? Evidence from four OECD countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 140, OECD Publishing, Paris, Scholar
Jeon, S. & Neppl, T. K. (2019). Economic pressure, parent positivity, positive parenting, and child social competence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 14021412.–019-01372-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karberg, L. & Cabrera, N. (2017). Family change and co-parenting in resident couples and children’s behavioral problems. Journal of Family Studies, 26, 243259. Scholar
Keown, L. J. (2012). Predictors of boys’ ADHD symptoms from early to middle childhood: The role of father–child and mother–child interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 569581.–011-9586-3Google Scholar
Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2013). Early attachment organization with both parents and future behavior problems: From infancy to middle childhood. Child Development, 84, 283296. Scholar
LaBounty, J., Wellman, H. M., Olson, S., Lagattuta, K., & Liu, D. (2008). Mothers’ and fathers’ use of internal state talk with their young children. Social Development, 17, 757775. Scholar
Leavell, A. S., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Ruble, D. N., Zosuls, K. M., & Cabrera, N. J. (2012). African American, White and Latino fathers’ activities with their sons and daughters in early childhood. Sex Roles, 66, 5365.–011-0080-8Google Scholar
Leech, K. A., Salo, V. C., Rowe, M. L., & Cabrera, N. J. (2013). Father input and child vocabulary development: The importance of wh questions and clarification requests. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34, 249259. Scholar
Lewin, A., Mitchell, S. J., Waters, D., Hodgkinson, S., Southammakosane, C., & Gilmore, J. (2015). The protective effects of father involvement for infants of teen mothers with depressive symptoms. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 10161023.–014-1600-2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livingston, G. (2018). Stay-at-home moms and dads account for about one-in-five US parents. Pew Research Center. Scholar
Lucassen, N., Kok, R., Bakermans‐Kranenburg, M. J. et al. (2015). Executive functions in early childhood: The role of maternal and paternal parenting practices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 489505. Scholar
Lunkenheimer, E., Hamby, C. M., Lobo, F. M., Cole, P. M., & Olson, S. L. (2020). The role of dynamic, dyadic parent–child processes in parental socialization of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 56, 566577. Scholar
Lyytinen, P., Laakso, M. L., & Poikkeus, A. M. (1998). Parental contribution to child’s early language and interest in books. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 297308. Scholar
MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Spanking and child development across the first decade of life. Pediatrics, 132, e1118e1125. Scholar
Majdandžić, M., de Vente, W., Colonnesi, C., & Bögels, S. M. (2018). Fathers’ challenging parenting behavior predicts less subsequent anxiety symptoms in early childhood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 109, 1828. Scholar
Malin, J. L., Cabrera, N. J., Karberg, E., Aldoney, D., & Rowe, M. L. (2014). Low‐income, minority fathers’ control strategies and their children’s regulatory skills. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 462472. Scholar
Malin, J. L., Cabrera, N. J., & Rowe, M. L. (2014). Low-income minority mothers’ and fathers’ reading and children’s interest: Longitudinal contributions to children’s receptive vocabulary skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2, 425432. Scholar
Malmberg, L. E., Lewis, S., West, A., Murray, E., Sylva, K., & Stein, A. (2016). The influence of mothers’ and fathers’ sensitivity in the first year of life on children’s cognitive outcomes at 18 and 36 months. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42, 17. Scholar
Manning, W. D. & Brown, S. (2006). Children’s economic well‐being in married and cohabiting parent families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 345362. Scholar
Martin, A., Ryan, R. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). When fathers’ supportiveness matters most: Maternal and paternal parenting and children’s school readiness. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 145155. ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491495. ScholarPubMed
McAdoo, H. P. (1991). Family values and outcomes for children. The Journal of Negro Education, 60, 361365. Scholar
McAdoo, H. P. & McAdoo, J. L. (1997). The dynamics of African American fathers’ family roles. Michigan Family Review, 3, 715. Scholar
McBride, B. A., Curtiss, S. J., Uchima, K. et al. (2017). Father involvement in early intervention: Exploring the gap between service providers’ perceptions and practices. Journal of Early Intervention, 39(2), 7187. Scholar
Meuwissen, A. S. & Carlson, S. M. (2015). Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers’ executive function development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 140, 115. Scholar
Mitchell, S. J., See, H. M., Tarkow, A. K., Cabrera, N., McFadden, K. E., & Shannon, J. D. (2007). Conducting studies with fathers: Challenges and opportunities. Applied Development Science, 11, 239244. Scholar
Nuttall, A. K., Froyen, L. C., Skibbe, L. E., & Bowles, R. P. (2019). Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, home learning environment, and children’s early literacy. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 50, 681691.–019-00872-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Osborne, C. (2020). Fathers and public policy. In Fitzgerald, H. E., von Klitzing, K., Cabrera, N. J., Scarano de Mendonça, J., Skjøthaug, T.. (Eds.), Handbook of fathers and child development (pp. 121132). Springer. Scholar
Owen, M. T., Caughy, M. O. B., Hurst, J. R., Amos, M., Hasanizadeh, N., & Mata-Otero, A. M. (2013). Unique contributions of fathering to emerging self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 464482. Scholar
Pancsofar, N., Vernon-Feagans, L., & The Family Life Project Investigators. (2010). Fathers’ early contributions to children’s language development in families from low-income rural communities. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 450463. ScholarPubMed
Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (2002). Intuitive parenting. In Bornstein, M.H. (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, Volume 2: Biology and ecology of parenting (pp. 182203). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
Paquette, D. (2004). Theorizing the father–child relationship: Mechanisms and developmental outcomes. Human Development, 47, 193219. Scholar
Patnaik, A. & Avellar, S. (2020). Improving children’s well-being through Responsible Fatherhood Programs. OPRE Report 2020-94. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
Paulson, J. F., Dauber, S. E., & Leiferman, J. A. (2011). Parental depression, relationship quality, and nonresident father involvement with their infants. Journal of Family Issues, 32, 528549. Scholar
Reynolds, E., Vernon-Feagans, L., Bratsch-Hines, M., Baker, C. E., & The Family Life Project Key Investigators. (2019). Mothers’ and fathers’ language input from 6 to 36 months in rural two-parent-families: Relations to children’s kindergarten achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 385395. Scholar
Rispoli, K. M., McGoey, K. E., Koziol, N. A., & Schreiber, J. B. (2013). The relation of parenting, child temperament, and attachment security in early childhood to social competence at school entry. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 643658. Scholar
Rowe, M. L., Leech, K. A., & Cabrera, N. J. (2017). Going beyond input quantity: Wh-questions matter for toddlers’ language and cognitive development. Cognitive Science, 41, 162179. Scholar
Ryan, R. M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Is one good parent good enough? Patterns of mother and father parenting and child cognitive outcomes at 24 and 36 months. Parenting, 6, 211228. Scholar
Salo, V. C., Rowe, M. L., Leech, K. A., & Cabrera, N. J. (2016). Low-income fathers’ speech to toddlers during book reading versus toy play. Journal of Child Language, 43, 13851399. Scholar
Sameroff, A. (2010), A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81, 622. Scholar
Schoppe‐Sullivan, S. J. & Fagan, J. (2020). The evolution of fathering research in the 21st century: Persistent challenges, new directions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 82, 175197. Scholar
Steinberg, L. (1990). Autonomy, conflict, and har- mony in the family relationship. In Feld- man, S & Elliot, G (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 255276). Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Steinberg, L., Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among ado- lescents. Child Development, 60, 14241436.Google Scholar
Suizzo, M.-A., Rackley, K. R., Robbins, P. A., Jackson, K. M., Rarick, J. R. D., & McClain, S. (2017). The unique effects of fathers’ warmth on adolescents’ positive beliefs and behaviors: Pathways to resilience in low-income families. Sex Roles, 77, 4658.–016-0696-9Google Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Shannon, J. D., Cabrera, N. J., & Lamb, M. E. (2004). Fathers and mothers at play with their 2- and 3-year-olds: Contributions to language and cognitive development. Child Development, 75, 18061820. Scholar
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 2552. Scholar
Towe-Goodman, N. R., Willoughby, M., Blair, C., Gustafsson, H. C., Mills-Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. J. (2014). Fathers’ sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 867876. Scholar
Varga, C. M., Gee, C. B., Rivera, L., & Reyes, C. X. (2017). Coparenting mediates the association between relationship quality and father involvement. Youth & Society, 49, 588609. Scholar
Varghese, C. & Wachen, J. (2016). The determinants of father involvement and connections to children’s literacy and language outcomes: Review of the literature. Marriage & Family Review, 52, 331359. Scholar
Verhoeven, M., Bögels, S. M., & van der Bruggen, C. C. (2012). Unique roles of mothering and fathering in child anxiety; moderation by child’s age and gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 331343.–011-9483-yGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Wachs, T. D. & Chan, A. (1986). Specificity of environmental action, as seen in environmental correlates of infants’ communication performance. Child Development, 57, 14641474. Scholar
White, R. & Roosa, M. (2012). Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents’ Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Marriage and Family, 7, 152166. Scholar
Wilson, S. & Durbin, C. E. (2010). Effects of paternal depression on fathers’ parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 167180. Scholar
Wissink, I. B., Dekovic, M., & Meijer, A. M. (2006). Parenting behavior, quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and adolescent functioning in four ethnic groups. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 26, 133159. Scholar
Xie, Q. W., Chan, C. H., Ji, Q., & Chan, C. L. (2018). Psychosocial effects of parent-child book reading interventions: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 141I, e20172675. Scholar
Yu, T., Volling, B. L., & Niu, W. (2015). Emotion socialization and children’s behavioral problems in China and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 46, 419434. Scholar
Zeman, J., Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Stegall, S. (2006). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 155168. Scholar
Zimmerman, M. A., Salem, D. A., & Maton, K. I. (1995). Family structure and psychosocial correlates among urban African-American adolescent males. Child Development, 66, 15981613. ScholarPubMed
Zvara, B. J., Sheppard, K. W., & Cox, M. (2018). Bidirectional effects between parenting sensitivity and child behavior: A cross-lagged analysis across middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 484495. Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats